Representation of Prostitution in Six Canadian Newspapers: Race, Gender and Poverty
CMNS 431 Media Analysis
Ali Kaywan – Alex Mackenzie – Caroline Messiha – Nadia Soeker
Dr. Kathleen Cross
This research paper reports on a news analysis of prostitution during the period of an Ontario Court Ruling which struck down the three major laws regarding prostitution. This paper focuses on the representation of poverty within the discourse of prostitution while discussing race and gender as forms of class analysis within the news.
Globally “70 percent of the 985 million people living in extreme poverty in developing nations are women” (Kara, 2010, p. 15) From this staggering number of those women, several are situated within prostitution and sex trafficking. Prostitution continues to flourish and grow in unprecedented ways, without addressing reasons why demand to purchase sex has been prevalent throughout mankind’s history, “Prostitution is a sexually exploitative often-violent economic option most often entered into by those with a lengthy history of sexual, racial, and economic victimization.” (Kara, 2010, p.260) The way prostitution is addressed by society tends to naturalize sex for purchase by the acceptance male demand while suggesting that prostitution is a choice.
“The current Canadian Criminal Code effectively outlaws prostitution technically, prostitution is legal, but it is almost impossible to prostitute on an on-going basis without breaking the law.”(Lowman, 2000, p, 998) On September 28th as response to the legal challenge within our current laws, Ontario Superior Justice SusanHimel struck down on all three Criminal Code provisions that that had been challenged. The three laws in which Himel challenged were communicating for the purpose of prostitution, living off the avails and keeping a common bawdy house. This event provoked interest to conduct a quantitative research analysis on how major Canadian newspapers covered these issues. This study specifically approaches the media texts by analyzing how wealth, poverty, homelessness, and gender are represented. Judge Himel’s major justification to change these laws was based on the need to better protect prostitutes and prevent them from dangers within the sex trade. This study aims to reveal the clash of interests between sex workers, laws surrounding the sex trade, and those condemning the sex trade.
Review of Relevant Research
The Business of Prostitution
Human trafficking and forced prostitution have, with the rise of globalization, become a modern business based on exploitation. “Sex trafficking is one of the ugliest contemporary actualization of global capitalism because it was directly produced by the harmful inequalities spread by the process of economic globalization: deepening of rural poverty, increased economic disenfranchisement of the poor economies into richer ones, and the broad-based erosion of real human freedoms across the developing world”(Kara, 2010, p. 4). Siddhartha Kara in “Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery” suggests that global poverty of women has greatly increased the number of women who are currently prostituting. Kara`s research upon sex trafficking and prostitution exposes the current conditions of women across the globe and how this has created an exploitive market of sex workers. He states that “600 million of the 850 million illiterate adults in the world are women. Lack of education is a key factor in promoting poverty, higher HIV infection rates, and vulnerability to exploitation and trafficking (Kara, 2010 p. 31).This clearly suggests that women who fall into the traps of sex trafficking are often in destitute and desperate conditions. This research excellently compares and contrasts the ways in which pro legalization and anti-legalization have been adopted by using examples of the Swedish approach versus Amsterdam. “The argument that prostitution should be legalized primarily rests on the premise that women have a right to control their bodies. Legalization would also allow for state monitoring ensuring that prostitutes were less subject to violence and exploitation. Finally, legalization would make it more difficult to traffic women and children for sexual exploitation because such victims would have rights under the law, whereas criminalizing prostitution leads to increased victimization of trafficked victims, who are often arrested for prostitution” (Kara, 2010 p.100). Where as, “opponents of legalizing prostitution argue that purchasing sex and operating sex establishments should be criminalized because prostitution can never be a choice and the “profession” in inherently based on a system of male sexual dominance, appropriating the female body for pleasure and reinforcing the subordination and sexual objectification of women” (Kara, 2010 p. 100). In 1999 Sweden passed a law which prohibited the purchase of sexual services, the purpose of this law was to “create a contemporary and democratic society where full gender equality is the norm and to reject the idea that women and children are commodities that can be bought, sold, and sexuality exploited by men”(Kara, 2010 p. 105). Amsterdam has taken the opposite approach by fully legalizing prostitution in their notorious Red Light District. Interestingly, of the “twenty-five thousand prostitutes in Amsterdam, 80 percent were foreigners and the majority of these were trafficking victims” (Kara, 2010 p.101). Despite their approach to legalizing and regulating the purchase of sex, many women go under the radar when determining their consent in prostitution.
“Violence and the outlaw status of (street) prostitution in Canada” by John Lowman analyzes and studies the implications of violence on prostitutes within Vancouver and how media representation has triggered more violence towards these women. Lowman’s “analysis reveals the relationships among media, law, political hypocrisy and violence against street prostitutes, this paper examines how the discourse of disposal, media descriptions of the on-going attempts of politicians, police, and residents’ groups to “get rid” of street prostitution from residential areas” (Lowman, 2000 p. 987). Lowman’s data was drawn from an on going study of 100 years of prostitution reporting in the Globe and Mail, the Province, and the Vancouver Sun. Lowman suggests their was an influx of media attention towards prostitution based on growing numbers of violence being reported towards them. Several of the coverage he examined framed the issue of prostitution as a plague or nuisance within the downtown eastside. At the time of the study Lowman concluded that “Vancouver’s downtown eastside, a neighborhood of 16 000 residents [had] one of the lowest average household incomes in Canada and one of the highest HIV and hepatitis infection rates in the western world” (Lowman, 2000 p. 999). Lowman’s study exemplified how media coverage of prostitution and deaths of prostitutions from 1992-1998 examples of what he calls “discourse of disposal” (Lowman, 2000 p. 983). Articles mentioning prostitution, murders, or any violent nature tended to use this type of framing. Lowman further suggests that this discourse of disposal “created a social milieu in which violence against prostitutes could flourish” (Lowman, 2000 p. 1003). As mentioned before, Canada’s laws surrounding prostitution create a type of “quasi-criminalization” because prostitution is legal, but laws surrounding prostitution make it impossible to prostitute frequently without breaking the law (Lowman, 2000 p. 1003). How this system impacts prostitution, is strongly related to Judge Susan Himel’s court case ruling for striking down on these current laws. Lowman addresses four major ways in which this quasi-criminalization occurs, “1) It contributes to legal structures that tend to make the prostitute responsible of her own victimization, 2) It makes prostitution part of an illicit market, 3) It encourages the convergence of prostitution with other illicit market, 4) It alienates persons who prostitute from the protective service potential of the police” (Lowman, 2000 p.1005) This study was done before the court case, however exemplifies the current issues in which our study is focused on.
Yasmin Jiwani and Mary Lynn Young (2006) conduct a similar study in “Missing and Murdered Women: reproducing marginality in News Discourse” specifically looking at how violence and marginalized women are framed by the media. Jiwani and Young use a “militant frame” in response to aboriginal representations. “Aboriginal representations tend to be circumscribed within a militant frame as signifying an unreasonable, and highly emotional people” (Jiwani and Young 2006, p. 898) Furthermore “representations of aboriginal women in Vancouver’s downtown eastside oscillate between invisibility and hyper visibility: invisible victims of violence and hyper visibility: invisible as victims of violence and hyper-visible as deviant bodies” (Jiwani and Young, 2006, p. 899). Their representation of invisibility and hyper visibility reveals “hegemonic discourses about aboriginality and prostitution play out within the larger framework of reporting on violence against women”(Jiwaniand Young, 2006, p.898). These problematic frames tend to stereotype those involved in prostitution as disposable or unwanted and “naturally invite victimization” (Jiwaniand Young, 2006, p.902). Jiwaniand Young analyze and focus upon the Pickon Murder case and news coverage of those involved or affected by these murders.Their findings suggest that “Aboriginal women [are positioned] in the lowest runs of the social order, thereby making them expendable and invisible, if not disposable”(Jiwaniand Young, 2006, p. 912). The high number of aboriginal women involved in the sex trade increases their marginalized status by the “dominant gaze”(Jiwani and Young, 2006, p. 912). This “dominant gaze” characterizes sex work and Aboriginals “as a degenerate trade characteristic of deviant bodies confined to the realms of disorder and criminality” (Jiwani and Young, 2006, p. 912) Her study exemplifies how women, especially those of aboriginal status and involved in sex work are marginalized by hegemonic dominant discourses; and that prostitution has the ability to reaffirm “hierarchies of gender, class, race, and sexual orientation.” (Jiwani and Young, 2006, p.900)
As the above studies used newsprint to explore the representation of women within media, Farley et al (2005) in her study uses interviews as her method for understanding the current condition of prostitutes in Vancouver. The findings within this study blatantly breakdown some key stereotypes of prostitution, such as prostitution as a consensual choice. Similarly to Lowman (2000), Jiwani, and Young (2006), Farley et al (2005) focuses on how aboriginal women within Canada make up the majority of the sex trade. “In a number of communities across Canada, Aboriginal youth comprise 90% of the visible sex trade”(Save the Children Canada, 2000, p.7). This number remains significantly high because “housing instability results in reserve-to-urban migration, leaving young women vulnerable to prostitution and homelessness a primary risk factor for prostitution (Boyer et al, 1993: Louie, Luu& Tong, 1991; Silbert& Pines, 1983). Some of the key significant findings of the 100 women interviewed in Vancouver were the following: “52% were first Nations, 38% were white European Canadians, 5% were African-Canadian, and 5% were unidentified, 82% reported history of childhood sexual abuse, 86% reported current or past homelessness, 63% reported health problems, 75% percent reported physical injuries from violence, 95% stated they wanted to leave prostitution, and 82% expressed need for drug or alcohol addiction treatment” (Farley et al, p.249). Although the sample of interviews was comparably small, these percentages give insight into the actual conditions of those in the sex trade. It questions whether our current Canadian laws on legalization would help these women at all? It also questions the deeper social, economical, and cultural dysfunctions driving these women into the sex trade. “In Canada, as elsewhere most women and men enter prostitution as adolescents” (Lowman, 1993), and 89% had began prostitution before the age of 16”(Nadon, Koverola, and Schludermann, 1998). The percentages suggest that consenting well-informed adults are not the ones making choice to prostitute, but more likely less educated, poor, or homeless individuals.
The studies all cited in the above suggest that media representation of prostitution and sex trafficking view women within the sex trade as having choice and freedom to be a sex worker, while ignoring driving forces of prostitution.Media representations have largely ignoredinvisible internal causes of prostitution. Lowman (2000) urged politicians and critiqued the Canadian laws surrounding prostitution to change the way in which prostitutes are protected by the law. Lowman’s call for change was answered by Judge Susan Himel decision to strike down on provisions of prostitution Law in Canada on September 28th2010. This court ruling has challenged the law in hopes of further protecting women, but media’s representation fails to communicate the underlying reasons for prostitution such as race, gender inequality, and poverty. This study focuses primarily on the coverage of the court case and its representation of poverty within a period of two weeks. Further examining how the socio-economic status of prostitution is represented and framed. It questions what types of prostitutes are given voice over others, what sources are used to inform and educate the public, what reasons for prostitution are mentioned and more importantly what ones are ignored.
The articles used for our study consist of an array of major Canadian newspapers. These articles were selected within the two-week period of September 27th 2010 to October 11th 2010 and the following newspapers were selected: National Post, Montreal Gazette, Vancouver Sun, Globe and Mail, Toronto star, and Ottawa Citizen.Some of these publications are owned by the same companies, for example, the National Post is owned by Postmedia Network Inc. which also owns Vancouver Sun and Ottawa Citizen; However, Montreal Gazette is owned by Canwest Global Communications Corp while CTVglobemedia owns the Globe and Mail and the Toronto Star is owned by Star Media Group.
This selection of varied newspapers was chosen in order to examine major Canadian news coverage of the Ontario court case. In addition, the choice to include a wider variety of newspapers was necessary considering the national interest which arose among Canadians. However, our reasoning for choosing print rather than television was based on the availability of Canadian Index database within the Simon Fraser University’s library services. Also, television monitoring requires time which is not prevalent within the time period given to conduct this research. Print allowed us to manually analyze various articles and further investigate the context within varied publications. Furthermore, data was collected from Canadian newsstand through Pro Quest using the following terms: prostitution, hooker, call girl, escort, and sex worker. Due to the focus of the Supreme Court case, articles that were included could have been any of the following: hard news, soft news, editorial, interview, and letter/opinion. One of the initial key words was “trafficking” ; however, it was later excluded due to the irrelevant series of articles which were based on human trafficking allegations of Hungarian refugees for slavery and drug trafficking cases. Other irrelevant articles, which we have excluded, involved RCMP escorts, and those articles mentioning movie reviews on “The Virginity hits.” Through this process of elimination our total number of articles has been downgraded to 105 from an initial 180 articles. A coding sheet was developed which included 37 categories consisting of mutually exclusive topics, which provided the means to explore the context within the selected articles.
The initial coding sheet was tested for inter-coder reliability exposing the problematic categories, which scored less than 80% percent. Categories, which were initially problematic, included those that coded for tone and those, which explored the occupation of news actors. The reasons for such problems were, but are not limited to, the fact that the definitions of certain questions were not specific enough for different coders to agree upon. However, each of these categories were revised and edited to achieve greater inter-coder reliability. Second inter-coder reliability was conducted with the revised coding sheet and scored an average of 89.86%. News items were coded for the specific key content and other key technical aspects within the articles. Geographical focus, representations of race, news actor, tone, court case mention, causes and solutions were all included within these categories. This coding sheet paid particular attention to those who were quoted within the articles and what status, gender, and race they were affiliated with. Sources were categorized in the following way: current sex worker, former sex worker, citizen, academic/expert, NGO (non-government organization), government, legal profession, and other. The quotations from these sources were further coded for characteristics, which included their position on prostitution in terms of legalization (pro or con). All articles were coded within a three-day period and inputtedinto SPSS a week after the initial coding. SPSS was chosen because of its recognition as reputable software for analyzing quantitative data.The analysis of the data began with converting our raw data into cross tabulations to better understand and examine the data.
These charts were then scanned for significant findings; while some findings were excluded, others were highlighted as more important.
Our methods section was primarily based on the different components used within Barbara Schneider’s studies on Homelessness and their representation within the media. Schneider kept her method section conciseby eliminating any unnecessary information. She simply stated her basic steps and justified her tool selections. Not only was her method selection concise but her articles were also well-structured which encouraged us to model our research paper based on her studies.
Results of Media Analysis
As previous research demonstrates any discussion of prostitution is inseparable from the key themes of poverty, gender inequality, and race (Lowman, 2000), (Farley et al, 2005), (Jiwani and Young, 2006) (Benoit et al, 2005). As a result, it is fundamental for the mainstream media to explore and analyze these factors in order for citizens to have an adequate and informed understanding of this social issue. Our media analysis was structured in order to examine how poverty, gender inequality and race were discussed in relation to prostitution in the wake of Justice Himel’s September 28th ruling. It is critical to discuss gender and race in connection with poverty in regards to prostitution as racial and gender inequality are a significant factor in the oppression of poor sex workers.
The results of our study indicate that poverty (also includes homelessness and lack of living wage) as a cause of prostitution was only mentioned in 16.9% of articles that discussed whether prostitution should be legalized (see chart A). This leaves 83.1% of the articles on the decision with no mention of poverty as a root cause. The mention of poverty as a cause of prostitution also varied with the tone on prostitution. Poverty was only discussed in 6.7% of the articles that were pro-legalization. However poverty was discussed in 25.6% of the articles that were anti-legalization. This indicates that people who are not in favor of the legalization of prostitution do view poverty as one of the possible causes of prostitution. However articles that were neutral in their stance on legalization also only mentioned poverty 14.3% of the time. The absence of discussion on a significant factor such as poverty in the vast majority of these articles leaves the reader without valuable information on one of the key factors in prostitution.
In using our results to analyze how many articles connect street prostitution and poverty we found that 83.3% of articles specifically on street prostitution did mention poverty (also homelessness/lack of living wage) as a cause of street prostitution ( See Appendix 1, Chart B). This demonstrates that the articles are associating street prostitution with issues of poverty, homelessness, and living wage.
The results in our analysis of source occupation revealed that the sources used were primarily positive about legalization with 45.1 % of sources leaning in this direction (Appendix 1, Chart C). The most used source was government which made up of 24.2% of the total sources. Also significant was that the only source that was overall more negative about legalization (58% negative about legalization) was academic expert. Academic experts have usually spent a significant amount of time closely studying their area of expertise. So this overall negative attitude towards legalization may be a result of their more detailed and nuanced examination of all the possible causes and solutions of prostitution.
However the most significant results of the source occupation is the socio-economic status of all the sources. The majority of sources used were people that have status in the community such as government, legal profession, academic experts, and academic experts. NGO’s were only used as 4.5% of the total sources which leaves out an important perspective as many NGO’S are the ones actually dealing with Sex workers and listening to their experiences on a daily basis. However also significant is that large percentage of both former and current sex workers used as sources. Current sex workers were 12.4 % of the sources used while former sex workers were 11 % of the total sources used. Both former and current sex workers were in overall in favor of legalization.
However in directly comparing the role of the prostitute in the story with the type of sex worker it became apparent that the majority of the sex workers sourced in the article worked indoors in brothels or were higher class escorts and call girls (Appendix 1, See Chart D, E, and F). Only 5% of the prostitutes that were the center of the story discussed in the article were street prostitutes. 25% of the prostitutes who were featured players in the story were indicated to be part of street prostitution. However 50 % of the sex workers who were featured players in the stories were high paid sex workers or escorts. This demonstrates that stories told in articles and the sex workers used as sources were primarily high paid sex workers and indoor sex workers. This may skew the articles to give the reader a false impression of the experiences of sex workers.
The importance of analyzing poverty as cause of prostitution was reiterated in most of the studies (Farley et al, 2005), (Benoit et al, 2005), (Jiwani and Young, 2006). In Benoit et al (2005) study on sex workers in Canada they found that poverty was significant factor in why women turned to prostitution. Only 3.5% of their respondents indicated that they owned their own home compared to the 68% of home owners in general in the area (Benoit et al, 2005). 25% stated that they had very unstable living situations. 25% of women in their study also indicated that they were income assistance and having extreme difficulty finding employment. Some even stated having lived on the street for periods of time.
Farley et al (2005) found similar results in her study of female prostitutes in Vancouver. Farley et al (2005) indicates that a deficiency in social housing is a significant aspect in the poverty and desperation of these street prostitutes. 95% of Farley et al (2005) interviewees stated that they would leave prostitution if they had another alternative for economic survival. This illustrates the need for alternative job options for prostitutes as well as a better livable income (Farley et al, 2005).
The results of these studies indicate that the media we analyzed did not do a sufficient job of discussing poverty as a factor of prostitution. Consequently this causes the public to be uninformed about the social issue of prostitution and leaves them unable to understand how to help sex workers. By not including any in-depth analysis of poverty in prostitution the sex workers are then blamed for their situation, when society as whole is responsible for the marginalization and oppression of these women (Farley et al, 2005).
Our media analysis focused heavily on gender as a key theme in the discussion on prostitution. The inequality of women is significant factor in causes of prostitution as women are not economically equal to men (Farley et al, 2005). We analyzed articles for mention of gender inequality and male demand for paid sex as a possible cause of prostitution in relation to tone on prostitution and tone on court decision (see chart G, below and chart H, appendix 1).
Only 3.3% of pro-legalization articles mentioned gender inequality and male demand as a possible cause. Not surprisingly, this percentage increased to 25. 6% for articles that were anti-legalization. Only 14.3 % of neutral articles mentioned gender inequality as a contributing factor in the perpetuation of prostitution. This resulted in only 15.7% of total articles referring to gender inequality.
The comparison between tone on court decision and gender inequality as a cause yielded similar results. Only 3.6% of pro-decision people and 26.5 % of anti-decision mentioned gender inequality. 16.7 % of neutral articles referred to gender inequality. These findings are significant as like poverty this demonstrates that like poverty another key factor in prostitution is rarely highlighted in the media. This also leaves the general public uninformed when it comes to understanding one of the main causes of prostitution.
Gender showed to be significant when it came to the sex of reporters and their stance on the court decision (Chart I).
50% of the pro-decision articles were written by male reporters while only 14.3% of the pro-legalization articles were written by female reporters. However it is critical to note that in 35.7 % of the pro-decision articles the gender of the reporter could not be identified. This may have skewed our results slightly. Regardless the difference in stance based on gender may have been the result of female reporters specifically chosen by the editor to write the anti-decision articles. However female reporters may have identified more easily with the inequalities and marginalization of sex workers as they may have experienced gender inequality themselves.
Benoit et al (2005) and Farley (2005) point to the overrepresentation of women in prostitution and suggest that it is gendered oppression. Jiwani and Young (2006) discuss how women are still economically and socially unequal to men which contribute to the commodification of women’s bodies. Also critical is the significant amount of violence that sex workers experience. Lowman (2000) and Farley et al (2005) both discuss how the violent rape and abuse these women are often afflicted with are often symptoms of misogyny. Sex workers are most vulnerable to this violence because they are poor marginalized members of society Lowman (2000), Farley et al (2005), Jiwani and Young (2006).
While male demand and gender inequality was mentioned as a cause in some of the articles we analyzed it still was not acknowledged frequently enough to inform the readers. According to Jiwani and Young (2006) Violence against women tends to be treated as atypical instances symptomatic of women who ask for it, then violence against sex workers who are generally regarded as societies’ others, tends to cast them as more blameworthy – blaming them for being in the wrong place and doing this kind of work. The media needs to focus on the male role in perpetuating this inequality and purchasing sex.
The results of our study illustrated that race was invisible in the vast majority of articles. With Aboriginal women making up 90% of the street prostitution, this is a huge omission by the media (Farley, 2005). 0% of pro-legalization, anti-legalization, and neutral articles on prostitution discussed race as factor in prostitution (see chart J).
As demonstrated in Chart C earlier only 4.5 % of sources were from NGO’s that represent a specific race. Not only does this show that race was underrepresented in these articles as a cause of prostitution but it also demonstrates that different groups representing racial minorities get no voice in the media. This invisibility of race did not differ based on the publication (see Appendix 1, chart K).
As noted above Aboriginal women are vastly over representated in prostitution. Benoit et el (2005) and Farley et al (2005) found 52% of their studies were made up of Aboriginal women. Jiwani and Young (2006) and Farley et al (2005) both indicate the abundance of Aboriginal women in prostitution is due to the past colonization of First Nations people, racism and poverty.
As the results of our study indicated, race not mentioned as a factor in prostitution at all even though aboriginal women are the majority of street prostitutes. This is a huge void in the discussion of prostitution in the media needs to be remedied in order to for the public to be fully informed.
Although we have discovered that within supplementary studies and literature reviews, authors seldom separate the discourse of prostitution and the concepts of poverty, gender inequality, and race. However, as the findings for this research paper show, it is evident that mainstream media fails to explore and analyze these factors forcing readers to have an inadequate understanding of this social issue. Poverty, gender inequality and race were infrequently discussed in relation to prostitution within our articles regarding the Court Ruling.
Throughout this news analysis we have had some difficulties with furthering our research and extending it. This analysis could have been more thorough if we were to include television analysis as part of the research; however television news analysis is a time costly study and would require longer than one semester to provide a methodical examination of all news stories. This process needs to be done manually where each coder would have to physically record all of the news stories. However, this is not the only limitation we had for this project, another one which may have deterred our sample would be the limited choice of two weeks following the Court Ruling. If more time were available, our group would have been able to extend this two-week period to include a longer period of time which would increase the relevant number of articles available for us to analyze. In addition, our research did not include a specific question which analyzed the representation of male prostitutes within the media. The reason this question was not available within the coding sheet is due to the fact that the idea was only provided following the finalization of the coding process and inputted the data into SPSS. This question is relevant to our research because it analyzes the difference between gender representations within the media and can provide explanations regarding the differentiation of class within gender analysis. Another limitation would be that, our sample was only limited to mainstream publications and did not include other alternative print media which would have also provided some interesting findings.
As communication students, we have been taught to seldom take in information through media as objective reality; however, to critically analyze it to view the underlined encoded messages. For this reason, we expected to find discrepancy within our results and our hypothesis and we did not expect to find much information on causes of prostitution within the available sample. However, there was absolutely no mention of race as a cause leading to prostitution and there was an especially low number of articles which mentioned international examples when providing information regarding prostitution laws and its effect on society. Therefore, due to the lack of sufficient information on what prostitution is considered to be in Canada, our research group members agree that the news publications analyzed were not able to provide the reader with a well informed background on the topic.
Furthermore, our research analysis can be further extended if a longer period of time was available allowing us to examine a bigger sample and analyze more articles. This research can also be broadened by researching how many articles dealing with homelessness actually mention the rates of prostitution within the realm of poverty. Another point of view which could be taken to further widen the variety of this research is the analysis of prostitution in light of wealth rather than poverty. In addition, with the analysis on TV broadcasts regarding this topic, the research would be granted a higher level of accountability with the variety of resources.
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