M.A. Theses: Sandra Rochelle Sauer, 1995

The O'Keefe Ranch: An Archaeological Perspective

This work has provided data heretofore not available from historical or archival information. This has expanded our knowledge of the state of the archaeological record at the O'Keefe Ranch, of trade in the North Okanagan at the turn of the century, and of the people who lived and worked at the O'Keefe Ranch.

Excavations at the O'Keefe Ranch in the summer of 1992 involved the recovery of 10,970 artifacts from over 20 excavation units. The two largest features excavated were a privy pit and a dump which dated, respectively, post 1885 and post 1903. The thesis details the excavation and lab procedures, the analysis of the data, and provides interpretation of these data in conjunction with historical research.

The major conclusions from this work were several. First, it was found that the architectural remains that were expected to be found were no longer in existence in the archaeological record. It was also found that the deeper deposits such as privies and dumps are more liable to provide undisturbed assemblages at a curated public history site. More specifically, this research provided information on trade sources found in the North Okanagan. It was discovered that in the 1880s, the people of the region were receiving fancy goods produced mostly in Britain or Eastern Canada. The later deposits showed a continued use of goods from these areas, but an availability and use of goods from the Eastern United States as well. Detailed information on the numbers and names of Chinese and Native employees at the O'Keefe Ranch has been provided, as well as a summary of building locations and use at the turn of the century.