M.A. Theses: John Robert Breffitt, 1993

The Skoglund's Landing Complex: A Re-examination of the Transitional Complex of Artifacts from Skoglund's Landing, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia

Skoglund's Landing is a small archaeological site located on Graham Island, off the north shore of British Columbia. In 1969, investigations conducted there by Knut Fladmark yielded a unique lithic assemblage characterized by chipped stone debitage, cores, and few minimally retouched flake unifaces. This assemblage formed the basis for the Transitional Complex of artifacts, which is encountered in both shell and non-shell midden contexts but is most clearly represented at Skoglund's Landing.

The aims of this research are 1) to provide a detailed description of the assemblage that will facilitate comparative analyses to be undertaken by researchers working in the region; 2) to evaluate the prevailing interpretation of the assemblage, and 3) to provide an interpretation of the site based on a detailed analysis of the assemblage.

Suggestions of affinities between the people of Moresby Tradition times and those responsible for the assemblage at Skoglund's Landing are not substantiated by a detailed analysis of the assemblage. Although the assemblage may only represent a portion of what was once a larger site, the narrow range of variability in artifact types suggests this was a specific function locations. Long-term occupation, as is represented in other, contemporaneous Graham Tradition sites, would have resulted in a more diverse repertoire of arifact types, like at Blue Jackets Creek, located 5 kilometers to the north.

In view of the limited amount of detailed excavations undertaken in the Queen Charlottes, the Transitional Complex of artifacts may be more of an archaeological than cultural phenomenon. The term 'Transitional Complex' is ambiguous and a more appropriate term, such as bipolar industry, or Skoglund's Landing Complex, should be adopted. Future research in the islands may reveal a more well defined relationship between the bipolar industry and the Graham Tradition.