Recent research that used NEGOPY

Ennett, Susan T.; Tobler, Nancy S. (1994). How effective is drug
abuse resistance education? A meta-analysis of Project DARE
outcome evaluations. American Journal of Public Health. Vol 84(9),

Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) is a widely
used school-based drug use prevention program in the US.
Meta analytic techniques were used to review 8 methodologically
rigorous DARE evaluations. Weighted effect size means
for several short-term outcomes were compared with means
reported for other drug use prevention programs. The DARE
effect size for drug use behavior ranged from .00 to .11
across the 8 studies; the weighted mean for drug use across
studies was .06. For all outcomes considered, the DARE
effect size means were substantially smaller than those of
programs emphasizing social and general competencies and
using interactive teaching strategies. DARE's short-term
effectiveness for reducing or preventing drug use behavior is
small and is less than for interactive prevention programs.
(PsycINFO Database Copyright 1995 American Psychological
Assn, all rights reserved)

Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E. (1994). Variability in cigarette
smoking within and between adolescent friendship cliques. Addictive
Behaviors, Vol 19(3), 295-305.

Formal network analysis was used to identify 87 adolescent
friendship cliques, comprising 461 9th graders. There was
intraclique homogeneity and interclique heterogeneity in
current cigarette smoking, confirming that smokers tend to be
in cliques with smokers and nonsmokers tend to be with
Most cliques were comprised entirely or mostly of
nonsmokers, suggesting that friendship cliques may contribute
more to the maintenance of nonsmoking than to the onset and
maintenance of smoking. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1995
American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)

Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.(1994). The contribution of
influence and selection to adolescent peer group homogeneity: The
case of adolescent cigarette smoking. Journal of Personality &
Social Psychology, Vol 67(4), 653-663.

Understanding the homogeneity of peer groups requires
identification of peer groups and consideration of influence and
selection processes. Few studies have identified adolescent
peer groups, however, or examined how they become homogeneous.
This study used social network analysis to identify
peer groups (cliques), clique liaisons, and isolates among
adolescents in 5 schools at 2 data collection rounds (N =
926). Cigarette smoking was the behavior of interest.
Influence and selection contributed about equally to peer
group smoking homogeneity. Most smokers were not peer group
members, however, and selection provided more of an explanation
than influence for why isolates smoke. The results
suggest the importance of using social network analysis in
studies of peer group influence and selection. (PsycINFO
Database Copyright 1995 American Psychological Assn, all
rights reserved)

Bauman, Karl E.; Ennett, Susan T. (1994). Peer influence on
adolescent drug use. American Psychologist, Vol 49(9), 820-822.

Empirical support for the assumption that peers are major
determinants of adolescent drug use derives largely from the
frequent finding that adolescents who said that their friends
used drugs were at increased likelihood of using drugs
themselves. It is suggested that the strong and consistent
correlation in drug use by friends is at least partially due
to factors other than peer influence. It is argued that
social network analysis is an appropriate method for studying
adolescent drug use in the context of peer groups. (PsycINFO
Database Copyright 1995 American Psychological Assn, all
rights reserved)

Ennett, Susan T.; Rosenbaum, Dennis P. (1994). Long-term evaluation
of Drug Abuse Resistance Education. Addictive Behaviors, Vol
19(2), 113-125.

Conducted a longitudinal evaluation of Project DARE (Drug
Abuse Resistance Education), a school-based drug-use prevention
program, in 36 schools in Illinois. A total of 1,334
adolescents participated. Data indicate only limited support
for DARE's impact on student drug use immediately following
the intervention, and no support for either continued or
emerging impact on drug use 1 or 2 yrs after receiving DARE
instruction. DARE had only limited positive effects on
psychological variables (i.e., self-esteem) and no effect on
social variables (e.g., peer resistance skills). Possible
substantive and methodological explanations for the relative
lack of DARE's effectiveness are discussed. (PsycINFO Database
Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights

Bailey, Susan L.; Ennett, Susan T. (1993). Potential mediators,
moderators, or independent effects in the relationship between
parents' former and current cigarette use and their children's
cigarette use. Addictive Behaviors, Vol 18(6), 601-621.

Tested mediator, moderator, and independent models for their
ability to characterize the relationship between parents' and
their children's smoking, based on 719 matched pairs of
parent (usually mother) and child. Ss were part of an ongoing
randomized evaluation of the Drug Abuse Resistance Education
Project in Illinois, and the subset of data used was
collected in 1991, when the youths were 6th-7th graders.
Results of logistic regression provided the greatest support
for the independent model, which suggests that the effect of
parents' smoking and familial characteristics on adolescents'
smoking are not linked. Results also show that parents'
former smoking is associated with adolescents' current smoking.
Significant family characteristics were family disunion
and parents' awareness of their child's activities. Findings
suggest that children may have the capability of storing
memories of their parents' smoking, memories that influence
their own smoking. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American
Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)

Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E. (1993). Peer group structure and
adolescent cigarette smoking: A social network analysis. Journal
of Health & Social Behavior, Vol 34(3), 226-236.

Applied social network theory and analysis to examine whether
adolescents who fill various social positions that characterize
peer group structure differ in prevalence of current
smoking. 1,092 9th graders in 1 school system named their 3
best friends, allowing the identification of each adolescent
as clique member, clique liaison, or isolate. At 4 of 5
schools, the odds of being a current smoker were significantly
higher for isolates than for clique members and liaisons.
The relationship was not explained by demographic
variables or by the number of friends who smoke. (PsycINFO
Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all
rights reserved)

Ennett, Susan T. (1992). A social network analysis of adolescent
cigarette smoking. Dissertation Abstracts International, Vol
53(1B), 222-223.

Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E. (1991). Mediators in the
relationship between parental and peer characteristics and beer
drinking by early adolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology,
Vol 21(20), 1699-1711.

1,089 6th graders completed a questionnaire designed to
investigate mediators that could account for relationships
between adolescent beer drinking and parent and peer drinking
behaviors and attitudes. Ss completed the questionnaire
again a year later, in 7th grade. Results show that peer
drinking indirectly influences adolescent drinking by shaping
adolescents' norms on drinking, drinking preferences, and
expected consequences of drinking related to friends and
problem behavior, whereas parental alcohol use and peer
attitude toward alcohol largely directly influence adolescent
beer drinking. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American
Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)

Ennett, Susan T.; DeVellis, Brenda M.(1991). Disease experience
and psychosocial adjustment in children with juvenile rheumatoid
arthritis: Children's versus mothers' reports. Journal of
Pediatric Psychology, Vol 16(5), 557-568.

38 children (aged 7-13 yrs) with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
(JRA) and their mothers were interviewed. Modest correlations
were found between children and mothers in their
assessments of children's perceived competence in several
domains (i.e., athletic competence, social acceptance, physical
attractiveness, and global self-worth) and in their
perceptions of how JRA is experienced by children and families.
Children's perceptions of the disease experience were
significantly correlated with 4 measures of perceived competence,
even after controlling for disease severity. Results
highlight the importance of cross validating parental reports
with children's self-reports and demonstrate the need to
consider variables other than disease severity, in particular
how JRA is interpreted by children, in predicting their
adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American
Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)

Earp, Jo A.; Ennett, Susan T. (1991). Conceptual models for health
education research and practice. Special Issue: Theory. Health
Education Research, Vol 6(2), 163-171.

Describes a model of proposed causal linkages among a set of
concepts believed to be related to a specific public health
problem. Although informed by the multicausal models of
public health (MMPH), the conceptual models described differ
from MMPH in that they do not incorporate all factors correlated
with an endpoint of interest. Rather, they show only
the small part of the causal web selected for study. Because
of the usefulness of conceptual models in narrowing both
research questions and the targets of intervention, inclusion
of the model development process in public health education
research methods courses are advocated. (PsycINFO Database
Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)

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