Jeremy Carpendale

Professor

Research Interests

Cognitive development, social cognitive development, moral development. 

Selected Publications

Carpendale, J., & Lewis, C. (2021). What makes us human? How minds develop in social interactions. Routledge.
https://www.routledge.com/What-Makes-Us-Human-How-Minds-Develop-through-Social-Interactions/Carpendale-Lewis/p/book/9780367537937?fbclid=IwAR1LFMcB28qdyncjQPdtJJxBIOQ2tE9UiqlP1dV2vsck1cJ_2DhniaeEl0Q

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Lewis, C. (2021). What makes us human? How minds develop in social interactions. Routledge.

Carpendale, J. I. M., Müller, U., Wallbridge, B., & Lewis, C. (in press). From neurons to knowing: Implications of theoretical approaches for conceptualizing and studying the neural bases of social understanding. In K. Ochsner & M. Gilead (Eds.), The neural bases of mentalizing. Springer Press.

Broesch, T., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (in press). Emotional development across cultures. In Dukes, D., Samson, A., & Walle, E. (Eds.), OUP Handbook of emotional development. OUP.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Lewis, C., (in press). Exchanging Humpty Dumpties is not a solution: Why a representational view of knowledge must be replaced with an action-based approach. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Kayla Ten Eycke, K. (2020). From reflex to meaning via shared routines. In M. F. Mascolo & T. R. Bidell (Eds.), Handbook of integrative psychological development: Essays in honor of Kurt W. Fischer (pp. 261-277). New York: Routledge.

Carpendale, J. I. M. (2020). The developmental roots of respect and its role in development. [Peer commentary on the article “The development of respect in children and adolescents” by T. Malti, J. Peplak, and L. Zhang]. Monograph Matters. Retrieved fromhttps://monographmatters.srcd.org/2020/08/11/commentary-carpendale-85-3/

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Lewis, C., (2020). Tomasello’s tin man of moral obligation needs a heart. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 43, 19-20.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Wallbridge, B. (2019). Emotions in the development of moral norms within cooperative relationships. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 42.

Carpendale, J. I. M., Lewis, C., & Müller, U. (2019). Piaget’s theory. In S. Hupp & J. Jewell (Eds.), Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of child and adolescent development Vol. III (volume editors, M. Harris & G. Westermann (pp.). Wiley Blackwell publishers.

Yeung, E., Müller, U., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2019). Developmental continuity between social-cognitive skills at age 2 and false belief understanding at age 4. Cognitive Development, 50, 157-166.

Carpendale, J. I. M., Lewis, C. & Müller, U. (2018). The development of children’s thinking: Its social and communicative foundations. London: Sage.

Kettner, V., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2018). From touching to communicating: Forms of index finger use in the development of pointing. Gesture, 17(2), 245-268.

Carpendale, J. I. M. (2018). Communication as the coordination of activity: The implications of philosophical preconceptions for theories of the development of communication. In A. S. Dick & U. Müller (Eds.), Advancing developmental science: Philosophy, theory, and method (pp. 145-156). New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis group.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Frayn, M. (2018). Social understanding. In M. Bornstein, M. H. (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of lifespan human development. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Frayn, M. (2018). Gesture. In M. Bornstein, M. H. (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of lifespan human development. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Wallbridge, B. (2018). From Piaget’s constructivist, process worldview to methods. Constructivist Foundations, 14(1), 82-84.

Carpendale, J. I. M., Frayn, M., & Kurcharczyk, P. (2017). The social formation of human minds. In J. Kiverstein (Ed.), Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of the Social Mind (pp. 189-207). New York: Routledge.

Bernier, A., St-Laurent, D., Matte-Gagné, C., Milot, T., Hammond, S. I., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2017). Parenting and young children’s executive function development. In M. Hoskyn, G. Iarocci, & A. Young (Eds.), Executive functions in children's everyday lives: A handbook for professionals in applied psychology (pp. 70-87). New York: Oxford University Press.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Hammond, S. I. (2016). The development of moral sense and moral thinking. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 28, 743-747.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Frayn, M. (2016). Autonomy in ants and humans. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39 18-19.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Lewis, C., (2015). The development of children’s understanding of social interaction. In S. Robson & S. Quinn (Eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Young Children’s Thinking and Understanding (pp. 123-132). New York: Routledge.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Lewis, C., (2015). The development of social understanding. In L. Liben & U. Müller (Vol. Eds.), Vol. 2: Cognitive processes, R. Lerner (editor-in-chief), 7th edition of the Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science (pp. 381-424). New York: Wiley Blackwell.

Carpendale, J. I. M, Kettner, V. A., & Audet, K. N. (2015). On the nature of toddlers’ helping: Helping or interest in others’ activity? Social Development, 24, 357-366.

Hammond, S. I., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2015). Helping children help: The relation between maternal scaffolding and children’s early help. Social Development, 24, 367-383.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Lewis, C. (2015). Taking natural history seriously in studying the social formation of thinking: Critical analysis of a natural history of human thinking by Michael Tomasello. Human Development, 58, 55-66.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Atwood, S. (2014). The development of perspective taking in communication. In P. Brooks & V. Kempe (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language development. (Vol. 15, pp. 442-445). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Miller, M. R., Müller, U., Giesbrecht, G. F., Carpendale, J. I. M., & Kerns, K. A. (2013). The contribution of executive function and social understanding to preschoolers’ letter and math skills. Cognitive Development, 28, 331-349.

Carpendale, J. I. M., Atwood, S., & Kettner, V., (2013). Meaning and mind from the perspective of dualist versus relational worldviews: Implications for the development of pointing gestures. Human Development, 56, 381-400.

Kettner, V., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2013). Developing gestures for no and yes: Head shaking and nodding in infancy. Gesture, 13, 193-209.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Wereha, T. J., (2013). Understanding common developmental timetables across cultures from a developmental systems perspective. Human Development, 56, 207-212.

Carpendale, J. I. M., Hammond, S. I., & Atwood, S. (2013). A relational developmental systems approach to moral development. In R. M. Lerner & J. B. Benson (Eds.), Embodiment and epigenesis: Theoretical and methodological issues in understanding the role of biology within the relational developmental system (pp. 105-133). Advances in Child Development and Behavior, vol. 45.

Lewis, C., Carpendale, J. I. M., & Stack, J. (2013). Anticipation and social interaction: Commentary on “stepping off the pendulum: Why only an action-based approach can transcend the nativist-empiricist debate” by J. Allen and M. Bickhard. Cognitive Development, 28, 159-163.

Sameen, N., Thompson, J., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2013). Further steps toward a second-person neuroscience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Wereha, T. J., (2013). Understanding common developmental timetables across cultures from a developmental systems perspective. Human Development, 56, 207-212.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Kettner, V. (2013). Review of, Becoming human: The development of language, self and self-awareness. New Ideas in Psychology.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Müller, U. (2012). Flaws in the notion of rational imitation: On the impossible leap from computation to rationality and normativity. Human Development, 55, 122-128.

Stone, J. E., Carpendale, J. I. M., Sugarman, J., & Martin, J. (2012). A Meadian account of false belief understanding: Taking a non-mentalistic approach to social understanding. New Ideas in Psychology, 30, 166-178.

Müller, U., Stuart I. Hammond, S. I., Carpendale, J. I. M., Bibok, M. B., & Liebermann Finestone, D. P. (2012). Knowing minds, controlling actions: The developmental relations between theory of mind and executive function from 2 to 4 years. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111, 331-348.

Hammond, S. I., Müller, U., Carpendale, J. I. M., Bibok, M. B., & Liebermann Finestone, D. P. (2012). The effects of parental scaffolding on preschoolers’ executive function. Developmental Psychology, 48, 271-281.

Carpendale, J. I. M, & Lewis, C., (2012). Reaching, requesting and reflecting: From interpersonal engagement to thinking. In Foolen, A., Lüdtke, U., Zlatev, J., & Racine, T. (Eds.), Moving ourselves: Bodily motion and emotion in the making of intersubjectivity and consciousness (pp. 243-259). John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Racine, T. P. (2011). Intersubjectivity and egocentrism: Insights from the relational perspectives of Piaget, Mead, and Wittgenstein. New Ideas in Psychology, 29, 346-354.

Müller, U., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2011). Reevaluation of Piaget’s concept of egocentrism: New perspectives on a misunderstood idea. New Ideas in Psychology, 29, 325-326.

Carpendale J. I. M., & C. Lewis, C. (2011). Self constructed in culture. In, K. J. de López, & T. G. B. Hansen (Eds.), Development of Self in Culture (pp. 25-40). Denmark: Aalborg University Press.

Sokol, B., Müller, U., Carpendale, J. I. M., Young, A., & Iarocci, G. (Eds.) (2010). Self- and Social-Regulation: Social interaction and the development of social understanding and executive functions. New York: Oxford University Press.

Carpendale, J. I. M., Sokol, B., & Müller, U. (2010). Is a neuroscience of morality possible? In P. Zelazo, M. Chandler, & E. Crone (Eds.), Developmental social cognitive neuroscience (289-311). New York: Psychology Press.

Lewis, C., Carpendale, J. I. M., Towse, J., & Maridaki-Kassotaki, K. (2010). Epistemic flow and the social making of minds. In Sokol, B., Müller, U., Carpendale, J. I. M., Young, A., & Iarocci, G. (Eds.), Self- and Social-Regulation: Social interaction and the development of social understanding and executive functions (pp. 80-110). New York: Oxford University Press.

Hammond, S. I., Bibok, M. B., & Carpendale, J. I. M., (2010). Theoretical perspectives on self- and social-regulation. In Sokol, B., Müller, U., Carpendale, J. I. M., Young, A., & Iarocci, G. (Eds.), Self- and Social-Regulation: Social interaction and the development of social understanding and executive functions (pp. 1-6). New York: Oxford University Press.

Lewis, C., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2010). Social cognition. In P. K. Smith & C. H. Hart (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of childhood social development (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.

Carpendale, J. I. M, & Lewis, C., (2010). Social understanding through social interaction. In G. Dimaggio & P. H. Lysaker (Eds.), Metacognition and severe adult mental disorders: From basic research to treatment. London: Routledge.

Carpendale, J. I. M, & Lewis, C., (2010). The development of social understanding: A relational perspective. In W. F. Overton (Ed.). Cognition, Biology, and Methods across the Lifespan. Volume 1 of the Handbook of life-span development (pp. 548-627), Editor-in-chief: R. M. Lerner. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Atwood, S., Turnbull W., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2010). The construction of knowledge in classroom talk. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 19, 358-402.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Carpendale, A. B. (2010). The development of pointing: From personal directedness to interpersonal direction. Human Development, 53, 110-126.

Müller, U., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2010). Some reflections on the development of symbolic activity. In B. Wagnor (Ed.), Symbolic transformation: The mind in movement through culture and society (pp. 232-239). London: Routledge.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Hammond, S. I., Lewis, C. (2010). The social origin and moral nature of human thinking. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33, 334.

Müller, U., Carpendale, J. I. M., & Smith, L. (Eds.) (2009). The Cambridge companion to Piaget. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mcquaid, N., Bibok, M., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2009). Relationship between maternal contingent responsiveness and infant social expectation. Infancy, 14, 390-401.

Lewis, C., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (Eds.) (2009). Social interaction and the development of executive function. New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development, 123.

Bibok, M. B., Carpendale, J. I. M., & Müller, U. (2009). Social interactive quality of parent-child scaffolding as a predictor of children’s executive function. In C. Lewis, & J. I. M. Carpendale (Eds.), Social interaction and the development of executive function. New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development, 123, 17-34. (Series editors R. Larson & L. Jensen) New York: Jossey Bass.

Lewis, C., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2009). Introduction: Links between social interaction and executive function. In C. Lewis, & J. I. M. Carpendale (Eds.), Social interaction and the development of executive function. New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development, 123, 1-15. (Series editors R. Larson & L. Jensen) New York: Jossey Bass.

Turnbull, W., Carpendale, J. I. M., & Racine, T. (2009). Talk and children’s understanding of the mind. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 16, 140-166.

Carpendale, J. I. M., Lewis, C., Susswein, N., & Lunn, J. (2009). Talking and thinking: The role of speech in social understanding. In A. Winsler, C. Fernyhough, & I. Montero (Eds.). Private speech, executive function, and the development of verbal self-regulation (pp. 83-94). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Carpendale, J. I. M. (2009). Piaget’s theory of moral development. In U. Müller, J. I. M Carpendale, & L. Smith, (Eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Piaget (pp. 270-286). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bibok, M. B., Müller, U., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2009). Childhood. In U. Müller, J. I. M Carpendale, & L. Smith, (Eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Piaget. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Müller, U., Carpendale, J. I. M., & Smith, L. (2009). Introduction: The context of Piaget’s theory. In U. Müller, J. I. M Carpendale, & L. Smith, (Eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Piaget (pp. 1-18). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lewis, C., & Carpendale, J. I. M., (2009). Carruthers’ marvelous magical mindreading machine. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32(2), 152.

Turnbull, W., Carpendale, J. I. M., & Racine, T. P. (2008). Relations between mother-child talk and 3- to 5-year-old children’s understanding of belief: Beyond mental state terms to talk about the mind. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 54, 397-385.

Müller, U., Carpendale, J. I. M., Budwig, N., & Sokol, B. (Eds.) (2008). Social life and social knowledge: Toward a process account of development. New York: Taylor Francis.

Racine, T. P., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2008). The embodiment of mental states. In W. F. Overton, U. Müller & J. Newman (Eds.), Developmental perspectives on embodiment and consciousness (pp. 159-190). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Müller, U., Carpendale, J. I. M., Budwig, N., & Sokol B. (2008). Developmental relations between forms of social interaction and forms of thought: An introduction. In U. Müller, J. I. M. Carpendale, N. Budwig, & B. Sokol, (Eds.), Social life and social knowledge: Toward a process account of development (pp. 1-16). New York: Taylor Francis.

Bibok, M. B., Carpendale, J. I. M., & Lewis, C. (2008). Social knowledge as social skill: An action based view of social understanding. In U. Müller, J. I. M. Carpendale, N. Budwig, & B. Sokol, (Eds.), Social life and social knowledge: Toward a process account of development (pp. 145-169). New York: Taylor Francis.

Carpendale, J. I. M., Müller, U., & Bibok, M., (2008). Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational psychology, Vol. 2 (pp. 798-804). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Lewis, C., (2008). Imitation cannot explain understanding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31, 23-24.

Carpendale, J. I. M. (2008). Neurons, norms, and development. Human Development: Letters to the Editor (invited letter).

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Lewis, C. (2008). More smoke than mirror neurons. Human Development: Letters to the Editor (invited letter).

Racine, T. P., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2008). Navigating norms as responsive and responsible agents. Journal of Anthropological Psychology, 20, 19-22.

Racine, T. P., Carpendale, J. I. M., & Turnbull, W. (2007). Parent-child talk and children’s understanding of beliefs and emotions. Cognition & Emotion, 21, 480-494.

Racine, T. P., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2007). The role of shared practice in joint attention. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 25, 3-25.

Racine, T. P., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2007). Shared practices, understanding, language and joint attention. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 25, 45-54.

Susswein, N., Bibok, M. B., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2007). Reconceptualizing internalization. International Journal for Dialogical Science, 2, 183-205. Available at http://ijds.lemoyne.edu/journal/2_1/IJDS.2.1.12.Susswein.html

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Lewis, C. (2006). How children develop social understanding. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
Winner of the Society for Educational Studies Book Prize; awarded the status of 'highly recommended' for books published in 2006. For reviews see: www.blackwellpublishing.com/140510550X

Müller, U., Carpendale, J. I. M., Bibok, M. B., & Racine, T. P. (2006). Subjectivity, identification and differentiation: Key issues in early social development. In R. P. Hobson, G. Chidambi, A. Lee, & J. Meyer, Foundations for self-awareness: An exploration through autism. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial No. 284, Vol. 71.

Racine, T. P., Carpendale, J. I. M., & Turnbull, W. (2006). Cross-sectional and longitudinal relations between mother-child talk about conflict and children’s social understanding. British Journal of Psychology, 97, 521-536.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Racine, T. P. (2006). Mead and meaning: Implications of views of meaning for developmental theories. In T. Haukioja (Ed.), Papers on language theory (pp. 119). University of Turku: Publications in General Linguistics.

Carpendale, J. I. M., Lewis, C., Müller, U., & Racine, T. P. (2005). Constructing perspectives in the social making of minds. Interaction Studies, 6, 341-358.  Reprinted in: P. Hauf & F. Försterling (Eds.), Making minds: The shaping of human minds through social context (pp. 163-178). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Ross, H. S., Recchia, H. E., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2005). Making sense of divergent interpretations of conflict and developing an interpretive understanding of mind. Journal of Cognition and Development, 6, 571-592.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Lewis, C. (2004a). Constructing an understanding of mind: The development of children's social understanding within social interaction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27, 79-96.
Reprinted in, J. G. Bremner & C. Lewis (Eds.) Developmental Psychology 1: Perceptual and Cognitive Development. Volume 1: Theoretical Perspectives on Perception and Cognition (pp. 439-485). London: Sage.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Lewis, C. (2004b). Constructing understanding, with feeling. (Authors' response to 38 peer commentaries). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27, 96-151.

Peterson, D. M., Marcia, J. E., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2004). Identity: Does thinking make it so? In C. Lightfoot, C. Lalonde, & M. J. Chandler (Eds.), Changing conceptions of psychological life (pp. 113-126). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Carpendale, J. I. M. & Müller, U., (2004). Social interaction and the development of rationality and morality: An introduction. In J. I. M. Carpendale, & U. Müller, (Eds.) Social interaction and the development of knowledge (pp. 1-18). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Müller, U., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2004). From joint activity to joint attention: A relational approach to social development in infancy. In J. I. M. Carpendale, & U. Müller, (Eds.), Social interaction and the development of knowledge (pp. 215-238). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Carpendale, J. I. M., & Müller, U. (Eds.) (2004). Social interaction and the development of knowledge. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Chandler, M., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2003). Colloquy on a community of minds. Human Development, 46, 51-57.

Lewis, C., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2002). Social cognition. In P. K. Smith & C. H. Hart (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of childhood social development (pp. 375-393). Oxford: Blackwell.

Turnbull, W., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2001). Talk and social understanding. Early Education and Development, 12, 455-477.

Müller, U., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2001). Objectivity, intentionality, and levels of explanation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24, 55-56.

Carpendale, J. I. M. (2000). Kohlberg and Piaget on stages and moral reasoning. Developmental Review, 20, 181-205.

Müller, U., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (2000). The role of social interaction in Piaget’s theory: Language for social cooperation and social cooperation for language. New Ideas in Psychology, 18, 139-156.

Carpendale, J. I. M. (1999). Constructivism, communication, and cooperation: Implications of Michael Chapman's "epistemic triangle." In I. Sigel (Ed.), The development of representational thought: Theoretical perspectives (pp. 129-146). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Turnbull, W., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (1999). A social pragmatic model of talk: Implications for research on the development of children’s understanding of mind. Human Development, 42, 328-355.

Turnbull, W., & Carpendale, J. (1999). Locating meaning in interaction, not in the brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 304-305.

Carpendale, J. I. M. (1999). Symbols and side effects: Commentary on James Russell's "Cognitive development as an executive process--in part: A homeopathic dose of Piaget." Developmental Science, 2, 279-280.

Chandler, M. J., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (1998). Inching toward a mature theory of mind. In M. Ferrari & R. Sternberg (Eds.), Self awareness: Its nature and development. (pp. 148-190). New York: Gilford.

Carpendale, J. I. M. (1997). An explication of Piaget's constructivism: Implications for social cognitive development. In S. Hala (Ed.), The development of social cognition. (pp. 35-64). London: University College London Press.

Hala, S., & Carpendale, J. I. M. (1997). All in the mind: Children's understanding of mental life. In S. Hala (Ed.), The development of social cognition. (pp. 189-239). London: University College London Press.

Carpendale, J. I. M. & Chandler, M. J. (1996). On the distinction between false belief understanding and subscribing to an interpretive theory of mind. Child Development, 67, 1686-1706.

Carpendale, J. I. M., McBride, M., & Chapman, M. (1996). Language and operations in children's class inclusion reasoning: The operational semantic theory of reasoning. Developmental Review, 16, 391-415.

Carpendale, J. I., & Krebs, D. L. (1995). Variations in level of moral judgment as a function of type of dilemma and moral choice. Journal of Personality, 63, 289-313.
Reprinted in T. A. Lucey & K. S. Cooter (Eds.). Financial literacy for children and youth (pp. 482-507). Athens, GA: Digitaltextbooks.

Chandler, M., & Carpendale, J. (1994). Concerning the rumored falling to Earth of "time's arrow." Psychological Inquiry, 5, 245-248.

Krebs, D. L., Vermeulen, S. C., Denton, K. L., & Carpendale, J. I. (1994). Gender and perspective differences in moral judgement and moral orientation. Journal of Moral Education, 23, 17-26.

Chandler, M., & Carpendale, J. (1993). The naked truth about first-person knowledge. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 36-37.

Bush, A. J., Krebs, D. L., & Carpendale, J. I. (1993). The structural consistency of moral judgments about AIDS. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 154, 167-175.

Carpendale, J., & Krebs, D. L. (1992). Situational variation in moral judgment: In a stage or on a stage? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21, 203-224.

Krebs, D., Denton, K., Vermeulen, S., Carpendale, J., & Bush, J. (1991). The structural flexibility of moral judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 1012-1023.
Reprinted in B. Puka (Ed.), (1994). Moral development: Field of schemes. New York: Garland Publishers.

Krebs, D., Vermeulen, S., Carpendale, J., & Denton, K. (1991). Structural and situational influences on moral judgment: The interaction between stage and dilemma. In W. Kurtines & J. Gewirtz (Eds.), The handbook of moral behavior and development, Vol. 2: Research (pp. 139-169). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Krebs, D., Denton, K., Carpendale, J., Vermeulen, S., Bartek, S., & Bush, A. (1989). The many faces of moral judgment. In M. A. Luszcz & T. Nettelbeck (Eds.), Psychological development: Perspectives across the life span (pp. 97-105). Sydney, Australia: Elsevier Science Publishers.