Contents (scroll down for citations):

      Publications mostly focused on Western Sandpipers:

               Migration and Life History

               Breeding Biology




                         Stopover/feeding/predation risk



      Publications focused on other questions or species:

            General Shorebird biology

             Shorebird Conservation

            Non-breeding season:


                        Australian shorebirds


                        Black Oystercatcher

                        Red-necked and Red phalarope






Publications mostly focused on Western Sandpipers

Migration Routes, Patterns, Life Histories:

Franks S.E., D.B. Lank, D.R. Norris, B.K. Sandercock, C.M. Taylor and T.K. Kyser.  2009.  Feather isotope analysis discriminates age-classes of Western, Least, and Semipalmated Sandpipers when plumage methods are unreliable.  J. Field Ornithol. 80:51-63.

Ydenberg, R.C., R.W. Butler and D.B. Lank.  2007.  Effects of predator landscapes on the evolutionary ecology of routing, timing and molt by long-distance migrants.  J. Avian Biol. 38:523–529.  doi: 10.1111/j.2007.0908-8857.04202.x

Mathot, K., B.D. Smith and R.W. Elner. 2007. Latitudinal clines in food distribution correlate with differential migration in the western sandpiper. Ecology 88: 781-791.

Norris, D.R., D.B. Lank, J. Pither, D. Chipley, R.C. Ydenberg and T.K. Kyser.  2007.  Trace element profiles as unique identifiers of western sandpiper (Calidris mauri) populations. Can. J. Zool. 85:579583.

Ydenberg, R.C., R.W. Butler and D.B. Lank.  2007.  Effects of predator landscapes on the evolutionary ecology of routing, timing and molt by long-distance migrants.  J. Avian Biol. 38: 523–529.  doi: 10.1111/j.2007.0908-8857.04202.x

Fernández, G. and D.B. Lank.  2007.  Variation in the wing morphology of Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) in relation to sex, age-class, and annual cycle.  Auk 124:1037–1046.

Niehaus, A.C. and R.C. Ydenberg. 2006. Ecological factors associated with the migratory phenology of high-latitude breeding Western Sandpipers. Polar Biology. 30:11-17

Nebel, S. 2006. Latitudinal clines in sex ratio, bill, and wing length in Least sandpipers. J. Field Ornithol. 77: 39-45.

Fernández, G. and D.B. Lank.  2006.  Sex, age, and body size distributions of Western Sandpipers during the nonbreeding season with respect to local habitat.  Condor 108:547557.

O’Hara, P.D., G. Fernández, B. Haase, H. de la Cueva and D.B. Lank.  2006  Differential migration of western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) with respect to body size and wing length.  Condor: 108:225-232.

Ydenberg, R.C., A. Niehaus and D.B. Lank.  2005  Interannual differences in the relative timing of southward migration of  male and female western sandpipers (Calidris mauri). Naturwissenschaften 92:332335.

Nebel, S. and R.C. Ydenberg. 2005. Differential predator escape performance contributes to a latitudinal sex ratio cline in a migratory shorebird. Beh. Ecol. Sociobiol. 59: 44-50.  DOI 10.1007/s00265-005-0007-x.

Nebel, S. 2005. Latitudinal clines in bill length and sex ratio in a migratory shorebird: a case of resource partitioning? Acta Oecologica 28:33-38.  

O’Hara, P.D., G. Fernández, F. Becerril, H. de la Cueva and D.B. Lank.  2005.  Life history varies with migratory distance in Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri).  J. Avian Biol. 36:191202.

Fernández , G., P.D. O’Hara and D.B. Lank. 2004.  Tropical and subtropical Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) differ in life history strategies.  Ornitol. Neotrop. 15 (suppl.) 385-394.

Niehaus, A.C. 2003. Ecology of migratory timing for southbound male and female Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri). Unpubl. M.Sc. thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC.

Burns J.G.  2003.  Relationship of Calidris sandpiper wing shape with relative fuel load and total migration distance
 Auk 120: 827-835.

Lank, D.B., R.W. Butler, J. Ireland and R.C. Ydenberg.  2003.  Effects of predation danger on migration strategies of sandpipers.  Oikos 103:303–319.

Nebel, S., D.B. Lank, P.D. O'Hara, G. Fernández, B. Haase, F. Delgado, F.A. Estela, L.J. Evans Ogden, B. Harrington, B.E. Kus, J.E. Lyons, F. Mercier, B. Ortego, J.Y. Takekawa, N. Warnock and S.E. Warnock. 2002. Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) during the non-breeding season: spatial segregation on a hemispheric scale. Auk 119: 922–928.

Clark, C. and R.W. Butler. 1999. Fitness components of avian migration: dynamic optimization model of the western sandpiper. Evolutionary Ecology Review 1: 443-447.

Butler, R. W., T. D. Williams, N. Warnock and M. A. Bishop. 1999. Reply to Hedenström and Weber's "Gone with the wind? A Comment on Butler et al." Auk 116: 563-564.

Bishop, M. A. and N. Warnock. 1998. Migration of Western Sandpipers: links between their stopover areas and breeding grounds. Wilson Bull. 110: 457-462.

Warnock, N and Bishop, M. 1998. Spring stopover ecology of migrant western sandpipers. Condor 100: 456-467.

Butler, R.W., T.D. Williams, N. Warnock and M.A. Bishop. 1997. Wind assistance: a requirement for shorebird migration? Auk 114: 456-466.

Butler, R.W., F.S. Delgado, H. de la Cueva, V. Pulido and B.K. Sandercock. 1996. Migration routes of the Western Sandpiper. Wilson Bull. 108: 662-672.

Iverson, G.C., S.E. Warnock, R.W. Butler, M.A. Bishop, and N. Warnock. 1996. Spring migration of western sandpipers along the Pacific Coast of North America: A telemetry study. Condor 98: 10-21.


Breeding biology (Western and Semipalmated Sandpipers):

Niehaus, A.C., D.R. Ruthrauff, and B.J. McCaffery. 2004. Response of predators to Western Sandpiper nest exclosures. Waterbirds 27: 79-82.

Nebel, S. and B.J. McCaffery. 2003. Vocalisation activity of breeding shorebirds: documentation of its seasonal decline and applications for bird surveys. Can. J. Zool. 81:1702-1708.

Blomqvist, D, Malte Andersson, Clemens Küpper, Innes C. Cuthill, János Kis, Richard B. Lanctot, Brett K. Sandercock, Tamás Székely, Johan Wallander & Bart Kempenaers. 2002. Genetic similarity between mates explains extra-pair parentage in three species of waders. Nature 419:613-615.

Blomqvist D, Kempenaers B, Lanctot RB, Sandercock BK. 2002. Genetic parentage and mate guarding in the Arctic-breeding Western Sandpiper Auk 119: 228-233.

Lanctot, R.B., B.K. Sandercock and B. Kempenaers. 2000. Do male breeding displays function to attract mates or defend territories? The explanatory role of mate and site fidelity. Waterbirds 23:155-164.

Sandercock, B.K., D.B. Lank, R.B. Lanctot, B. Kempenaers, and F. Cooke. 2000. Ecological correlates of mate fidelity in two arctic-breeding sandpipers. Condor 78: 1948-1958.

Sandercock, B.K., D.B. Lank and F. Cooke. 1999. Seasonal declines in the fecundity of arctic-breeding sandpipers: different tactics in two species with an invariant clutch size. J. Avian Biol. 30: 460-468.

Sandercock, B.K. 1998. Assortative mating and sexual size dimorphism in Western and Semipalmated Sandpipers. Auk 115: 786-791.

Sandercock, B.K. 1998. Chronology of nesting events in Western and Semipalmated Sandpipers near the Arctic Circle. J. Field Ornith. 69: 235-243.

Sandercock, B.K. 1997. Incubation capacity and clutch size determination in two calidrine sandpipers: a test of the four-egg threshold. Oecologia 110: 50-59.

Sandercock, B.K. 1997. The breeding biology of Red-necked Phalaropes Phalaropus lobatus at Nome, Alaska. Wader Study Group Bulletin 83: 50-54.

Sandercock, B.K. and C.L. Gratto-Trevor. 1997. Local survival in Semipalmated Sandpipers Calidris pusilla breeding at La Perouse Bay, Canada. Ibis 139: 305-312.

Lanctot, R.B., B.K. Sandercock, and B. Kempenaers. 1997 . Breeding displays in an arctic wader: who does them and how display intensity relates to mate acquisition and nesting success. Advances in Ethology 32: 212. (abstract).

Sandercock, B.K. 1997. Factors affecting the breeding demography of Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) and Semipalmated Sandpipers (C. pusilla) at Nome, Alaska. Ph.D thesis, Simon Fraser University.

Sandercock, B.K.. 1996. Removal of eggshells at hatch by Western and Semipalmated Sandpipers. Condor 98: 431-433.

Hitchcock, C., Gratto-Trevor, C. 1995. Diagnosing a shorebird local population decline with a stage-structured population model. Ecology 78: 522-534.



Panama, non-breeding:

O’Hara, P.D., D.B. Lank and F.S. Delgado. 2002. Is the timing of moult altered by migration? Evidence from a comparison of age and residency classes of Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) in Panamá. Ardea 90:61–70.

O'Hara, P. 2002. The role of feather wear in alternative life history strategies of a long-distance migratory shorebird, the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri). Ph.D., Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC.

Blackwell, P.R.Y., P.D. O’Hara and J. Christy. 1998. Prey availability and selective foraging in shorebirds. Anim. Behav. 55: 1659-1667.

Morrison, R.I.G., R.W. Butler, F.S. Delgado and R.K. Ross. 1998. Atlas of Nearctic shorebirds and other waterbirds on the coast of Panama. CWS Occasional Special Publication, Ottawa.

Morrison, RIG, FS Delgado, RK Ross and RW Butler. 1998. The distribution and abundance of Nearctic shorebirds on the coast of Panama. Pp. 41-68 in Morrison, RIG, RW Butler, FS Delgado and RK Ross. 1998. Atlas of Nearactic shorebirds and other waterbirds on the coast of Panama. CWS Special Publ., Ottawa.

Delgado, FS. 1998. Geography, physical oceanography and climate of Panama. Pp. 19-26 in Morrison, RIG, RW Butler, FS Delgado and RK Ross. 1998. Atlas of Nearactic shorebirds and other waterbirds on the coast of Panama. CWS Special Publ., Ottawa.

Butler, RW, RIG Morrison, FS Delgado, RK Ross and GEJ Smith. 1998. Distribution of shorebirds, coastal seabirds, and wading birds in realtion to oceanic upwelling along the Pacific coast of Panama. Pp. 90-103 in Morrison, RIG, RW Butler, FS Delgado and RK Ross. 1998. Atlas of Nearactic shorebirds and other waterbirds on the coast of Panama. CWS Special Publ., Ottawa.

Butler, R.W., R.I.G. Morrison, K.R. Ross, F.S. Delgado and G.E.J. Smith. 1997. Habitat associations of coastal birds in Panama. Colonial Waterbirds 20:518-524.

Mexico, nonbreeding:

Fernandez Aceves, G.J. 2005. Ecological and social factors affecting the local habitat distribution of Western Sandpipers wintering at Bahia Santa Maria, northwest Mexico. PhD, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC. 117 pp.

Fernández G.  and D. B. Lank.  Local distribution of Western Sandpipers with respect to habitat, sex, age, and size during the non-breeding season.   To: Condor (7/05)

Nebel, S., A. Cloutier & G.J. Thompson. 2004. Molecular sexing of prey-remains permits a test of sex-biased predation in a wintering population of Western Sandpipers. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B 271:S321-S323.

Fernández, G., H. de la Cueva, N. Warnock, and D. B. Lank.  2003.  Apparent survival rates of Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri) wintering in northwest Baja California, Mexico. Auk 120: 55-61.

Danemann, G. D., R. Carmona, and G. Fernández. 2002.  Migratory shorebirds in the Guerrero Negro Saltworks, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Wader Study Group Bulletin 97:36-41

Fernández, G., H. de la Cueva, and N. Warnock. 2001. Phenology and site fidelity of transient and wintering Western sandpipers at Estero Punta Banda, Mexico. Journal of Field Ornithology 72:509-520.

Buenrostro M. A., N. Warnock, & H. de la Cueva. 1999. Wintering Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) at Estero de Punta Banda, Baja California, Mexico. Wader Study Group Bulletin 88: 59-63.

Becerril, F. 1998. Interacción ecológica: conducta de forrajeo y territorialidad entre Calidris mauri y Calidris minutilla (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) en el estero Punta Banda (B. C., México), en la temporada invernal de 1996-1997. MSc. thesis, CICESE.

Fernández, G., R. Carmona, and H. de la Cueva. 1998. Abundance and distribution of western sandpipers in Ensenada de La Paz, Baja California Sur. Southwestern Naturalist 43: 57-61.

Buenorostro, A. 1996. Estructura de la población y uso de hábitat de Calidris mauri en la temporada invernal de 1994-1995 en el estero Punta Banda, Ensenada, Baja California, México. MSc. thesis, CICESE.

Fernández, G. 1996. Tasas de retorno y residencia de Calidris mauri (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) en el estero Punta Banda (B. C., México) en la temporada invernal de 1995-1996. MSc. thesis, CICESE.

Sandoval, Y. 1996. Relación de la masa con la condición corporal de Calidris mauri (Aves: Scolopacidae) en el estero Punta Banda, durante el invierno 1994-95. MSc. thesis, CICESE.


Foraging mode and behaviour

Kuwae, T., P.G. Beninger, P. Decottignies, K.J. Mathot, D.R. Lund and R.W. Elner.  2008. Biofilm grazing in a higher vertebrate: the western sandpiper.  Ecology 89: 599 - 606. (Video clip of sandpiper feeding).

Fernández, G. and D.B. Lank.  2008.  Differences in foraging behaviour of non-breeding Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) as a function of sex, habitat and flock size. Ibis 150: 518-526.

Mathot, K., B.D. Smith and R.W. Elner. 2007. Latitudinal clines in food distribution correlate with differential migration in the western sandpiper. Ecology 88: 781-791.

Nebel, S. and G.J. Thompson. 2005. Foraging behaviour of Western Sandpipers changes with sediment temperature:  implications for their hemispheric distribution. Ecol. Res. 20: 503-507.

Mathot, KJ. 2005. Sex-related differences in feeding behaviour and implications for differential migration in Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri).  MSC thesis, Simon Fraser University.

Nebel, S., D.L. Jackson & R.W. Elner. 2005.  Functional association of bill morphology and foraging behaviour in Calidrid sandpipers. Animal Biology 55: 235-243.


Pomeroy, A.C. and R. W. Butler.  2005.  Color infrared photography is not a good predictor of macro invertebrate abundance on mudflats used by shorebirds.  Waterbirds 28: 1-7.


Elner RW, PG Beninger, DL Jackson & TM Potter 2004.  Evidence of a new feeding mode in western sandpiper (Calidris mauri) and dunlin (Calidris alpina) based on bill and tongue morphology and ultrastructure.  Marine Biology 146: 1223–1234.


Mathot K.J.  and R.W. Elner  2004  Evidence for sexual partitioning of foraging mode in Western Sandpipers (Calidris mauri) during migration.  Can. J. Zool. 82: 1035–1042.

Elner, R.W., P.G. Beninger, D.L. Jackson, T.M. Potter 2004.  Evidence of new feeding mode in western sandpiper (Calidris mauri) and dunlin (Calidris alpina) based on bill and tongue morphology and ultrastructure.  Marine Biology:

Sewell, M. A., and R. W. Elner. 2001. Spatial variability in the macrofauna of intertidal flats on Boundary Bay, British Columbia. Technical Report Series No. 365. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa.

Sutherland, T. F., P.C.F. Shepherd, and R.W. Elner. 2000. Predation on meiofaunal and macrofaunal invertebrates by western sandpipers (Calidris mauri): evidence for dual foraging modes. Marine Biology 137:983-993.

Wolf, N. 2001. Foraging ecology and site selection in Western Sandpipers during their fall migration through southwestern British Columbia. MSc, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC. 118 pp.

Sewell, M.A. 1996. Detection of the impact of predation by migratory shorebirds: an experimental test in the Fraser River estuary, British Columbia (Canada). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 144: 23-40.


Migratory stopovers: feeding and predation risk:

Taylor, C.M., D.B. Lank, A.C. Pomeroy and R.C. Ydenberg.  2008.  Relationship between stopover site choice of migrating sandpipers, their population status, and environmental stressors.  Isr. J. Ecol. Evol. 53:245–261.

Pomeroy, A.C., R.W. Butler and R.C. Ydenberg. 2006. Experimental evidence that migrants adjust usage at a stopover site to trade off food and danger. Behav. Ecol. 17: 1041-1045

Nebel, S., A. Cloutier and G.J. Thompson. 2004. Molecular sexing of prey remains permits a test of sex-biased predation in a wintering population of western sandpipers. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. (Suppl.) 271: S321-S323.

Pomeroy, A.C. 2006. Trade-offs between food abundance and predation danger in spatial usage of a stopover site by western sandpipers Calidris mauri. Oikos 112: 629-637.

Ydenberg, R.C., R.W. Butler, D.B. Lank, B.D. Smith and J. Ireland. 2004. Western sandpipers have altered migration tactics as peregrine falcon populations have recovered. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B. 271: 1263-1269.

Lank, D.B. and Ydenberg, R.C.  2003.  Death and danger at migratory stopovers: problems with “predation risk”.  J. Avian Biol. 34:225228.

Butler, R.W., P.C.F. Shepherd and M.J.F. Lemon. 2002.  Site fidelity and local movements of migrating western sandpipers on the Fraser River estuary Wilson Bull. 114: 485-490.

Ydenberg, R.C., R.W. Butler, D.B. Lank, C.G. Guglielmo, M. Lemon and N. Wolf. 2002. Trade-offs, condition dependence, and stopover site selection by migrating western sandpipers. J. Avian Biol. 33: 47-55.

Burns, J. G. and R.C. Ydenberg.  2002. The effects of wing loading and gender on the escape flights of least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 52: 128-136. DOI 10.1007/s00265-002-0494-y

Burns, J.G. and S.L. Wardrop. 2001. The veloci-raptor: a bicycle-powered model raptor for realistic predator encounter experiments. J. Field Ornithol. 72:399-403.

Burns, J. 2001. The ecological consequences of fuel storage in migrating Calidris sandpipers. MSc, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC.

Cullen, S. and G. Robertson  1999.  Temporal changes in the anti-predator flocking behavior of wintering shorebirds.  Waterbirds 22: 156-159.

Lissimore, D., M.J.F. Lemon, D.B. Lank, R.W. Butler and R.C. Ydenberg. 1999. Large and consistent body mass differences of migrant calidris sandpipers at adjacent stopover sites: phenomenon and possibilities. Wader Study Group Bull. 88: 55-58.


Physiology: body composition, fat storage, and migration

Williams, T.D., N. Warnock, J. Takekawa and M.A. Bishop. Submitted. Flyway scale variation in plasma triglyceride levels in spring migrating Western Sandpipers. Auk.

Stein, R.W. and T.D. Williams. 2006. Causes and consequences of post-growth age-dependent differences in small intestine size in a migratory sandpiper (Calidris mauri, Western Sandpiper). Funct. Ecol. 20: 142-150.

Acevado Seaman, D.A., C.G. Guglielmo, R.W. Elner and T.D. Williams.2006. Landscape-scale physiology: site differences in refueling rates as indicated by plasma metabolite analysis in free-living, migratory sandpipers. Auk. 123:563-574.

Stein RW, Place AR, Lacourse T, CG Guglielmo, TD Williams 2005. Digestive organ sizes and enzyme activities of refueling western sandpipers (Calidris mauri): Contrasting effects of season and age.  PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ZOOLOGY 78: 434-446.

Seaman DA, CG Guglielmo, TD Williams 2005 Effects of physiological state, mass change and diet on plasma metabolite profiles in the western sandpiper Calidris mauri. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY 208: 761-769.

Seaman, D.A. 2003. Landscape physiology: plasma metabolites, fattening rates and habitat quality in migratory western sandpipers. M.Sc. thesis. Simon Fraser University, Canada.

Stein RW, Williams TD 2003. Tissue damage precludes the use of the everted sleeve technique to measure nutrient uptake in a small migratory shorebird, the western sandpiper (Calidris mauri). PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ZOOLOGY 76:762-770.

Egeler, O., D. Seaman and T.D. Williams. 2003. Influence of diet on fatty acid composition of depot fat in Western Sandpipers, Calidris mauri. Auk 120: 337-345.

Guglielmo, C.G. and T.D. Williams. 2003. Phenotypic flexibility of body composition in relation to migratory state, age and sex in the western sandpiper. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 76:84-98.   DOI 1522-2152/2003/7601-2013.

Guglielmo, C.G., Haunerland, N.H., Hochachka, P.W. & Williams, T.D. (submitted). Seasonal dynamics of flight muscle fatty acid binding protein and catabolic enzymes in a long-distance migrant shorebird. Amer. J. Physiol.

Guglielmo, C.G., Williams, T.D, Zwingelstein, G, Brichon, G. & Weber, J-M. (submitted). Plasma and muscle phospholipids are involved in the metabolic response to long-distance migration in a shorebird. Journal of Comparative Physiology. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 172:409-417.

Stein RW, Williams TD. 2002. Age-related variation in small intestine size in the western sandpiper (Calidris mauri): early ontogeny, stage of migration, and cestode infection. INTEGRATIVE AND COMPARATIVE BIOLOGY 42: 1318-1318.

McFarland, C. N.,  L. I. Bendell-Young, C. Guglielmo, T. D. Williams. 2002. Kidney, Liver and Bone Cadmium Concentrations in the Western Sandpiper in Relation to Migration.  Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 4:791-795.

Guglielmo, C.G., O'Hara, P.O. & Williams, T.D. 2002. Extrinsic and intrinsic sources of variation in plasma lipid metabolites of free-living western sandpipers (Calidris mauri). Auk 119: 437-445 or 445-472.

Guglielmo, C.G., T. Piersma and T.D. Williams. 2001. A sport physiological perspective on bird migration: evidence for flight-induced muscle damage. J. Exp. Biol. 204:2683-2690.

Guglielmo, C.G. and J.G. Burns. 2001. Avian forensics: predicting body fat and body mass from wing remains. J. Avian Biol. 32:198-203.

Egeler, O. & Williams, T.D. 2000. Seasonal variation in fatty acid composition of depot fat in the western sandpiper (Calidris mauri). Auk 117: 110-119.

Egeler, O., Williams, T.D. & Guglielmo, C.G. 2000. Modulation of lipogenic enzymes, fatty acid synthase and D9-desaturase, in relation to migration in the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri). Journal of Comparative Physiology B 170: 169-174.

Guglielmo, C. G. 1999. Physiological and biochemical modulation for long-distance migration: the functional significance of inter-specific variation in the Western Sandpiper. Ph.D. thesis, Simon Fraser University.

Williams, T.D. Guglielmo, C.G., Egeler, O.E. & Martyniuk, C.J. 1999. Plasma lipid metabolites provide information on mass change over several days in captive western sandpipers (Calidris mauri). Auk 116: 994-1000.

Egeler, O. 1998. Aspects of fatty acid synthesis and composition in relation to migration in the western sandpiper Calidris mauri. MSc thesis, SFU.

Guglielmo, C.G, N.H. Haunerland and T.D. Williams. 1998. Fatty acid binding protein, a major protein in the flight muscle of migrating western sandpipers. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B 119: 549-555.


Publications Focused on Other Species or Questions:


General shorebird population biology:

Lank, D.B. and S. Nebel. In press. Cross-cutting research on a flyway scale - beyond monitoring. In: Waterbirds Around the World, Boere, G.C., C.A. Galbraith, D. Scott, D.A. Stroud and L.G. Underhill, eds. Edinburgh.

Nebel S. and D.B. Lank  2005.  Cross-cutting research on a flyway scale - beyond monitoring. (abstract of plenary talk).  In: Conclusions and recommendations from the Waterbirds Around the World global flyways conference, Edinburgh, April 2004. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith and D.A. Stroud eds., pp. 20-21. Wetlands International, The Netherlands; Joint Nature Conservation Committtee, UK, and Ministry for Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, The Netherlands.

Robinson, R.A., N.A. Clark, R. Lanctot, S. Nebel, B. Harrington, J.A. Clark, J.A. Gill, H. Meltofte, D.I. Rogers, K.G. Rogers, B.J. Ens, C.M. Reynolds, R.M. Ward, T. Piersma & P.W. Atkinson. 2005. Long term demographic monitoring of wader populations in non-breeding areas. Wader Study Group Bulletin 106:17-29

Nebel, S. and D.B. Lank   2003.  Cross seasonal and cross disciplinary studies of shorebirds.   Wader Study Group Bulletin 100: 118–121.      

P. D. O’Hara, B. Haase, R.W. Elner, B.D. Smith, and J.K. Kenyon.  MS.  Are shorebird population declines normal during warm phases associated with large scale climatic oscillations?



Fernández G. and D.B. Lank.  2008.  Effects of habitat loss on shorebirds during the non-breeding season: current knowledge and suggestions for action.  Ornitol. Neotrop. 19 (supp): 663–640.

Fernández, G., N. Warnock, D.B. Lank and J.B. Buchanan.  2006.  Conservation plan for the Western Sandpiper.  Manomet Center for Conservation Science, Manomet, Massachusetts.   Available online.

Lank, D.B. and Nebel S.  2006.  Cross-cutting research on a flyway scale – beyond monitoring.  In: Waterbirds Around the World.  G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith and D.A. Stroud, eds. pp. 107112.  TSO Scotland Ltd., Edinburgh, UK.

Shepherd, P.C.F.,  L.J. Evans Ogden,, and D.B. Lank. 2003.  Integrating marine and terrestrial habitats in shorebird conservation planning.  Wader Study Group Bulletin 100:40-43

Butler, R.W., N.C. Davidson and I.G. Morrison. 2001. Global scale shorebird distribution in relation to productivity of near-shore ocean waters. Waterbirds 24:224-232:.

Shepherd, P. 2001. Status and conservation of Dunlin in Canada. Bird Trends 8:31-33.

Shepherd, P. and J.S. Boates 1999. Effects of a commercial baitworm harvest on Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) and their prey in the Bay of Fundy Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve. Conservation Biology 13: 347-356.


Non-breeding season: Dunlin

Zharikov Y., R.W. Elner, P.C.F. Shepherd and D.B. Lank.  2009.  Interplay between physical and predator landscapes affects transferability of shorebird distribution models  Landscape Ecol. 24: 129-144.  DOI 10.1007/s10980-008-9291-y

Evans Ogden, L.J., D.B. Lank and S. Bittmann.  2008.  A review of agricultural land use by shorebirds with special reference to habitat conservation in the Fraser River Delta, BC. Can. J. Plant Sci. 88: 71-83.

Evans Ogden, L.J., S. Bittmann, D.B. Lank and F.C. Stevenson.  2008.  Factors influencing use of farmland habitat by shorebirds wintering in the Fraser River Delta, Canada. Agr. Ecosyst.. Environ. 124:252258.

Dekker, D. and R.C. Ydenberg. 2004. Raptor predation on wintering dunlins in relation to the tidal cycle. Condor 106: 415-419.

Nebel, S. in press Latitudinal clines in sex ratio, bill and wing length in a migratory shorebird. Journal of Field Ornithology.

Evans Ogden, L., K. A. Hobson, D. B. Lank and S. Bittman 2005. Stable Isotope Analysis Reveals That Agricultural Habitat Provides an Important Dietary Component for Nonbreeding Dunlin. Avian Conservation and Ecology - Écologie et conservation des oiseaux 1 (1): 3. [online] URL:

Evans Ogden, L., K.A. Hobson and D.B. Lank   2004.  Blood isotopic (d13C and  d15N) turnover and diet-tissue fractionation factors in captive dunlin. Auk 121:170177.

Shepherd, P.C.F. and D.B. Lank.  MS.   Space use in relation to prey availability in individual non-territorial dunlin.

Shepherd, P.C.F. and D.B. Lank. 2004.   Marine and agricultural habitat preferences of dunlin wintering in British Columbia. J. Wildl. Manage. 68: 61-73.  

Evans Ogden, L. J. 2002. Non-breeding shorebirds in a coastal agricultural landscape: winter habitat use and dietary sources. Ph.D thesis, Simon Fraser University.

Shepherd, P.C.F. 2001. Space use, habitat preferences, and time-activity budgets of non-breeding dunlin (Calidris alpina pacifica) in the Fraser River Delta, B.C. Ph.D thesis, Simon Fraser University.

Shepherd, P.C.F., D.B. Lank, B.D Smith, N.D. Warnock, G.W. Kaiser and T.D. Williams. 2001. Sex ratios and sex determination of Dunlin wintering at two latitudes on the Pacific coast. Condor 103: 103:352–360.

Butler, RW. 1999. Winter abundance and distribution of shorebirds and songbirds on farmlands on the Fraser River delta, British Columbia, 1989-1991. Canadian Field-Naturalist 113: 390-395.

Warnock, N., G.W. Page and B.K. Sandercock. 1997. Local survival of Dunlin (Calidris alpina) wintering in California. Condor 99: 906-915.

Shepherd, P. 1997. The winter ecology of Dunlin (Calidris alpina pacifica) in the Fraser River Delta. Fraser River Action Plan Technical Report (Environment Canada).


Non-breeding season:  Australian shorebirds (CWE alumni)

Zharikov, Y. and G.A. Skilleter. 2004. A relationship between prey density and territory size in non-breeding Eastern Curlews Numenius madagasceriensis. Ibis 146: 518-521.

Nebel, S. Shorebird migration in the East-Asian Australasian Flyway. Kukila (invited) in review

Zharikov Y, Skilleter GA 2004.  Why do eastern curlews Numenius madagascariensis feed on prey that lowers intake rate before migration?  JOURNAL OF AVIAN BIOLOGY 35 (6): 533-542 NOV 2004

Zharikov Y, Skilleter GA. 2002. Sex-specific intertidal habitat use in subtropically wintering bar-tailed godwits. Can. J. Zool. 80: 1918-1929.

Zharikov Y, Skilleter GA in press. Depletion of benthic invertebrates by bar-tailed godwits Limosa lapponica in a subtropical estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series.

 Zharikov Y, Skilleter GA. 2003. Nonbreeding eastern curlews Numenius madagascariensis do not increase the rate of intake or digestive efficiency before long-distance migration because of an apparent digestive constraint   Physiological & Biochemical Zoology, 76: 76: 704-715

Breeding season: Black Oystercatcher:

Hazlitt S.L., R.C. Ydenberg, and D.B. Lank. 2002. Territory structure, parental provisioning, and chick growth in the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani). Ardea 90:219–227.

Hazlitt S.L.   2001.   Territory quality and reproductive success of black oystercatchers in British Columbia. Wilson Bull 113: 404-409.

Hazlitt, S. and R.W. Butler. 2001. Site fidelity and reproductive success of Black Oystercatchers in British Columbia. Waterbirds 24:203-207.

Hazlitt, S.L. 1999. Territory quality and parental behaviour of the black oystercatcher in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. MSc. thesis, SFU.


Breeding season: Red-necked and Red Phalarope:

Schamel, D., D.M. Tracy, D.B. Lank and D.F. Westneat.  2004.  Copulation strategies and extra-pair fertilization rates in the sex-role reversed, socially polyandrous Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus.  Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 57:110118.

Schamel, D., D.M. Tracy and D.B. Lank.  2004.  Male mate choice, male availability, and egg production as limitations on polyandry in the Red-necked Phalarope.  Anim. Behav. 67:847853.

Schamel D., D. M. Tracy, and J. Dale. 2002.  Red Phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius). In: The Birds of North America, No. 698 (eds. Poole, A. and F. Gill), 32 pp  Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America, Inc.

Rubega, M.A., D. Schamel and D.M. Tracy. 2000. Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus). In: The Birds of North America, No. 538.  (eds. Poole, A. and F. Gill) 28pp. Philadelphia, PA: The Birds of North America, Inc.

Schamel, D.L. 2000. Female and male reproductive strategies in the red-necked phalarope, a polyandrous shorebird. Ph.D. thesis, Simon Fraser University.


Behavioral and plumage polymorphism, and lekking, in Ruff:

Reneerkens, J., J.B. Almeida, D.B. Lank, J. Jukema, R.B. Lanctot, R.I.G. Morrison, W.I.C. Rijpstra, D. Schamel, H. Schekkererman, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, P.S. Tomkovich, D.M. Tracy, I. Tulp and T. Piersma.  2007.  Parental role division predicts avian preen wax cycles.  Ibis 149: 21–729.  doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.2007.00693.x

Lozano, G.A. and D.B. Lank. 2004. Immunocompetence and testosterone-dependent condition traits in male ruffs (Philomachus pugnax).  Anim. Biol. 54.315329.

Lozano, G.A. and D.B. Lank.  2003.  Seasonal trade-offs in cell-mediated immunosenescence in ruffs (Philomachus pugnax).  Proc. Roy. Soc. B., Lond.  270:1203–1208.

Lank, D.B. 2002. Diverse processes maintain plumage polymorphisms in birds. J. Avian Biol. 33:327–330.

Lank, D.B., C.M. Smith, O. Hanotte, A. Ohtonen, S. Bailey, and T. Burke. 2002.  High frequency of polyandry in a lek mating system. Behav. Ecol. 13:209–215.

Lank D.B. and Dale, J. 2001. Visual versus vocal signals for individual identification: the silent song of Ruffs. Auk 118:759–765.

Dale, J., D.B. Lank and H.K. Reeve. 2001. Signaling individuality vs. quality: a model and case studies with ruffs, queleas and house finches. Am. Nat. 157: 75–86.

Lank, D.B., Coupe, N. Sharma, and K. Wynne-Edwards. 1999. Testosterone induced behaviour in females confirms autosomal inheritance of variation in male courtship strategy in ruffs Philomachus pugnax. Proc Roy. Soc. B. 266: 2323–2330.

Hugie, D.M. and D.B. Lank. 1997. The resident's dilemma: a female-choice model for the evolution of alternative male reproductive strategies in lekking male ruffs (Philomachus pugnax). Behav. Ecol. 8: 218-225.

Lank, D.B., C.M. Smith, O. Hanotte, T.A. Burke and F. Cooke. 1995. Genetic polymorphism for alternative mating behaviour in lekking male ruff, Philomachus pugnax. Nature 378: 59-62.