Leah Bendell


Marine Ecology and Ecotoxicology


  • PhD, University of Toronto

Research Interests 

The EcoTox Lab

Ecotoxicology aims to quantify the effects of stressors on natural populations, communities, or ecosystems. Ecotoxicology is a broadly defined discipline and includes (but not limited to) the study of the movement of inorganic and organic contaminants through ecosystems, anthropogenic disruption of nutrient cycles, oceanic acidification as a consequence of climate change and the consequences of a changing community structure to geochemical processes.

Please watch the video posted above:  Baynes Sound Lots to be Lost.

Important links:

Recent Publications

Publications of Bendell, L.I. 2009-2016


Works in Progress

Kazmiruk,T.,   Kazmiruk,   V., L.I. Bendell. 2016. Microplastics as a sedimentary component that affect the geochemical cycles of trace metals; a paradigm shift on how we view the bioavailability of metals from oxic sediments. In preparation for PLOS ONE

Palomera-Garcia, C., and L.I. Bendell . 2016. Effects of land use activities in a tropical river system as revealed by stable isotope analysis. Ecological Applications

Kazmiruk, T. Kazmiruk, V., K. I. Ashley, L.I. Bendell. 2016. Trace metals in urban estuaries; implications for remediation. In preparation for Science of the Total Environment.

Kazmiruk,T.,   Kazmiruk,   V., L.I. Bendell. 2016. Legacy metals and their   potential impact on the developing shellfishery. In preparation for Marine Pollution Bulletin.

Bendell, L.I , P. Gallaugher and L. Wood. 2016. Stewarding the Sound;   the challenge of managing sensitive ecosystems. Editors. Under review for Island Press.


Works Published  (students in bold)

1. Boucher, C., Morin, M., Bendell, L.I. 2015. The influence of cosmetic microbeads on the sorptive behavior of cadmium and lead within intertidal sediments: a laboratory study. Regional Studies in Marine Science. 10.1016/j.rsma.2015.11.009. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352485515300025

2. Cluzaud, M., T. Kazmiruk, V. Kazmiruk,   Bendell, L.I. 2015  Intertidal concentrations of microplastics and their influence on ammonium cycling as related to the shellfish industry

DOI: 10.1007/s00244-015-0156-5

3. Bendell, L.I. 2015. Favored use of anti-predator netting (APN) applied for the farming of clams leads to little benefits to industry while increasing nearshore impacts and plastics pollution. View Point. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 91: 22-28.

4. St. Clair, T., Baird P.,Ydenberg, R.,   Elner, R., and   Bendell, L.I. 2014. Trace elements in pacific Dunlin (Calidris alpina pacifica): patterns   of accumulation and concentrations in kidneys and feathers.   Ecotoxicology. DOI: 10.1007/s10646-014-1352-1

5. Bendell, L.I. 2014. Changes to the intertidal community as a result of the shellfish aquaculture industry. Aquaculture 433: 384-394

6. Bendell, L.I., K. Chan, S. Crevecoeur, and C. Prigent. 2014. The effects of invasive bivalves on the cycling of ammonium in the intertidal within a warming climate. Open Journal of Marine Science 4: 151-162

7. McKormick, J., St.Clair, T., and L.I. Bendell. 2013. Trace metal concentrations and partitioning in biofilm; implications for metal bioavailability to shorebirds. Ecotoxicology. DOI: 10.1007/s10646-013-1166-6

8. Barlow, C., L.I. Bendell, C. Duckham, and Koo, V. 2013. Trace metal concentrations and patterns within three urban aquatic ecosystems. Water Air and Soil Pollution. DOI: 10.1007/s11270-013-1856-y

9. Duckham, C., L.I. Bendell. 2013. Legacy of anti-fouling paints in Vancouver Harbour. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology DOI:10.1007/s00128-013-1082-8

10. Bendell, L.I. 2013. Evidence for the decline of the native littleneck as a consequence of the intentional introduction of the Manila clam for shellfish aquaculture. Estuaries and Coasts


11. Chan, K., L.I. Bendell 2013. Potential effects of an invasive bivalve, Nuttallia obscurata, on biogeochemical cycling in the intertidal. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology,http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2013.03.013

12. Brunham, W. and L.I. Bendell. 2011. The effect of temperature on the accumulation of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead by Typha latifolia and Scirpus acutus; a comparative analysis. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 19: 417-428 DOI: 10.1007/s11270-010-0717-1

13. Wan, P. and L.I. Bendell. 2011. Use of aerial photography and GIS to estimate the extent of an anthropogenic footprint. Journal of Coastal Conservation. 15: 417-431  On-line-DOI: 10.1007/s11852-010-0101-8 .

14. Bendell, L.L. 2011. Sea Ducks and Aquaculture-the cadmium connection. Ecotoxicology. 20:474-478: 10.1007/s10646-010-0584-y

15. Bendell L.I.  2011  Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents. Science of the Total Environment. 409:1193-1197:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.12.014

16. Feng, C.X., Cao, J and L.I Bendell 2010. Exploring spatial and temporal variations of cadmium concentrations in Pacific Oysters from British Columbia. Biometrics  DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-0420.2010.01534.x 

17. Bendell, L.I. 2010. Cadmium in shellfish-the British  Columbian experience a mini-review. Invited contribution-Special issue on cadmium health aspects.  Toxicology Letters.  DOI: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2010.04.102.

18. Bendell, L.I., C. Duckham, T. L’Eserpence, J. Whiteley. 2010. Changes in the geochemical attributes of the foreshore as a consequence of intertidal shellfish aquaculture. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 404:91-108.

19. Cook, N., and L.I. Bendell. 2010. Predator preference in the moonsnail I. Journal of Shellfish Research.  29: 223-232.

20. Bendell, L.I. 2009. Cadmium in shellfish from the Pacific Northwest. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2: 121-139

21. Christie, J. and L.I. Bendell-Young 2009. Using C and N stable isotopes to determine the role of diet variability on cadmium exposure in oysters located in Barkley Sound (Canada). Marine Environmental Research. 68: 97-105.

22. Bendell, L.I., and Feng. C. 2009. Spatial and temporal variation in cadmium concentrations and burdens in the Pacific oysters sampled form the Pacific Northwest. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58: 1137-1143.


Book Chapters

23. Alava, Juan Jose, Carlos Palomera, Leah Bendell, and Peter S Ross. 2014. Pollution as an Emerging Threat for the Conservation of the Galapagos Marine Reserve: Environmental Impacts and Management Perspectives J. Denkinger and L. Vinueza (eds.), The Galapagos Marine Reserve, Social and Ecological Interactions in the Galapagos Islands, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-02769-2_12,  Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

24. Bendell, L.I. 2013. The cadmium conundrum in British Columbian oysters: Economics, Ecotoxicology and Ethics. Invited book chapter. In : Oysters: Biology, Consumption and Ecological Importance. Nova Publishers.


Future courses may be subject to change.