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SAS Date, Time, and Datetime Values


SAS date value
is a value that represents the number of days between January 1, 1960, and a specified date. SAS can perform calculations on dates ranging from A.D. 1582 to A.D. 19,900. Dates before January 1, 1960, are negative numbers; dates after are positive numbers.

SAS time value
is a value representing the number of seconds since midnight of the current day. SAS time values are between 0 and 86400.

SAS datetime value
is a value representing the number of seconds between January 1, 1960 and an hour/minute/second within a specified date.

The following figure shows some dates written in calendar form and as SAS date values.

How SAS Converts Calendar Dates to SAS Date Values


Two-Digit and Four-Digit Years

SAS software can read two-digit or four-digit year values. If SAS encounters a two-digit year, the YEARCUTOFF= option can be used to specify which century within a 100 year span the two-digit year should be attributed to. For example, YEARCUTOFF=1950 means that two-digit years 50 through 99 correspond to 1950 through 1999, while two-digit years 00 through 49 correspond to 2000 through 2049. Note that while the default value of the YEARCUTOFF= option in Version 8 of the SAS System is 1920, you can adjust the YEARCUTOFF= value in a DATA step to accomodate the range of date values you are working with at the moment. To correctly handle 2-digit years representing dates between 2000 and 2099, you should specify an appropriate YEARCUTOFF= value between 1901 and 2000. See the How to Read Two-Digit Years Using YEARCUTOFF= section for more information on the YEARCUTOFF= system option.

The Year 2000

SAS software treats the year 2000 like any other leap year. If you use two-digit year numbers for dates, you'll probably need to adjust the default setting for the YEARCUTOFF= option to work with date ranges for your data, or switch to four-digit years. The following program changes the YEARCUTOFF= value to 1950. This change means that all two digit dates are now assumed to fall in the 100-year span from 1950 to 2049.

options yearcutoff=1950;
data _null_;
   put 'SAS date='a;
   put 'formatted date='a date9.;
The PUT statement writes the following lines to the SAS log:
SAS date=15639
formated date=26OCT2002

Note:   Whenever possible, specify a year using all four digits. Most SAS date and time language elements support four digit year values.  [cautionend]

Working with SAS Dates and Times

Informats and Formats

The SAS System converts date, time and datetime values back and forth between calendar dates and clock times with SAS language elements called formats and informats.

Date and Time Tools by Task

The following table correlates tasks with various SAS System language elements that are available for working with time and date data.

Tasks with Dates and Times, Part 1
To do this ... Use this ... List Input Result
Write SAS date values in recognizable forms Date formats DATEw. 14686 17MAR00

DATE9. 14686 17MAR2000a

DAYw. 14686 17

DDMMYYw. 14686 17/03/00

DDMMYY10. 14686 17/03/2000

DDMMYYBw. 14686 17 03 00

DDMMYYB10. 14686 17 03 2000

DDMMYYCw. 14686 17:03:20

DDMMYYC10. 14686 17:03:2000

DDMMYYDw. 14686 17-03-00

DDMMYYD10. 14686 17-03-2000

DDMMYYNw. 14686 17MAR00

DDMMYYN10 14686 17MAR2000

DDMMYYPw. 14686 17.03.00

DDMMYYP10. 14686 17.03.2000

DDMMYYSw. 14686 17/03/00

DDMMYYS10. 14686 17/03/2000

DOWNAME. 14686 Friday

EURDFDEw. 14686 17MAR00

EURDFDE9. 14686 17MAR2000

EURDFDNw. 14686 5

EURDFDWNw. 14686 Friday

EURDFMYw. 14686 MAR00

EURDFDMY7 14686 MAR2000

EURDFWDXw. 14686 17MAR2000

EURDFMNw. 14686 March

EURDFWKXw. 14686 Friday, 17 MAR 2000

JULDAYw. 14686 77

JULIANw. 14686 00077

MINGUOw. 14686 89/03/17

MINGUO10. 14686 0089/03/17

MMDDYYw. 14686 03/17/00

MMDDYY10. 14686 03/17/2000

MMDDYYBw. 14686 03 17 00

MMDDYYB10.w. 14686 03 17 2000

MMDDYYCw. 14686 03:17:00

MMDDYYC10 14686 03:17:2000

MMDDYYDw. 14686 03-17-00

MMDDYYD10. 14686 03-17-2000

MMDDYYNw. 14686 031700

MMDDYYN10. 14686 03172000

MMDDYYP 14686 03.17.00

MMDDYYP10. 14686 03.17.2000

MMDDYYS 14686 03/17/00

MMDDYYS10. 14686 03/17/2000

MMYY.xw. 14686 03M2000

MMYYCw. 14686 03:2000

MMYYD. 14686 03-2000

MMYYN. 14686 032000

MMYYP. 14686 03.2000

MMYYS. 14686 03/2000

MONNAME. 14686 March

MONTH. 14686 3

MONYY. 14686 MAR2000

NENGO. 14686 H.12/03/17

PDJULGw. 14686 2000077F

PDJULIw. 14686 0100077F

QTRw. 14686 1

QTRRw. 14686 I

TIMEw.d 14686 4:04:46

TIMEAMPMw.d 14686 4:04:46 AM

TOD 14686 4:04:46

WEEKDATEw. 14686 Friday, March 17, 2000

WEEKDAYw. 14686 6

WORDDATE.w. 14686 March 17, 2000

WORDDATXw. 14686 17 MARCH 2000

YEARw. 14686 2000

YYMMw. 14686 2000M03

YYMMCw. 14686 2000:03

YYMMDDw. 14686 2000-03

YYMMPw. 14686 2000.03

YYMMS. 14686 2000/03

YYMMN. 14686 200003

YYMMDDw. 14686 00-03-17

YYMON. 14686 2000MAR

YYQxw. 14686 2000Q1

YYQCw. 14686 2000:1

YYQDw. 14686 2000-1

YYQPw. 14686 2000.1

YYQSw. 14686 2000/1

YYQNw. 14686 20001

YYQRw. 14686 2000QI

YYQRCw. 14686 2000:I

YYQRDw. 14686 2000-I

YYQRPw.w. 14686 2000.I

YYQRSw. 14686 2000/I

YYQRNw. 14686 III

Tasks with Dates and Times, Part 2
To do this ... Use this ... List Input Result
Date Tasks

Read calendar dates as SAS date


Date informats DATEw. 17MAR2000 -14534

DATE9. 17MAR2000 14686

DDMMYYw. 170300 14686

DDMMYY8. 17032000 14686

JULIANw. 0077 14686

JULIAN7. 2000077 14686

MMDDYYw. 031700 14686

MMDDYY10. 03172000 14686

MONYYw. MAR00 14670

NENGOw. H.12/03/17 14686

YYMMDDw. 000317 14686

YYMMDD10. 20000317 14686

YYQw. 00Q1 14610
Create date values from pieces Date functions DATEJUL 2000077 14686

DHMS '17MAR2000'D,



HMS 14,45,32 53132

MDY 03,17,00 14686

MDY 03,17,2000 14686

YYQ 00,1 14610
Extract a date from a datetime value Date functions DATEPART '17MAR00:00:00


Return today's date as a SAS date Date functions DATE() or TODAY() (equivalent) ( ) SAS date for today
Extract calendar dates from SAS Date functions DAY 14686 17

HOUR 14686 4

JULDATE 14686 0077

JULDATE7 14686 2000077

MINUTE 14686 4

MONTH 14686 3

QTR 14686 3

SECOND 14686 46

WEEKDAY 14686 6

YEAR 14686 2000
Write a date as a constant in an expression SAS date constant 'ddmmmyy'd





Write today's date as a string SYSDATE automatic macro variable SYSDATE &SYSDATE Date at time of SAS initialization in DDMMMYY

SYSDATE9 SYSDATE9 &SYSDATE9 Date at time of SAS initialization in DDMMMYYYY
Time Tasks

Write SAS time values as time values time formats HHMM. 53132 14:46

HOUR. 53132 15

MMSS. 53132 885

TIME. 53132 14:45:32

TOD. 53132 14:45:32
Read time values as SAS time values Time informats TIME 14:45:32 53132
Write the current time as a string SYSTIME automatic macro variable SYSTIME &SYSTIME Time at moment of execution in HH:MM
Return the current time of day as a SAS time value Time functions TIME( ) ( ) SAS time value at moment of execution in NNNNN.NN
Return the time part of a SAS datetime value Time functions TIMEPART SAS datetime value in NNNNNNNNNN.N SAS time value part of date value in NNNNN.NN
Datetime Tasks

Write SAS datetime values as datetime values Datetime formats DATEAMPM 1217083532 26JUL98:02:45 PM

DATETIME 1268870400 17MAR00:00:00


EURDFDT 1217083532 26JUL98:14:45:32
Read datetime values as SAS datetime values Datetime informats DATETIME 17MAR00:00:00:00 1268870400
Return the current date and time of day as a SAS datetime value Datetime functions DATETIME() () SAS datetime value at moment of execution in NNNNNNNNNN.N
Interval Tasks

Return the number of specified time intervals that lie between the two date or datetime values Interval functions INTCK week 2



Advances a date, time, or datetime value by a given interval, and returns a date, time, or datetime value Interval functions INTNX day




The SAS System also supports international formats and informats that are equivalent to some of the most commonly used English-language date formats and informats. For details, see "SAS Formats" and "SAS Informats."


Example 1: Displaying Date, Time, and Datetime Values as Recognizable Dates and Times

The following example demonstrates how a value may be displayed as a date, a time, or a datetime. Remember to select the SAS language element that converts a SAS date, time, or datetime value to the intended date, time or datetime format. See the previous tables for examples.


This program uses the DATETIME, DATE and TIMEAMPM formats to display the value 86399 to a date and time, a calendar date, and a time.

data test;
options nodate pageno=1 linesize=80 pagesize=60;    
format Time1 datetime.;
format Date1 date.;
format Time2 timeampm.;
proc print data=test;
title  'Same Number, Different SAS Values';
footnote1 'Time1 is a SAS DATETIME value';
footnote2 'Date1 is a SAS DATE value';
footnote3 'Time2 is a SAS TIME value'.;

Datetime, Date and Time Values for 86399
                       Same Number, Different SAS Values               1

               Obs         Time1           Date1        Time2

                1     01JAN60:23:59:59    20JUL96    11:59:59 PM
                         Time1 is a SAS DATETIME value
                           Date1 is a SAS DATE value
                           Time2 is a SAS TIME value.

Example 2: Reading, Writing, and Calculating Date Values

This program reads four regional meeting dates and calculates the dates on which announcements should be mailed.

data meeting;
options nodate pageno=1 linesize=80 pagesize=60;    
   input region $ mtg : mmddyy8.;
N  11-24-99
S  12-28-99
E  12-03-99
W  10-04-99

proc print data=meeting;
   format mtg sendmail date9.;
   title 'When To Send Announcements';

Calculated Date Values: When to Send Mail
                          When To Send Announcements                        

             Obs    region          mtg     sendmail

              1       N       24NOV1999    10OCT1999
              2       S       28DEC1999    13NOV1999
              3       E       03DEC1999    19OCT1999
              4       W       04OCT1999    20AUG1999

International Date, Time and Datetime Formats

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