5 Seabird Island
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Upriver place names.
This dialect is spoken by the people of the Fraser Valley between
Abbotsford and Spuzzum. The people of this area refer to themselves
as Sto:lo /sta:lo/, the Halkomelem word for "river".
This area is probably the homeland of the Halkomelem people.
There are many different reserves in the Upriver area. They
fall into the following sub-dialects: Tait, Chehalis, Chilliwack,
Pilalt, and Sumas. Many lexical differences exist between Upriver
and the other dialects. Some examples are given in the discussion
on the Halkomelem language. (Link to
Phonologically, Upriver is very
different from the other dialects. The sound /n/ has changed
to /l/ in all positions, creating a complete merger of /n/ and
/l/ in Upriver. Also, glottalized resonants have lost their
glottalization, usually lengthening the preceding vowel. There
is much loss of medial resonants, often resulting in vowel length.
Upriver dialects have developed a pitch-accent or tone system.
The Upriver Halkomelem data in this project mostly come from
the work of Brent Galloway, who wrote
the first grammar and dictionary and Upriver Halkomelem and
developed the Sto:lo orthography and Halkomelem language program
at the Coqualeetza Education Training Centre.