NEWSLETTER OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Volume 22, Number 1 July 2002
Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia
The Journal of the Entomological Society of BC is published annually. Papers for the Journal need not have been presented at meetings of the Society, nor is it mandatory, although preferable, that authors be members of the Society. The chief condition for publication is that the paper has some regional origin, interest or application. Line drawings or photographs as candidates for the cover are also accepted. Contributions should conform to the standards outlined in the Journal and the Website (http://esbc.harbour.com/), and should be sent to the Editor, Dr. Ward Strong, BC Ministry of Forests, 3401 Reservoir Road, Vernon BC, Canada V1B 2C7; tel 250-549-5696; fax 250-542-2230; e-mail email@example.com.
The deadline for submissions to be included in the 2002 issue is September 1, 2002.
Boreus, the Newsletter of the Society is published in June and December. It contains entomological news, comments, reports, reviews and notices of meetings and other events. While emphasizing the Society's affairs, Boreus provides members with a forum for their views and news of British Columbia entomology. Please send correspondence concerning Boreus to the Editor, Cris Guppy, 4627 Quesnel-Hydraulic Rd., Quesnel BC, Canada V2J 6P8; tel 250-747-1512; e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
The deadline for submissions to be included in the December 2002 issue is November 1, 2002.
Membership of the Entomological Society of BC is available to anyone interested in entomology. Annual dues are Can$20 (regular member) or Can$10 (student member). Members receive the Journal, Boreus and Occasional Papers (the latter published intermittently).
Inquiries concerning membership and back issues should be sent to the Secretary/Treasurer, Dr. Robb Bennett, BC Ministry of Forests, 7380 Puckle Road, Saanichton, BC, V8M 1W4, Canada; tel 250-652-6593; fax 250-652-4204; e-mail Robb.Bennett@gov.bc.ca
Cover: Boreus elegans (Mecoptera: Boreidae); one of the more conspicuous snow scorpionflies in BC. Larvae and flightless adults live in, and feed on, moss and clubmoss. Adults appear in the fall and are active on snow on warm winter days.
BC Ministry of Forests, Kamloops
Once again it is a busy year for the Entomological Society of British Columbia. We are currently preparing for the 2002 AGM to be held this year at the Pacific Forestry Centre in Victoria. I would like to urge as many members as possible to attend this year and bring a student or colleague that is curious about entomology in B.C. We are adding a special event to this years AGM a Silent Auction! I invite anyone interested, whether you can attend the AGM in person or not, to bring or donate an item of your own invention to the 2002 ESBC AGM. Items will be displayed in a Silent Auction at the morning coffee break and lunch, Tuesday September 24, 2002. Everyone will have the opportunity to view and bid on these items at this time. All proceeds will go to the ESBC Graduate Student Scholarship fund. Ideas for items to contribute include: photographs, crafts, foodstuffs, artwork, books, treasured reprints, insect specimens, etc. Your imagination is the only limit!
September will come quickly, so start foraging and creating now! This should be a very entertaining event so please plan on participating- you might even find a few treasures. One of the donations at an event I recently attended was ale brewed with Mountain Pine Beetle Yeast! Now that takes forest entomology to a new plateau.
In 2003, ESBC is hosting the Joint Annual Meeting (JAM) of the Entomological Society of B.C. and Entomological Society of Canada in Kelowna. Planning is underway and we are trying to drum up more committee volunteers. So, if anyone would like to help out for this event, please contact myself or another member of the executive. It should be a great session.
I would like to take this opportunity the thank some very hard working members for their past and current work on various committees our organization would be grounded if it werent for people like you. Phil Jones has stepped down as editor of the Boreus and Cris Guppy has now taken over the reins. Thank you Phil! Dave Raworth is the outgoing editor of the JESBC and always maintained a high standard for this journal. His last edition as editor was the Centennial Volume, which was excellent in all ways. Ward Strong is now editor and has handed over his job as Web Editor to the very capable hands of Bill Riel. The ESBC is lucky to have so many dedicated and talented members and I extend my thanks.
The following are extracts, slightly edited by Cris Guppy, from the full document written by the Annual Meeting Guidelines Committee of Terry Shore (Chair), Jon Sweeney, Linda Gilkeson, and Hugh Danks (ex-officio). This summary is intended to give a brief orientation to potential volunteers, who can then consider where they might like to fit in.
The Annual General Meeting of the Entomological Society of Canada has, with a few exceptions, been held as a Joint Annual Meeting with one of the Regional Societies. Because the Regional Societies are charged with organising the Joint Annual Meeting, the location of the meeting changes each year, thus a different team of meeting organisers is assembled each year. The guide has been written to assist them in organising the meetings by incorporating details and helpful hints from previous organisers. These guidelines are not intended to restrict the creativity and enthusiasm of organisers for providing a memorable Joint Annual Meeting. As with any enterprise, local conditions and preferences would be taken into account when planning a meeting.
It is best to break the job into small pieces and follow the adage that many hands make for light work. Generally, members are happy to be involved in organising the meeting and when there is a lot of member involvement it brings the society together in a feeling of accomplishment. If a few individuals take on the whole responsibility not only is this feeling lost, but those individuals will become overburdened and stressed, and the likelihood of oversights will increase. Volunteers can contact Terry Shore the Pacific Forestry Centre in Victoria (250 363-0666 or email@example.com).
Time Before Meeting
24 36 months
Invite the ESC to the region. If accepted, appoint General Chair
20 30 months
General Chair to appoint
Develop Science Program including
theme and invited speakers.
A general notice of the meeting
should be placed in the Bulletin and on the ESC Web page.
Arrange with ESC headquarters for
mailing list or labels for ESC membership.
First notice of meeting should be prepared by the Publicity Committee in consultation with other chairs and mailed out.
Regional President to write
letters to key managers asking for their support in permitting attendance at
Issue second mailout of meeting
notices to members.
Treasurer and General Chair should have a reasonable handle on the budget by this time and can make adjustments
Committees should be taking care of final details.
Program sent to printer. Registration packages organised.
Entomological Society of British Columbia
2002 Silent Auction
Your contribution and participation in a silent auction to benefit the ESBC Graduate Student Scholarship fund
How can you help? By donating your talents!
Silent Auction items will be on display for bidding at morning coffee break and lunch, Tuesday September 24, 2002. All proceeds will go to the ESBC Graduate Student Scholarship fund. Everything is welcome e.g. photographs, crafts, foodstuffs, artwork, books, treasured reprints, insect specimens, etc.
Other items of potential interest to entomologists that aren't self-made won't be refused remember were an eccentric bunch!
Your imagination is the only limit!
If you have any questions, please contact:
Lorraine Maclauchlan 250-828-4179 Lorraine.Maclauchlan@gems3.gov.bc.ca
ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
5th ANNUAL GRADUATE STUDENT SCHOLARSHIPS
The Entomological Society of British Columbia announces the fifth annual Graduate Student Scholarship competition. Two $500.00 Scholarships (one M.Sc., one Ph.D.) are awarded each year at the Annual General Meeting. Scholarships are to be used to defray research paper or poster presentation related costs (including travel) incurred by graduate students for participation in conferences other than the ESBC AGM.
For consideration, applicants must be:
Abstract should be double spaced, 12 font, and a maximum of 200-250 words (based on processor electronic word count). Applications will be judged on the basis of scientific importance, quality of the application, and qualifications of the applicant. Applications from M.Sc. and Ph.D. students will be judged in separate categories; a singleton application in either category will be judged with applications in the other.
Deadline for receipt of applications for 2002 Scholarships is 31 August 2002. This years Scholarships will be awarded at the ESBC AGM at the Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria on Tuesday, September 24th 2002. Send applications to:
BC Ministry of Forests
7380 Puckle Road
Saanichton, BC V8M 1W4
or by e-mail to: Robb.Bennett@gov.bc.ca
The following journals are available to anyone who is willing to pay shipping charges. Contact Robb Bennett (250 652-6593 or Robb.Bennett@gov.bc.ca).
Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia various volumes from 34 to 68.
Annual Reports and Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario various volumes from 1935 to 1968 (includes index to all Reports from 1900-1937).
Annual Report of the forest Insect and Disease Survey complete set from 1939 to 1976.
The Canadian Entomologist 1961 to 1969 complete with a few newer and older issues as well.
CALL FOR PAPERS & PARTICIPATION
The 2002 ESBC AGM will be held at the:
Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria
506 West Burnside Road
Tuesday, Sept. 24, 2002
IMPORTANT: Submit titles & abstracts for presentations to Lorraine Maclauchlan by Aug. 31st. ABSTRACT: Fifty words, Journal of ESBC format, electronic copy to Lorraine Maclauchlan. REGISTRATION COST: $20 regular member, $10 student payable at the door. STUDENTS: Remember - prizes for best MSc and PhD presentations and
Graduate Student Scholarship presentations.
Dr. Lorraine Maclauchlan Phone: (250) 828-4179
BC Ministry of Forests Fax: (250) 828-4953
515 Columbia Street
Kamloops BC V2C 2T7
The Entomological Society of British Columbia welcomes the following new, and relatively new, members:
Muhammad Arshad, Lahore Pakistan
Neil Borecky, Victoria
Julie Brooks, Granthams Landing
Hector Carcamo, Lethbridge Alberta
Anathbandhu Chaudhuri, Mississauga, ON
Markus Clodius, Penticton
Nicholas Conder, Victoria
Riaz-Ud-Din, Lahore Pakistan
Leroy Harder, North Vancouver
Yvonne Herbison, Kelowna
Kelly Hicks, Kamloops
Ingrid Hoff, North Vancouver
Jeanne Horning, Prince George
Nicole Jeans-Williams, Blind Bay
Wade Jenner, Burnaby
Nataraj Krishnan, West Bengal India
Connie Larochelle, New Aiyansh
Donald Mack, Glasgow Scotland
Jamil Mansour, Oakville Ontario
B. W. Martinac, Summerland
George Opit, Manhattan Kansas
Isobel Pearsall, Nanaimo
Jennifer Perry, Burnaby
Bill Riel, Victoria
John Rumph, Pullman Washington
Azzam Saleh, Bonn Germany
Maxence Salomon, Burnaby
Greg Smith, Victoria
John Swann, Vancouver
Howard Thistlewood, Summerland
Joanne Wilson, Vancouver
Patricia Woods, Victoria
Lawrence Wright, Prosser Washington
Note: Rick Vetter (UC Riverside) is primary lead for much of the Tegenaria effort in North America. His work has resulted in a recent manuscript submission to Journal of Medical Entomology (see Vetter et al. in References) and some information presented below comes from that presently unpublished manuscript.
Three non-native species of Tegenaria funnel-web weaving spiders are known to be established in North America, especially the Pacific Northwest (here taken to include British Columbia as well as the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana). Tegenaria domestica (Clerck) is a cosmopolitan synanthrope widespread in North America. Tegenaria duellica Simon (colloquially called the giant house spider) is common from the Georgia Lowlands of southwestern BC south through the Puget Trough and Willamette Valley regions. The probably unjustifiably dreaded hobo spider, T. agrestis (Walckenaer) has a coastal distribution similar to that of T. duellica but also has successfully invaded most of the rest of the Pacific Northwest.
Because of the facts that
· T. agrestis MAY be medically important,
· T. duellica is often a very BIG spider,
a good deal of Tegenaria mythology, hyperbole, and hysteria has arisen in the region. In an effort to rectify this situation, various research projects are currently examining aspects of the biology of the North American populations of T. duellica and T. agrestis. Following is a summary of recent work on these two species.
Taxonomic note. Confusion exists concerning the correct name for North American specimens of T. duellica. Some publications refer to these as T. gigantea Chamberlin & Ivie (e.g. Crawford & Vest 1989, Leech and Steiner 1992, Buckle and Randell 1995), others as T. saeva Blackwall (e.g. Roth 1968). However, the former is a junior synonym of T. duellica (Brignoli 1978, Platnick 1993 & 2002). Tegenaria saeva and T. duellica are very similar morphologically and easily confused. Both are reported to occur in western North America. All North American specimens of duellica/saeva morphology examined critically by myself agree with the published descriptions of T. duellica. It is my working opinion that T. saeva does not occur in western North America.
Both T. agrestis and T. duellica likely were introduced into the Puget Trough / Georgia Lowlands area in the first quarter of the 20th Century or earlier. The former was first recorded in North America in the Seattle area in the 1930s (Exline 1936). The latter showed up somewhat earlier on southern Vancouver Island. Both expanded their Pacific Northwest ranges considerably through the last century, apparently with T. duellica more common in coastal locations and T. agrestis dominating the interior. Anecdotal evidence suggests that, where the two species are sympatric, T. duellica out-competes T. agrestis although the nature of their relationship is unclear.
As with most dictynoid/amaurobioid spiders, these species mature, mate, and lay eggs in late summer and early fall. Males are rarely found at other times of the year but females and a range of sizes of immature specimens can be found year round, at least on the south coast of BC. This suggests that both species take at least two years to reach maturity.
North American specimens of T. agrestis popularly are considered to be medically important; T. duellica is believed to be harmless. During the last half of the 20th Century, medical professionals began to blame cases of presumed necrotic arachnidism in North America on the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik. This happened first in the United States (Atkins et al. 1957) where L. reclusa is native and later in Canada (Baldwin et al. 1988) where no population of L. reclusa is known to exist and no specimen has ever been collected. In spite of this, some medical and media professionals (and even some biologists) cling to the belief that L. reclusa is common in Canada and in parts of the United States where this spider is not known to occur (e.g. see Rose et al. 2001, Roche et al. 2001). However, in the Pacific Northwest, blame for necrotic arachnidism has gradually been shifted to T. agrestis (Vest 1987a, 1989, Akre & Myrhe 1991) although the evidence for its guilt is questionable at best.
Tegenaria spiders are difficult to identify without experience. Many of the +120 described species (including all three introduced species in North America) are generally similar looking, medium-sized brownish spiders. Species diagnostic characteristics are not discernable without magnification. In addition, a variety of other common North American spiders (e.g. other agelenids, various lycosids and amaurobiids, and even thomisids, salticids, and araneoids) are often misidentified as Tegenaria, especially T. agrestis. In the Pacific Northwest, both T. duellica and T. domestica are commonly misidentified as T. agrestis.
Although there is a general trend from larger to smaller size and from contrasting to dull patterning from T. duellica through T. agrestis to T. domestica, individuals of all three species show considerable variability of coloration, patterning and especially size. Identification of Tegenaria species is reliably accomplished only through microscopic examination of genitalic characters.
Vest (1987b) first suggested a link between necrotic arachnidism and T. agrestis. Based on his work, hobo spider necrotic arachnidism has joined loxoscelism as a popular default medical diagnosis for dermonecrotic lesions (see Vetter 2000, 2001). However, recent work (Binford 2001) has called Vests conclusions into question. Noting that T. agrestis is considered harmless within its native range, Binford summarized four possible reasons for the apparent medical importance of this spider in North America: our populations may
The first paper published by her addressing these possibilities (Binford 2001) demonstrated that
Binford is continuing her research.
The North American distribution and abundance of T. agrestis and T. duellica are not well known. Roths (1968) range maps are outdated and most recent publications list only broad state or regional occurrences (e.g. Baird & Akre 1993) and of T. agrestis only. To address this issue Rick Vetter lead a study encompassing BC, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming to map the ranges and determine the relative abundance of both spiders in North America. Nearly 2,000 specimens of Tegenaria were examined during the field seasons of 1999-2001. A manuscript describing this work (see Vetter et al. in References) has been submitted for peer review and a version of the results (Bennett 2001) has been presented at entomology meetings in 2001 and 2002 in BC. Following is a summary of the Vetter et al. results. NOTE: Data collection was ad hoc in nature and the results cannot be interpreted as a completely accurate reflection of the true distribution and abundance of hobo and giant house spiders in North America. Vetter et al. did the best they could with volunteer participants and limited funds.
Tegenaria duellica. Tegenaria duellica is mostly restricted to the Georgia Lowlands / Puget Trough area west of the Coastal (BC) and Cascade (US) mountain ranges from south coastal BC to mid-coastal Oregon. Isolated outlier populations are found in towns across southern BC and in Edmonton (Leech & Steiner 1992) and Lethbridge AB (Dan Johnson and Robb Bennett pers. obs.) and in Saskatoon SK (Buckle & Randell 1995). Although at least on the BC south coast T. duellica may be very common around beaches and other open, natural areas, populations in the BC interior are apparently always isolated and synanthropic. For example, T. duellica is common in the Okanagan Valley towns of Penticton and Kelowna BC but has never been found in extensive pitfall trapping and other collecting in natural habitats in that general area (pers. obs., Blades & Maier 1996, Geoff Scudder pers. comm.).
Tegenaria agrestis. In the Pacific Northwest, Tegenaria agrestis is much more widespread than T. duellica. It is found from southern BC east to central Montana and western Wyoming and south to southern Oregon and northern Utah. Two very isolated synanthropic populations are now known from northern Colorado. A couple of singleton specimens were recovered in Nevada. None were found in California. Recently, a single female was collected in Edmonton AB (Robin Leech pers. comm.).
Relative abundance. Fully ¾ of all specimens of Tegenaria collected by Vetter et al. were T. agrestis. The majority of these came from east of the Cascades and Coastal mountain ranges where T. duellica is rare (southern BC) or apparently absent (US). Where the two species co-occur in major urban areas west of the Cascades/Coastal ranges, T. duellica is usually more abundant. For instance, T. duellica comprised 57, 77, 70, and 71% of specimens captured in Victoria BC, Bellingham and Tacoma WA, and Salem OR respectively (N > 35 at each locality). In Pacific Northwest coastal areas, T. agrestis tends to be rare but locally common. This supports the notion that T. duellica may edge out T. agrestis where they are sympatric. Or perhaps they get along just fine and T. duellica is simply more fecund . . .
In North America, populations of T. duellica and T. agrestis are primarily synanthropic (Fig 1). However, in the Georgia Lowlands of south coastal BC, populations of T. duellica are commonly encountered in reasonably natural settings. Open marine beaches and shorefronts often support large numbers of this species as may openings in the dry Douglas-fir forests and Garry oak meadows of the area. At such sites, T. duellica typically occurs underneath or on the underside of objects. At beaches, driftwood above the high tide line is a normal habitat; in the woods, rocks and loose bark on logs often harbour specimens.
Recently I discovered strong populations of both T. duellica and T. agrestis co-occurring near Victoria BC at Island View Beach, an extensive shallow sandy beach backed by low dunes and abandoned marshy farm fields (Fig. 2). The dunes are heavily impacted and stabilised by invasive plants (especially grasses, broom (Cytisus scoparius), and woody Rosaceae), ditching, diking, and human recreational activities. However, some areas of old open sandy dunes persist in the backshore. Old driftwood in these areas supports large numbers of T. agrestis (Fig. 3), T. duellica (Fig. 4), and other interesting (native) spiders including the lycosid Alopecosa kochii (Keyserling) and the western black widow Latrodectus hesperus Chamberlin & Ivie. Often a single piece of driftwood will support an apparently interconnected network of webs of widows and both species of Tegenaria. I have even collected an apparently happy and healthy male T. agrestis from within the web of a large female T. duellica.
To take advantage of this site and the possibly unique araneologically interesting things happening in it, I am hoping to produce a long-term study of the life histories and ecological interactions of its Tegenaria inhabitants. This may provide insight into why these spiders are such successful invaders, how they interact with each other, and how they affect the native spider fauna. Organised work started this past winter (2002) and is summarised below.
|Fig 1. In the Pacific Northwest, T. duellica and/or T. agrestis may be very abundant around homes and other human dominated habitats.||Fig. 2. At Island View Beach near Victoria BC, amidst frolicking groups of sunbathers and dog-walkers, large populations of T. agrestis and T. duellica (and Latrodectus hesperus) apparently peacefully co-exist under pieces of driftwood above the high tide line.|
|Fig 3. The dreaded hobo spider in its lair on the underside of rotting driftwood. At Island View Beach, adult female T. agrestis are smaller than sympatric T. duellica females, yellowish-brown, lack sternal spots, and have dark markings only on coxae IV.||Fig 4. Female T. duellica recovering at the beach after being rudely awakened from a mid-winter nap and ripped from its web. At Island View Beach, adult female T. duellica are larger than sympatric T. agrestis females, greyish with strongly contrasting abdominal patterning, have 3 pairs of distinctive pale sternal spots, and paired dark markings ventrally on all coxae.|
Under permit with the major property controller (Capital Regional District Parks), Richard Ring (University of Victoria) and I supervised student Jesse Senecal on a one term Directed Studies examination of the life histories of T. duellica and T. agrestis at Island View Beach. During 4 days in late February and early March, she collected egg cases and observed and measured carapace widths of over 100 juvenile and adult female specimens of T. duellica and T. agrestis. Of interest are the following results:
|Fig. 5. Tegenaria duellica sternum. At Island View Beach, adult female (and most juvenile) T. duellica have three pairs of well-defined pale spots in the longitudinal sternal marks and paired dark marks ventrally on all coxae. At other localities these markings may be highly variable and often are like those of T. agrestis..||Fig. 6. Tegenaria agrestis sternum. At Island View Beach, adult female (and most juvenile) T. agrestis have longitudinally marked but unspotted sterna and a dark mark on the upper inner thigh region of coxae IV. At other localities these markings may be highly variable and unreliable for species identification, but adult T. agrestis never have distinctive paired pale sternal spots.|
From these results the following conclusions may be drawn:
Looking towards the future, Senecal currently is rearing T. duellica hatchlings. She hopes to get a better handle on growth rates of siblings and non-siblings, number of instars to maturity, other life history data, and confirmation of diagnostic characters for identification of juveniles. She would also like to study the longer-term ecological relationships between the two species and between them and native spiders at Island View Beach. This has great potential for graduate work and she will be in the market this fall . . .
Although at individual sites it may be possible with experience to eye-ball identify species of Tegenaria, the only consistently accurate way to identify them continues to be microscopic examination of male and female genitalic characters. Roths revision (1968) is dated, long out of print, and hard to come by but Rick Vetter (pers. comm.) is close to completing a guide to synanthropic Tegenaria geared towards pest control specialists and other non-arachnologists. This will feature high-resolution digital images of genitalic and other characters and likely will be available in both print and electronic formats. In addition, I am working towards publication of a more traditional review of the taxonomy of T. domestica, T. agrestis, and T. duellica. I have some images done but much work remains and, if my record with publishing cybaeid taxonomy is anything to go by, it may be some time before this review will see printers ink. Oh well.
Probably because T. duellica is big, T. agrestis has gained a nasty reputation, and both are common around homes in the Pacific Northwest, much public and considerable professional mythology and misinformation has arisen around these two species. Current research on a number of fronts should help to rectify this problem. However it is becoming apparent that T. agrestis probably is not the bad actor it is supposed to be. The real reasons to be interested in these spiders are that they are
Coming soon to a trash heap, woodpile, old garage, or vacant lot near you. Just add money and study.
Akre, R. D. & E. A. Myhre. 1991. Biology and medical importance of the aggressive house spider, Tegenaria agrestis, in the Pacific Northwest (Arachnida: Araneae: Agelenidae). Melanderia 47:1-30.
Atkins, J. A., C. W. Wingo, & W. A. Sodeman. 1957. Probable cause of necrotic spider bite in the Midwest. Science 126:73.
Baird, C. R. and R. D. Akre. 1993. Range extension of the aggressive house spider Tegenaria agrestis into southern Idaho, Utah and Montana. Proceedings of the Washington State Entomological Society 55: 996-1000.
Baldwin, G. A., D. F. Smith, & S. D. Fike. 1988. Loxoscelism in Canada. Canadian Medical Association Journal 138:521-522.
Bennett, R. G. 2001. Hyperbole and hysteria along the path to enlightenment: The brown recluse (Loxosceles reclusa) and the hobo spider (Tegenaria agrestis) in British Columbia (Araneae: Sicariidae and Agelenidae). Presentation abstract in Boreus 21(2):16.
Binford, G. J. 2001. An analysis of geographic and intersexual chemical variation in venoms of the spider Tegenaria agrestis (Agelenidae). Toxicon 39: 955-968
Blades, D. C. A. and C. W. Maier. 1996. A survey of grassland and montane arthropods collected in the southern Okanagan region of British Columbia. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 93:49-74.
Brignoli, P. M. 1978. Quelques notes sur les Agelenidae, Hahniidae, Oxyopidae et Pisauridae de France et dEspagne (Araneae). Revue suisse Zoologique 85:265-294.
Buckle, D. J. and R. L. Randell. 1995. The giant house spider in Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 53(2):98-100.
Crawford, R and D. K. Vest. 1989. The hobo spider and other European house spiders. Burke Museum Educational Bulletin #1, 4pp.
Exline, H. 1936. New and little known species of Tegenaria (Araneida: Agelenidae). Psyche 43: 21-26.
Leech, R. and M. Steiner. 1992. Metaltella simoni (Keyserling, 1878) (Amaurobiidae) new to Canada, and records for Tegenaria gigantea Chamberlin and Ivie, 1935, (Agelenidae) in Alberta and British Columbia (Arachnida: Araneida). The Canadian Entomologist 124:419-420.
Platnick, N. I. 1993. Advances in Spider Taxonomy 1988-1991 with synonymies and transfers 1940-1980. New York Entomological Society, New York.
Platnick, N. I. 2002. The World Spider Catalog, Version 2.5. http://research.amnh.org/ entomology/spiders/catalog81-87/index.html. American Museum of Natural History, NY.
Roche, K. J., M. W. Chang, & H. Lazarus. 2001. Cutaneous anthrax infection. New England Journal of Medicine 345:1611.
Rose, G., L. L. Ross, W. Palatnick, & J. M. Embil. 2001. Photo Quiz. Clinical Infectious Disease 32:595, 636-637.
Roth, V. D. 1968. The spider genus Tegenaria in the Western Hemisphere (Agelenidae). American Museum Novitates 2323:1-33.
Vest, D. K. 1987a. Necrotic arachnidism in the Northwest United States and its probable relationship to Tegenaria agrestis (Walckenaer) spiders. Toxicon 25:175-184.
Vest, D. K. 1987b. Envenomation by Tegenaria agrestis (Walckenaer) spiders in rabbits. Toxicon 25: 221-224.
Vest, D. K. 1989. Emergent patterns in the occurrence and severity of probable hobo spider (Tegenaria agrestis) envenomation in humans. Toxicon 27:84.
Vetter, R. S. 2000. Myth: idiopathic wounds are often due to brown recluse or other spider bites throughout the United States. Western Journal of Medicine 173:357-358.
Vetter, R. S. 2001. Hobo spider. University of California Pest Notes #7488. http://spiders.ucr.edu/pnhobospider.pdf. 3 p.
Vetter, R. S., A. H. Roe, R. G. Bennett, C. R. Baird, L. A.Royce, W. T. Lanier, A. L Antonelli, & P. E. Cushing. submitted for review. Distribution of the medically-implicated hobo spider, Tegenaria agrestis, and a benign congener, T. duellica in the United States and Canada. Journal of Medical Entomology.
Norbert G. Kondla, W. Dean Nicholson, David L.Threatful, Crispin S. Guppy, B. Christian Schmidt
The recently published Butterflies of British Columbia (Guppy and Shepard 2001) is a veritable gold mine of useful information; most notably the detailed distribution maps. We wish to share the following noteworthy butterfly records. Most are noteworthy because they fill gaps in the distributions as shown in the book, or because they extend the reported flight period. Records are attributed to the appropriate author by abbreviation of the authors names. Voucher specimens are available to support most of these records. Butterfly names used in the book are included in parentheses where these differ from the names used in this article.
Most records noted below were taken from unpublished information but some were also extracted from the reports or publications noted below and also from Kondla (1999) and Schmidt (1996). Knopp and Larkin (1996) provide additional records.
Erynnis icelus Radium in 2001 (NK).
Erynnis propertius DT collected 8 males and 1 female (freshly emerged) along the Klesilkwa River SSE of Hope in May of 2000. Knopp and Larkin (2002) report fresh butterflies in this same area, and historical collections by A.G. Guppy (CSG collection) also exist. In contrast to the interpretation of strays in the BC book, these collections clearly indicate the presence of a breeding population in the area.
Erynnis persius Fairmont Hot Springs in 2001 (NK); DArcy in 2001 (DT).
Pyrgus centaureae Brewer Creek near Invermere in 2000; Baldy Lake near Roosville in 2001 (DN); Red Mountain in 2000 (DT).
Pyrgus ruralis Munn Lake near Wilmer in 2000 (DN).
Carterocephalus palaemon various sites on the east and west sides of Kootenay River between Cranbrook and Canal Flats (DN); Poison Mountain in 2000 (DT); Hawkins Creek Forest Service Road near Yahk and Greenwood in 2000 (NK); Tulameen in 2001 (NK); Blowdown Pass in 2001 (DT).
Oarisma garita Lavington Creek near Canal Flats, Dipper Lake near Kimberley (2001), and at Invermere (DN); Pend-dOreille valley in past 4 field years (NK); near Greenwood in 2000 (NK); Phoenix Ski Hill nr. Greenwood in 2001 (NK).
Thymelicus lineola Greenwood (NK) and Sparwood (S. Clow) in 1999; two disparate sites near Ft. Steele in 1999 and 2000, Fernie Ski Hill in 2000 (DN); Keeleyside Dam west of Castlegar in 2000 (NK); west of Vanderhoof in 2001 (CG).
Hesperia juba DT found a mix of freshly emerged and numerous worn specimens near Savona on 2000-X-3. This extends the known flight period. DT also found fresh specimens on 2000-5-22 near Vernon. Some literature suggests that this butterfly overwinters as an adult. It is implausible to think that such an active butterfly could emerge in the fall in a grassland environment, overwinter as an adult and still be in mint condition during the third week May in the following spring. Correctly identified BC specimens show that this butterfly is two brooded and does not overwinter as an adult. In 2001 this butterfly turned up in some new areas and non-traditional habitats; including the Skagit valley (DT and Dennis Knopp); summit of Mount Kobau, Record Ridge nr Rossland, Pend-dOreille valley (NK). This butterfly is not limited to the most xeric lowland habitats.
Hesperia manitoba (=Hesperia comma manitoba) Mt. Crawford and Sphinx Mtn. near Kootenay Lake in 1994 (BCS); Blowdown Pass in 2001 (DT).
Hesperia colorado idaho (=Hesperia comma harpalus) near Savona on 2000-10-3, late flight date (DT).
Polites peckius Conkle Lake road near Rock Creek and Pend-dOreille valley in 2000 (NK); also Malakwa (DT), and Bar Creek SW of Cranbrook in 2001 (DN).
Polites sabuleti found abundantly in a June flight and a September flight near Osoyoos in 2001 (DT).
Polites themistocles found at a number of sites between Grand Forks and the Rock Creek area in the past four field seasons (NK). Twice collected in early August, extending the known flight period (NK); Lavington Creek near Canal Flats in 2000 (DN) and also Malakwa (DT).
Polites mystic Warfield (NK) and also in the Pend-dOreille River valley (Kondla 1999); Moyie River north of Yahk in 2000 and Brewery Creek near Fort Steele in 1999 (DN).
Ochlodes sylvanoides along Kid Creek and Goatfel Forest Service Roads nr. Yahk in 2001; near Greenwood and Rock Creek in 1999 (NK); Arrow Park Ferry in 1999 (S.Clow).
Amblyscirtes vialis Hawkins Creek Forest Service Road near Yahk and Big Sheep Creek valley in 2000.
Parnassius clodius this butterfly is easy to see on Record Ridge, west of Rossland; also seen in downtown Castlegar and caught in back yard in Genelle (NK); also found over past four field seasons at Deadman Hill near Greenwood and Grassy Mtn. near Castlegar.
Parnassius smintheus found at Cranbrook, Kidd Cr. and Lavington Creek near Canal Flats in 2000 (DN); near Kitchener, near Roosville, and along McLatchie Rd. in the Flathead Valley in 2001 (DN); near Greenwood during the past three field seasons (NK).
Papilio machaon hudsonianus two specimens collected by F.A.H. Sperling on a low treed hilltop at milepost 150 on the Alaska Highway in 1982 and one female collected in low elevation muskeg near Pink Mtn. by Kondla in 1992. This is a new taxon for BC. The specimens are in the Canadian National Collection of Insects and Arthropods (Ottawa), and the subspecies identification is that of CG and NK (not Sperling).
Papilio bairdii Wycliffe and near Cranbrook in 2000 (DN); near Newgate in 2001 (DN).
Papilio canadensis Kuzkwa River north of Fort St. James in 2001 (CG).
Papilio rutulus Moyie River north of Yahk (DN); near Greenwood in 1999 (NK); Big Sheep Creek valley in 2000 (NK).
Papilio eurymedon Lavington Creek near Cranbrook (DN); Record Ridge west of Rossland in the past 4 field seasons, Big Sheep Creek valley in 2000, Grand Forks in 1999 (NK).
Neophasia menapia numerous sites in East Kootenay between Wasa and Elko 1999-2001 (DN); numerous records from Crawford Bay to Riondel, 1990 to 1996 (BCS); Brilliant the past three years, Grassy Mtn. near Castlegar in 2000 (NK); Goatfel Forest Service Road near Yahk and Record Ridge near Rossland in 2001 (NK).
Pontia beckerii Charbonneau Creek in the Pend-dOreille River valley in 1998 (Kondla 1999).
Pontia occidentalis Sphinx Mtn. & Riondel (BCS); Grand Forks the past 4 field seasons (NK).
Pieris oleracea Kuzkwa River north of Fort St. James in 2001 (CG).
Pieris marginalis near Rock Creek, Radium and Fairmont in 2001 (NK).
Pieris rapae Invermere (DN); Grand Forks, 20 km west of Panorama Ski Hill and Highway 3 at Kid Creek in 1998, Greenwood in 2000 (NK).
Euchloe ausonides Radium and Fairmont in 2001 (NK); Mt. Savona (DT).
Euchloe lotta Radium in 2001 (NK).
Anthocharis stella Invermere and Wilmer (DN); near Radium in 2001 (NK).
Colias philodice Goatfel Forest Service Road near Yahk in 2001 (NK).
Colias eurytheme in the past 4 years it has been found at Grand Forks, Creston, Kid Creek east of Creston, Panorama ski hill, Goatfel Forest Service Road near Yahk and Phoenix ski hill near Greenwood (NK); various sites between Cranbrook and Elko and east to Wigwam River (DN); also past records from Crawford Bay and Riondel (BCS).
Colias alexandra China Ridge near Princeton in 2001, flying with Colias occidentalis. (NK).
Colias christina Riverside Mountain in the Elk River valley in 1999 by S. Clow; near Athalmere in 1975 (CG); female found at Lavington Cr. near Canal Flats flying with C. alexandra in 2001 (DN).
Colias occidentalis several sites in the Tulameen and Otter valley areas in 2001 (NK).
Colias interior Lavington Creek near Cranbrook and Kimberley Nature Park (DN); Savona Mountain in 1999 (DT); Kuzkwa River north of Fort St. James in 2001 (CG).
Colias meadii Steeples Range near Cranbrook 2001 (DN).
Colias nastes the Steeples Range near Cranbrook in 2001 (DN).
Lycaena cuprea the Steeples Range near Cranbrook in 2001 (DN).
Lycaena hyllus Flathead River valley of extreme southeastern BC in 2000 (NK). This is only the second known record for the province.
Lycaena dione second known record for BC was found by DN in 2001 about 16 km SW of Cranbrook.
Lycaena heteronea First record of this butterfly in the east Kootenay area was turned up by S. Clow at Cabin Pass in 2000. It also flies in the alpine zone of Idaho Peak above the Slocan Valley in the west Kootenay area (NK).
Lycaena dorcas CG in 2000 and 2001: Spruce Lake near Quesnel; Black Lake, Fifteen Mile Lake and Coldspring Creek east of Quesnel; Coglistako River ca. 180 km west of Quesnel; several sites near Fort St. James. Most wetlands in the central interior north from Quesnel have this species, which was previously believed to be rare in the area. Lepidopterists need to get their feet wet!
Lycaena dorcas arcticus This subspecies is not mentioned in the BC book but it is present in extreme northwestern BC; found near Atlin in 1991 and 1995 and also in the northern Cassiar Mountains in 1995 (NK); Ferris (1977) reports it from Atlin and Chilkat Pass.
Lycaena helloides Crawford Bay in 1994 (BCS).
Lycaena nivalis Greenwood and Phoenix Ski Hill areas in 1999, 2000 and 2001 (NK).
Satyrium titus near Cranbrook and near Wigwam River near Elko in 2000 (DN); also near Elko in 2001 (NK) and (DN).
Satyrium californicum this butterfly is present at the confluence of the Columbia and Pend-dOreille River valleys (Kondla 1999).
Satyrium sylvinum found at Phoenix ski hill in 1999, 2000 and 2001(NK).
Satyrium saepium found at Phoenix ski hill in 2000 (NK); several records for Riondel (BCS). In contrast to comments in Layberry et al. (1998), NK found this species very abundant in large stands of Ceanothus velutinous above the Castlegar airport and DT has found it to be common at times on the north rim of Shorts Creek canyon near Fintry at 5000 feet.
Callophrys affinis Kamloops in 1994. In 2000 on Record Ridge near Rossland, near Rock Creek, along Rock Creek-Bridesville road (NK); elevations up to 1000 metres elevation.
Callophrys sheridanii Bluebell Mtn. near Crawford Bay in 1994 (BCS).
Mitoura spinetorum (=Loranthomitoura spinetorum) Savona Mountain in 1999 (DT) and Pend-dOreille valley in 2001 (NK); near Wardner, Ft. Steele and Findlay Cr. near Canal Flats in 2001 (DN).
Mitoura rosneri Ssp. plicataria in the Skagit valley in 1999, 2000 and 2001 (DT); ssp. rosneri in the Pend-dOreille valley in the past four seasons (NK).
Deciduphagus augustinus (=Incisalia augustinus) this butterfly has been collected in northeastern BC at mile 211 of the Alaska Highway in 1971 (Newcomer 1972). CG has specimens from Bear Lake (north of Prince George) and NK has specimens from near Valemount. The remaining localities shown in the BC book are actually D. iroides, all in the CSG collection.
Deciduphagus iroides (=Incisalia iroides) Schmidt (1996) reports oviposition on bearberry near Kootenay Lake. Mt. Savona in 2001 (DT) and Kid Creek & Hwy 3 in 2001 (NK).
Deciduphagus mossii (=Incisalia mossii) Mount Kobau on 2000-VI-23 (DT) and Record Ridge near Rossland on 2000-VI-30; late flight dates; found once at low elevation site near Riondel but not seen since site was invaded by knapweed (BCS); Mt. Savona by DT and in Pend-dOreille valley by NK in 2001.
Deciduphagus polios (=Incisalia polia) near Rock Creek in 2000; near Radium in 2001 (NK).
Incisalia eryphon along Hawkins Creek Forest Service Road SE of Yahk in 2000 and 2001 (NK); Mt. Savona in 2001 (DT).
Strymon melinus near Kikomun Creek Provincial Park (DN).
Celastrina echo near Elko and Greenwood in 2000, near Rock Creek in 2001, near Radium and Fairmont Hot Springs in 2001 (NK).
Everes amyntula Kuzkwa River north of Fort St. James in 2001 (CG).
Euphilotes battoides Tulameen and Otter valley area, and Record Ridge near Rossland in 2001 (NK).
Plebejus anna (=Lycaeides anna) in the lush alpine meadows of Idaho Peak above the Slocan valley and also on Grassy Mountain near Castlegar (NK). This may look like a significant range extension but this butterfly has previously been reported in the west Kootenay area from high elevation habitat north of Bear Lake and Payne Mine (Dyar 1904). Shorts Creek canyon and Blowdown Pass in 2001 (DT); Tulameen/Princeton area in 2001 (NK).
Plebejus melissa (=Lycaeides melissa) near Elko in May 1987 (NK); near Kikomun Provincial park in August of 1999, 2000, 2001 (DN). Sympatric with Plebejus idas on Rock Creek-Bridesville road.
Aricia saepiolus (=Plebeius saepiolus) near Tulameen, Phoenix Ski Hill near Greenwood, Big Sheep Creek valley W of Rossland, Grassy Mtn. near Castlegar in 2001 (NK); near Greenwood and Nelway in 2000 (NK).
Aricia icarioides (=Icaricia icarioides) abundant on Record Ridge W of Rossland the past several field seasons.
Aricia lupini (=Icaricia acmon) near Norbury Lake Provincial Park in 2000, Baldy Lake near Roosville, Cliff Lake near Cranbrook in 2001 (DN); Poison Mtn in 2000 (DT); near Greenwood and along the Lodgepole forestry road SE of Elko in 2000 (NK); Tulameen/Otter valley area in 2001 (NK).
Agriades rusticus megalo (=Agriades glandon megalo) near Tulameen and Grey Creek Pass east of Kootenay Lake in 2001 (NK).
Polygonia satyrus along Hawkins Creek Forest Service Road near Yahk, Record Ridge near Rossland in 2000 (NK); near Greenwood and on Grassy Mtn. near Castlegar in 2001 (NK).
Polygonia faunus Skagit valley in 2001 (DT).
Polygonia gracilis zephyrus (=Polygonia zephyrus) numerous records for Crawford Bay and Riondel (BCS); Hawkins Creek and Goatfel Forest Service Roads near Yahk in 2000 (NK); Skagit valley and west end of Kamloops Lake in 2000 (DT); Kid Creek Forest Service Road east of Creston in 2001 (NK).
Polygonia oreas threatfuli this normally hard to find butterfly was common near Rock Creek in 2000 (NK); found at a number of sites between Wardner and Cranbrook in 2001 (DN).
Polygonia oreas silenus along the Klesilkwa River SSE of Hope in 2000 and 2001(DT).
Polygonia l-album (=Roddia l-album) Castlegar, Radium and Goatfel Forest Service Road in 2001 (NK).
Nymphalis antiopa numerous sites between Cranbrook and Golden, including Fairmont and Invermere (DN); near Greenwood and Nelway in 2000 (NK); west end of Kamloops Lake in 2000 (DT); Radium, Kid Creek east of Creston and Goatfel Forest Service Road near Yahk in 2001 (NK).
Nymphalis californica: large numbers at numerous sites from Cranbrook to the Flathead drainage in summer and fall 2001 including a specimen seen flying near Cranbrook on Nov. 4 (DN).
Aglais milberti numerous sites between Cranbrook & Golden, including Fairmont and Invermere (DN); DT saw this species in flight at Kalamalka Lake Provincial Park on 2000-II-14; near Greenwood (NK) and west end of Kamloops Lake in 2000 (DT).
Vanessa atalanta found in and around Cranbrook and at White Swan Lake in 2001 (DN), possibly the first official records for the East Kootenay.
Vanessa virginiensis Silver Star Mtn. in 2001 (DT), the third provincial record of this butterfly.
Vanessa cardui Pend-dOreille valley in 2000 and 2001 (NK); 2001 saw a large migratory invasion of this butterfly in southern BC with numerous additional localities: Rock Creek, Radium, Grand Forks, Greenwood, Princeton, Goatfel Forest Service Road near Yahk, numerous sites along the highway from Cranbrook to Radium (NK).
Vanessa annabella Idaho Peak in 1999; Grand Forks and Pend-dOreille valley in 2001 (NK), a number of locations between Wasa and Cranbrook in the spring and fall of 2001 (DN).
Speyeria leto (=Speyeria cybele leto) flying freshly emerged in the Pend-dOreille River valley on September 12, 1999 (NK); this was a very late flight season for many butterflies in the west Kootenay area.
Speyeria zerene Conkle Lake road and Greenwood in 2000 (NK); Goatfel Forest Service road near Yahk in 2001 (NK).
Speyeria callippe a straggler from the Grand Forks population was found along a power line clearing on Record Ridge near Rossland in 1998 (NK).
Speyeria atlantis There are numerous additional records for this species in BC; found by NK over the past 20 years Pink Mtn.; Andy Bailey Recreation Area SE of Fort Nelson, Mile 122 Alaska Highway, Bullhead Mountain, Heritage Highway near Tumbler Ridge, near Buckinghorse River Provincial Park, Cranberry Marsh and Jackman Flats near Valemount, Km 21 Holmes River forest Service Road near McBride, Castle Creek near McBride, vicinity of Louis Lake NE of Kamloops, Pend-dOreille River valley, Kid Creek east of Creston, Conkle Lake road near Rock Creek, Flathead River border crossing (also S. Clow); found by DN - on Indian Head Mountain near Windermere, Ram Creek near Skookumchuk, Lavington Creek near Canal Flats and Galloway; found in 2000 and 2001 by CG at: Blackwater River (about 40 km NW of Quesnel), E of Quesnel on Barkerville Hwy at 2400 Road, Spruce Lake, Black Lake, and Fifteen Mile Lake all east of Quesnel, Baezaeko River at 6500 Road, about 140 km W of Quesnel; several sites near Fort St. James. This species is widespread in the central interior north from Quesnel, in association with wetlands or open wet forest.
Speyeria mormonia found at Lavington Creek near Canal Flats and Brewery Creek near Invermere in 2000, and Watch Peak near Invermere in 2001 (DN); Crawford Bay on 24 May 1994, one of the earliest known provincial flight dates (BCS); several sites in Flathead valley in 2000 (NK).
Boloria selene (=Clossiana selene) Winlaw in the Slocan valley in 1989 (BCS); Big Sheep Creek valley west of Rossland in 2000 (NK); a number of sightings in the East Kootenay from Elko to Canal Flats (DN). Found in 2000 and 2001 by CG: Barkerville highway east of Quesnel near 2400 road, vicinity of Black Lake and Coldspring Creek east of Quesnel, Spruce Lake near Quesnel, Baezaeko River ca. 140 km west of Quesnel; several sites near Fort St. James, including Kuzkwa River. This species is widespread in the central interior north from Quesnel, in association with wetlands.
Boloria bellona (= Clossiana bellona) Rock Creek and Grand Forks area 2000/01(NK); Kuzkwa River north of Fort St. James in 2001 (CG).
Boloria eunomia (= Clossiana eunomia) This butterfly was found by D. Threatful on Red Mountain (see article in previous issue of Boreus). This record is worth repeating because it is an absolutely HUGE range extension. Kuzkwa River north of Fort St. James in 2001 (CG).
Boloria epithore (= Clossiana epithore) in 2000 found at Moyie River north of Yahk, White Bear Lake near Kimberley and Brewer Creek near Invermere (DN); Riondel and Powder Creek north of Riondel (BCS); Record Ridge near Rossland, Tulameen/Otter valley area, Gray Creek Pass east of Kootenay Lake in 2001 (NK); Hawkins Creek road near Yahk and near Greenwood in 2000 (NK), Cliff Lake near Cranbrook in 2001 (DN).
Boloria freija (= Clossiana freija) found at Lavington Creek near Canal Flats (DN); Radium in 2001 (NK); Mt. Savona in 2001 (DT); Ashnola road in 1998 (NK).
Boloria astarte (=Clossiana tritonia astarte) Indian Head Mountain near Windermere in 1999, Watch Peak near Invermere in 2000 and the Steeples Range near Cranbrook in 2001(DN).
Boloria grandis (=Clossiana chariclea grandis) near Flathead border crossing in 2000 (NK).
Phyciodes cocyta (=Phyciodes tharos) Gray Creek Pass and Grand Forks in 2000 (NK); Otter Valley and Rock Creek in 2001 (NK); Francois Lake in 2001 (C. Gilham); Kuzkwa River north of Fort St. James in 2001 (CG).
Phyciodes pulchellus (=Phyciodes pratensis) Gray Creek Pass, Tulameen/Coalmont, Otter Valley, Greenwood and Grand Forks 2000 (NK); Kuzkwa River north of Fort St. James in 2001 (CG).
Phyciodes pallidus Ashnola road near Crater Mtn. in 2000 (NK).
Phyciodes mylitta common between Riondel and Crawford Bay (BCS); Greenwood in 2001, Rock Creek in 2000 (NK); west end of Kamloops Lake in 2000 (DT).
Euphydryas editha numerous high altitude sites on both sides of the Rocky Mountain Trench between Roosville and Watch Peak near Invermere, 1999-2001 (DN).
Chlosyne damoetas altalus (Charidryas whitneyi) Steeples Range near Cranbrook in 2001 (DN).
Limenitis lorquini Goatfel Forest Service Rd near Yahk, east of Gray Creek Pass in 2001 (NK).
Limenitis arthemis Kuzkwa River north of Fort St. James in 2001 (CG).
Coenonympha california Winlaw in the Slocan valley in 1989 (BCS).
Cercyonis pegala numerous records for Riondel and Crawford Bay (BCS); Goatfel Forest Service Road near Yahk in 2001 (NK).
Erebia epipsodea found at Riondel (BCS); Record Ridge and Big Sheep Creek valley in 2000/01 (NK).
Oeneis jutta chermockorum (= Oeneis jutta reducta) found at Findley Creek near Canal Flats in 2000 but not 2001(DN); near Nazko and Quesnel in 2001 (CG); Kuzkwa River and other sites north of Fort St. James in 2001 (CG).
Guppy, C.S. and J.H. Shepard. 2001. Butterflies of British Columbia. Vancouver: UBC Press. 414 pp.
Dyar, H.G. 1904. The Lepidoptera of the Kootenai district of British Columbia. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 1376:779-938.
Ferris, C.D. 1977. Taxonomic revision of the species dorcas Kirby and helloides Boisduval in the genus Epidemia Scudder (Lycaenidae: Lycaeninae). Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 45:1-42.
Knopp, D. and L. Larkin. 1996. Some butterfly records from the Ryder Lake uplands, Chilliwack district, British Columbia, Canada (Lepidoptera:Hesperoidea, Papilionoidea). Opuscula Zoologica Fluminensia 142:1-7.
Knopp, D.H. and L. Larkin. 2002. Propertius Duskywing Study. Report prepared for Skagit Environmental Endowment Fund. 23 pp.
Kondla, N.G. 1999. Pend-dOreille Butterfly Survey. Living Landscapes Program report for Royal BC Museum and Columbia Basin Trust. 38 pp. (http://www.livingbasin.com/butterfly/)
Layberry, R.A., P.W. Hall and J.D. Lafontaine. 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press. 280 pp.
Newcomer, E.J. (coordinator). 1972. Zone 2: Pacific Northwest: British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana in 1971 Field Season Summary. News of the Lepidopterists Society 2(1972):3.
Schmidt, C. 1996. Butterflies of the Kootenays a report on the Crawford Bay area. Cordillera 3:32-39.
Her Excellency the Right Honourable Adrienne Clarkson, Governor General of Canada, announced new appointments to the Order of Canada July 4, 2002. The new appointees included four Companions (C.C.), 28 Officers (O.C.) and 65 Members (C.M.). Geoffrey G.E. Scudder, C.M. was one of those honoured. His reputation for excellence is vast and far-reaching. An entomologist, he is a world authority known for important research, including the discovery that certain species can help track the effects of environmental degradation and global warming. Head of the University of British Columbia's renowned Department of Zoology for 15 years, he has also served in other leadership roles, notably as President of the Entomological Society of Canada and of the Canadian Society of Zoologists. In addition, he is very active in promoting conservation, particularly in British Columbia, where he is involved with numerous biodiversity projects.
Thanks to Dr. Robert A. Cannings for forwarding the information from the Order of Canada website, with minor editing by the Boreus editor.
Paul Riegert, 103 Mayfair Cres., Regina, SK, S4S 5T9, died 9 May 2002 at age 78. He is survived by his wife Betty and several children and grandchildren. Paul suffered a massive brain aneurysm on 23 April. At the time, Paul and Betty were in Saskatoon visiting their daughter. The doctor did not have much hope for recovery. Paul was well-known for his four booklets on the Entomologists of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia. He has also been very interested in his family tree and had just completed writing his life history. He wrote another book, From Arsenic to DDT: A History of Entomology in Western Canada. Paul spent 24 years at the Dominion Entomological Laboratory, Saskatoon, and then in 1968 he joined the University of Regina. Paul has been active with the Entomological Society of Canada, particularly with the Heritage Committee.
Submitted by Ed Becker
Norbert G. Kondla
In Boreus 21(1) I reported on some butterfly genus names that were not mentioned in the recent book Butterflies of British Columbia. At that time I did not express any personal opinions on the merits of the genus names and taxonomic interpretations published by Johnson (1992) and Balint and Johnson (1997). The purpose of the note was to share the information with Boreus readers so they could examine the said publications if they wish and form their own taxonomic opinion. Recently Shepard (2002) has provided his opinion on these names so it is now timely for me to express my views and address some errors in the material presented by Shepard. Readers should note that Shepards reference to Johnson (1993) is incorrect and there are errors in his citations for both papers under discussion.
Shepard refers to Neue Entomologische Nachrichten as a privately published and unreviewed series but then does not explain the relevance of this to whatever reasons he had for not accepting the taxonomic interpretations contained therein. The unstated suggestion is that we should not recognize the published taxonomic interpretations because of where they were published. A considered taxonomic interpretation would in fact use available information regardless of where it is published and would also use unpublished information that is relevant to the case at hand. It is interesting that Shepard would make reference to private publication in this case but neglect to point out that two of the books he cites as support for his preferred interpretation are also privately published. I understand the phrase privately published to mean not published by a publicly funded organization.
Shepard asserts that Johnson proposed that the genus Incisalia be split into two genera. What Johnson actually did was to publish a review of the taxonomy of callophryine elfins that focussed primarily on the palearctic taxa, but also included his interpretation of the nearctic taxa. He placed existing and newly named species group taxa into 6 genera; 3 in the old world and 3 in the new world.
The results of the elfin research published by Johnson (1992) was the result of over 15 years of research and is based to a large degree on his Ph.D. thesis, which certainly was subjected to the extensive peer review and scrutiny that such documents normally receive. His 1992 paper also acknowledges additional review. The paper was published by a Ph.D. entomology taxonomist, was reviewed, meets the standards of the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature and is based on many years of work. I see no logical reason for anyone to dismiss this paper without any comment on technical content.
It is also interesting that Shepard accepts the genus Loranthomitoura, despite the fact that authors of other recent books have not used it. In addition, the technical argument for the elfin and blues treatments is stronger than that used for Loranthomitoura, which is based on the arrangement of hairs on the caterpillar and host plant.
Layberry et al. (1998) did not recognize Loranthomitoura as either a genus or a subgenus. As with the other names under discussion; they were silent on the topic. It is highly speculative to draw any conclusions from the lack of mention of a taxonomic or nomenclatural issue in a book. No recent North American book has used the genus spelling of Plebeius as used in Butterflies of BC. Regardless of how various books spell the name; Plebeius is incorrect, with the correct genus spelling and authorship being Plebejus Kluk, 1780 for the reasons provided by Balint et al. (2001). Plebeius was, however, a valid choice of spelling at the time the book was published.
The paper on the blues is a global review that made use of extensive (over 900) genitalic examinations and over 500 figures in crafting the re-aligned genera. Use of genitalia to define genera is a traditional approach to genus-level taxonomy in butterflies. The authors reduced 33 genera to 9 genera so people who like fewer and larger genera will find this treatment to be reasonable. People who think that some of the genera are too large or who do not like some of the genus definitions are free to publish their preferred interpretation and the technical reasons to support it. Readers can then decide which interpretation they find most convincing.
Shepard alleges that no book published since 1993 on western North American butterflies accepts this. A book is an inanimate object that cannot accept anything. Only people can form taxonomic interpretations. The question that Shepard does not answer is why the authors of recent books have not used the Deciduphagus etc interpretations. There are certainly a number of reasons. These may include philosophical preferences for larger or smaller genera, authors not having read the papers under discussion, or not agreeing with the technical arguments that have been advanced. As with Butterflies of British Columbia; the authors of the referenced recent books have not stated their technical nor any other reasons for not using the published results of this research.
Shepard selectively uses references to other books as justification for not using the Balint and Johnson interpretations. He does not point out that said books are silent on the topic and hence readers cannot even assume that the authors have read the relevant papers and cannot reasonably assume that the books reflect a deliberate taxonomic decision. Using this logic of what other books say or do not say would suggest that we should not use the Shepard interpretation of the Parnassius phoebus complex (which I happen to agree with) because it was not used in other recent books (eg. Gorbunov 2001; Glassberg 2001).
Anything can be argued by referencing other published interpretations but this is simply arguing taxonomy by popularity poll. Counting name usage and assuming the majority name is the best name has nothing to do with taxonomy or science
Shepard states: This will preserve the stability of names in North American butterfly publications until future work offers an acceptable alternative. There is no stability to preserve. The taxonomy and hence the resulting nomenclature of North American butterflies has been unstable through time because different people have and will continue to publish differing taxonomic interpretations. Whether or not any particular interpretation is acceptable is a matter of personal choice on the part of the readers of the various books and journal articles. Nobody has been elected to decide for the rest of us what constitutes an acceptable taxonomic interpretation.
It is significant that nothing has been published to counter the Balint and Johnson interpretations on technical grounds. The papers have either not been known to the writers of various books or they have not been used for unstated reasons. Unstated reasons are no reasons. Shepard references differences between European and North American workers with respect to genus level taxonomy in the blues. This is true but it is one reason why it makes good sense to use the Balint and Johnson interpretation until someone publishes a different version that is more convincing. The authors live in Europe and in North America and hence their paper presents perspectives from both continents. There are other examples of differing taxonomic preferences and genus level nomenclature on the two continents. For example, the authors of Butterflies of BC used Clossiana rather than Boloria at the genus level. This is not consistent with the prevailing North American usage although it has been the traditional European preference. However, Gorbunov (2001) used the more inclusive genus Boloria. This reality of differing published taxonomic interpretations is no reason to ignore published research.
Dr.s Balint and Johnson are international lycaenid experts and I will be using their interpretation until something better is presented to me. People who want to continue to ignore published works by experts just because some recent books have not referenced said publications; are of course most welcome to do so.
Balint, Z. and K. Johnson. 1997. Reformation of the Polyommatus section with a taxonomic and biogeographic overview. Neue Entomologische Nachrichten 40:1-68.
Balint, Z., Guppy, C.S., N.G. Kondla, K. Johnson, C.J. Durden. 2001. Plebeius Kluk, 1780 or Plebejus Kluk, 1802 ? (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Folia entomologica hungarica 62:177-184.
Glassberg, J. 2001. Butterflies Through Binoculars: The West. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 374 pp.
Gorbunov, P.Y. 2001. The Butterflies of Russia: classification, genitalia, keys for identification. Ekaterinburg: <<Thesis>>. 320 pp.
Johnson, K. 1992. The palearctic elfin butterflies (Lycaenidae, Theclinae). Neue Entomologische Nachrichten 29:1-141.
Shepard, J.H. 2002. Response to Some new genus names for BC butterflies. Boreus 21(2):14.
Introducing the Dragonflies of British Columbia and the Yukon, by Robert A. Cannings. Published by the Royal BC Museum (2002). 96pp.
This is a superb field guide to the adults of ALL the dragonflies of BC and the Yukon, with wonderful colour photographs of the known species. Hopefully someone will volunteer to do a full book review for the next issue of Boreus. It has already become part of my use every day library, and is a pleasure to use. Cris Guppy.
The first installment of the Conifer Defoliating Insects of British Columbia is now available on the web and can be found at http://www.pfc.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/entomology/defoliators/. About 30% of the estimated 140 species of conifer defoliators known to occur in British Columbia are currently posted on this site. Work on this project will continue in 2002-2003. I will keep you posted as new species are added to the site. Enjoy Bob Duncan
Please update the information on your entomological interests The Biological Survey of Canada's "Annotated List of Workers on Systematics and Faunistics of Canadian Insects and Certain Related Groups" has been published from time to time in paper format. This information is now available in the form of a searchable database on the Survey's website. Although the database is updated whenever new information is received, many of the entries have not been revised since 1996. We therefore invite you to look at your entry on our website and let us know what needs to be changed. An online form is available to submit updates. The introduction to the list is at: http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/english/listofworkers.htm. Thank you in advance for your cooperation. ... Donna Giberson
My wife and I habitually leave outside lights switched on all night at our home on ten acres outside Quesnel, in central BC. This encourages the bears, cougars, foxes, coyotes, weasels, etc. to remain at a bit of a distance. We moved to Quesnel in the fall of 1993, and the abundance of moths attracted to the lights has of course varied considerably between years. Of particular note is the extreme decline in moth abundance over the past three years. The last warm summer was 1998, while the summers of 1999, 2000, and 2001 were very cool and wet. From May through July in 2000 there were only two nights where the air temperature at nightfall was above 10o C, the minimum temperature at which most summer moths will fly. This year moth abundance at the lights has been extremely poor, with less than a dozen moths resting on the walls in the morning (rather than the 50-100 in a normal year). The exception to this decline is the Satin Moth, Leucoma salicis (Lymantriidae), which has had outbreak populations about 50 meters elevation above our house on Dragon Mountain.
|Satin Moth.||Satin Moths attracted to light at Tim Hortons.|