M.A. Theses: Brian Carl Apland, 1977

Early Chipped Stone Industries of the Central Coast of British Columbia

Chipped stone technology was once thought to have been very rare or non-existent in the central coast area of British Columbia. Recent discoveries in that region now indicate that this trait is neither absent nor rare, but simply early. This thesis examines a series of chipped stone assemblages recovered between 1970 and 1974 from 38 sites in the Bella Bella/Bella Coola and Quatsino Sound regions of the central coast. All of the material was collected from the surface of the intertidal zone of various beaches during the course of three major research projects with which the author was personally involved.

The main part of the thesis consists of discussions concerning the nature and geographical distribution of the data, as well as related discoveries in other parts of the central coast. These discussion are accompanied by a detailed description and analysis of the artifacts. It is concluded that there were two technological traditions on the central coast prior to 1,000 B.C. and, further, that these traditions were geographically distinct. On the northern part of the central coast a generalized prepared core-flake tradition seems to have appeared as early as 7,000 B.C., and persisted until at least 1,000 B.C. This tradition has been divided into two phases: an early Namu phase dating between 7,000 and 4,000 B.C., and a later Cathedral phase dating between 4,000 and 1,000 B.C. Cultural affiliations appear to be to the north for this prepared core-flake tradition. The second tradition is a pebble-spall tradition which was present in the Quatsino Sound region of the southwestern central coast prior to 3,000 B.C., and appears to have had strong affiliations with the cultures of the southern inner coast.