Bicram Rijal entered the PhD program in Anthropology in fall 2011. He is interested in understanding how the ideas of modernity, development, globalization, civility and citizenship figure into the everyday habits of defecation and sanitation in Nepal. His research deals with the changing ideas of the body and bodily habits and how they relate to the changing contexts of sanitation and beyond. In doing so, he will examine: how are sanitation and toilet programs perceived within and beyond Nepal’s national development programs? How have their focuses and priorities changed over time? How do the changes in everyday habits of defecation and sanitation relate to the notions of self, subjectivity, and personhood? He has received fellowships from Wenner-Gren Foundation (2011-12, 2012-13, 2013-14) and Open Society Foundations (2012-13). Senior supervisor: Stacy Pigg; committee member: Michael Hathaway