Acoustic Communication Bibliography


(publications originating at Simon Fraser University)

Schafer, R. M. The Tuning of the World. New York: Knopf, 1977. Reprinted as Our Sonic Environment and the Soundscape: The Tuning of the World. Destiny Books, 1994.

Schafer, R. M.The Thinking Ear. Toronto, Ontario: Arcana Editions, 1986.

Schafer, R. M.The New Soundscape. Vienna: Universal Edition, 1969.

Schafer, R. M.The Book of Noise. Wellington, New Zealand: Price, Milburn, 1970. Reprinted 1998, Arcana Editions, Indian River, Ontario.

Schafer, R. M.The Music of the Environment. Vienna: Universal Edition, 1973.

Schafer, R.M. Voices of Tyranny, Temples of Silence. Toronto, Ontario: Arcana Editions, 1993.

Torigoe, K. A Study of the World Soundscape Project. Toronto: York University, M.F.A. thesis, 1982.

Truax, B. Acoustic Communication, 2nd ed., Ablex Publishing, 2001.

Truax, B. Music, Soundscape and Acoustic Sustainability, Moebius online journal, 2012.

Truax, B. Sound, Listening and Place: The Aesthetic Dilemma, Organised Sound, 17(3), 1-9, 2012.

Truax, B. Soundscape Composition as Global Music: Electroacoustic Music as Soundscape, Organised Sound, 13(2), 103-109, 2008.

Truax, B. Acoustic Communication Studies at Simon Fraser University, Soundscape, The Journal of Acoustic Ecology, 2(2), 2001, pp. 11-15.

Truax, B. Genres and techniques of soundscape composition as developed at Simon Fraser University. Organised Sound, 7(1), 5-14, 2002.

Truax, B. Soundscape, Acoustic Communication and Environmental Sound Composition. Contemporary Music Review, 15(1), 49-65, 1996.

Truax, B. Electroacoustic Music: The Inner and Outer World. In Companion to Contemporary Musical Thought, vol. 1, Routledge, 1992.

Truax, B. Soundscape Studies: An Introduction to the World Soundscape Project. Numus West, no. 5, 1974.

World Soundscape Project. The Music of the Environment Series, R. M. Schafer, ed. Vancouver, British Columbia: A.R.C. Publications.

No. 1, The Music of the Environment, 1973.

No. 2, The Vancouver Soundscape, 1978. CD re-issue (with Soundscape Vancouver, Cambridge Street Publishing, 1996)

No. 3, European Sound Diary, 1977.

No. 4, Five Village Soundscapes, 1977; reprinted in Acoustic Environments in Change, H. Jarviluoma et al., eds., University of Tampere, 2009.

No. 5, Handbook for Acoustic Ecology, 1978; reprinted as a CD-ROM, Cambridge Street Publishing, 1999.



(interdisciplinary approaches)

WFAE website:

Proceedings, The Tuning of the World (conference on acoustic ecology), 1993.

Augoyard, J-F.,  & Torgue, H., eds. Sonic experience : A guide to everyday sounds  (translated by A. McCartney & D. Paquette). McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005.

Blesser, B. & Salter, L., Spaces Speak, Are You Listening? Experiencing Aural Architecture, MIT Press, 2007.

Bull, M. & Back, L., eds. The Auditory Culture Reader
, Oxford, 2003.

Corbin, A., Village Bells: Sound and Meaning in the Nineteenth-century French Countryside, Columbia University Press, 1998.

Drobnik, J. Aural Cultures, YYZ/Walter Phillips Gallery Editions, 2004.

Erlmann, V., ed., Hearing Cultures: Essays on Sound, Listening and Modernity, Oxford: Berg, 2004.

Erlmann, V. Reason and Resonance: A History of Modern Aurality, Zone Books, 2010.

Franklin, U. Silence and the Notion of the Commons. Soundscape, The Journal of Acoustic Ecology, 1(2), 2000, pp. 14-17.

Jarviluoma, H. et al., eds., Acoustic Environments in Change, University of Tampere, 2009.

Karlsson, H. The Acoustic Environment as Public Domain, Soundscape, The Journal of Acoustic Ecology, 1(2), 2000, pp. 10-13.

Krause, B. L. The niche hypothesis: A hidden symphony of animal sounds, the origins of musical expression and the health of habitats. Explorers Journal, 71(4), 156-160, 1993.

Kruth, P. & Stobart, H. eds. Sound, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000.

Miller, W. Silence in the Contemporary Soundscape. Soundscape, The Journal of Acoustic Ecology, 1(2), 2000, pp. 18-19.

Northern Soundscapes, Yearbook of Soundscape Studies, R. M. Schafer & H. Järviluoma, eds. University of Tampere, Finland, 1998.

Pinch, T. & K. Bijsterveld, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Sound Studies, Oxford, 2011.

Smith, B. R. The Acoustic World of Early Modern England, University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Sterne, J., ed. The Sound Studies Reader, Routledge, 2012.

Thompson, E. The Soundscape of Modernity, MIT Press, 2002.

Wagstaff, G. What is Acoustic Ecology's 'Ecology'. Soundscape Newsletter, no. 9, 1999.

Wrightson, K. An Introduction to Acoustic Ecology. Soundscape, The Journal of Acoustic Ecology, 1(1), 2000, pp. 10-13



Anderson, L. M., Mulligan, B. E., Goodman, L. S., & Regen, H. Z. Effects of sounds on preferences for outdoor settings. Environment and Behavior, 15 (5), 539-566, 1983.

Feld, S. Sound and Sentiment: Birds, weeping, poetics, and song in Kaluli expression. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982.

Goodey, B. Images of place: Essays on environmental perception, communications and education. Birmingham, England: University of Birmingham, Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, 1974.

Jarviluoma, H. et al., eds. Acoustic Environments in Change, University of Tampere, Granum, 2009.

Kang, J. Urban Sound Environment, Taylor & Francis, 2007.

Porteous, J.D. Soundscape. ch. 3, Landscapes of the Mind, Univ.of Toronto Press, 1990.

Porteous, J.D. & Mastin, J.F. Soundscape. Journal of Architectural Planning Research, 2, 1985.

Price, A.J. Community Noise Survey of Greater Vancouver. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 52(2), 1972.

Smith, C. The Acoustic Experience of Place. Proceedings, The Tuning of the World Conference, Banff, vol. 2, 1993.

Southworth, M. The Sonic Environment of Cities. Environment and Behavior, 1(1), 1969.

Westerkamp, H. The New Museum of Anthropology in Vancouver - An Acoustic Dump, unpublished manuscript, 1976 (revised 1980).

World Soundscape Project, Five Village Soundscapes, ARC Publications, 1977.



Andreasen, M. Attentional Penchants and Recall of Information from Background Radio. Journalism Quarterly, 63(1), 1986.

Attali, J. Noise (The Political Economy of Music), The University of Minnesota Press, 1985.

Barber, B. Radio: Audio Art's Frightful Parent. In D. Lander & M. Lexier, eds. Sound by Artists, Art Metropole & Walter Phillips Gallery, 1990.

Berland, J. Radio Space and Industrial Time. In Canadian Music: Issues of Hegemony and Identity, B. Diamond and R. Witmer, eds., Canadian Scholars Press, 1993.

Blesser, B., & Pilkington, D. Global Paradigm Shifts in the Audio Industry. Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, vol. 48(9,10), 2000.

Bull, M. Sounding Out The City: Personal Stereos and the Management of Everyday Life, Oxford, 2000.

Bull, M. Sound Moves: iPod Culture and Urban Experience, Routledge, 2007 (ML 3916 B85 2007)

Chanan, M. Repeated Takes: A short history of recording and its effects on music, Verso, 1995.

Cook, N. Music and meaning in the commercials. Popular Music, 13(1), 27-40, 1994.

De Kerckhove, D. The Skin of Culture: Investigating the new electronic reality. Toronto, ON: Somerville House, 1995.

Doane, M. A. The Voice in the Cinema: The articulation of body and space. In E. Weis & J. Belton, eds. Film Sound. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.

du Gay, P. et al., Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman, Sage Publications, 1997.

Dyson, F. Sounding New Media: Immerson and Embodiment in the Arts and Culture, University of California Press, 2009.

Eisenberg, E. The Recording Angel: Explorations in phonography. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987.

Felsenthal, N. et al., A Comparison of Award-Winning Commercials and their Day-To-Day Counterparts. Journal of Broadcasting, 15(3), 1971.

Fornatale, P., & Mills, J. Radio in the Television Age. Woodstock, NY: The Overlook Press, 1980.

Herman, E. & McChesney, R.The Global Media, Cassell, 1997.

Huron, D. Music in Advertising: An Analytic Paradigm. The Musical Quarterly, vol. 73, 1989, pp. 557-574.

Leiss, W., Kline, S. & Jhally, S. Social communication in advertising. Toronto: Methuen, 1986.

Mendelsohn, H. Listening to Radio. In Dexter & White, eds. People, Society and Mass Communication, 1964.

Milliman, R. The Influence of Background Music on the Behavior of Restaurant Patrons. Journal of Consumer Research, 13, 1986.

Mowitt, J. The Sound of Music in the Era of its Electronic Reproducibility. In R. Leppert & S. McClary, eds. Music and Society, Cambridge University Press, 1987.

O'Connell, J. The Fine Tuning of a Golden Ear: High-end Audio and the Evolutionary Model of Technology. Technology and Culture, vol. 33, no. 1, 1992, pp. 1-37.

Schafer, R. M. Radical radio. In D. Lander & M. Lexier, eds. Sound by Artists. Banff, Alberta: Art Metropole & Walter Phillips Gallery, 1990.

Schwartz, T. The Responsive Chord. Garden City, NY: Anchor, 1973.

Schwartz, T. Media: The Second God. Garden City, NY: Anchor, 1983.

Shatzer, M. J. Listening and the Mass Media. In R. Bostrom, ed. Listening Behavior. New York: Guildford Press, 1990.

Shepherd, J. Music and Male Hegemony. In R. Leppert & S. McClary, eds. Music and Society, Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Silverman, K. Dis-Embodying the Female Voice. In Re-Vision: Essays on Feminist Film Criticism, The American Film Institute Monograph Series, vol. 3, 1984.

Silverman, K. The Acoustic Mirror: The female voice in psychoanalysis and cinema. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1988.

Sterne, J. The Audible Past: Cultural Origins of Sound Reproduction, Duke University Press, 2003.

Sterne, J. A Machine to Hear for Them: On the very Possibility of Sound's Reproduction. Cultural Studies, 15(2), 2001, 259-294.

Sterne, J. MP3: The Meaning of a Format, Duke University Press, 2012.

Théberge, P. Any Sound You Can Imagine, Wesleyan University Press, 1997.

Théberge, P. The 'Sound' of Music: Technological Rationalization and the Production of Popular Music. New Formations, vol. 8, 1989, pp. 99-111.

Westerkamp, H. Listening and Soundmaking: A Study of Music-as-Environment. In D. Lander & M. Lexier, eds. Sound by Artists, Art Metropole & Walter Phillips Gallery, 1990.

Westerkamp, H. The Soundscape on Radio. In D. Augaitis & D. Lander, eds. Radio Rethink. Banff, Alberta: Walter Phillips Gallery, 1994.



Bruneau, T. Communicative Silences: Forms and Functions. Journal of Communication, vol. 23, 1973, pp. 17-46.

Denes, P., & Pinson, E. The Speech Chain, Anchor, 1973, 2nd ed. 1993.

Feld, S. From Ethnomusicology to Echo-muse-ecology. The Soundscape Newsletter, no. 8, 1994.

Hockett, C. The Origin of Speech. Scientific American, Sept. 1960.

Ihde, D. Listening and Voice: Phenomenologies of Sound, SUNY Press, 2007.

Kerckhove, D. Oral Versus Literate Listening. chapter 9, The Skin of Culture, Somerville House Publishing, 1995.

Linklater, K. Freeing The Natural Voice, Drama Books, New York, 1976.

Lomax, A. Song Structure and Social Structure. Ethnology, vol. 1, 1962.

Miller, W. Silence in the Contemporary Soundscape, Soundscape, The Journal of Acoustic Ecology, 1(2), 2000, pp. 18-19.

Ostwald, P. F. Soundmaking, C.C. Thomas, 1963.

Ostwald, P. F. The Semiotics of Human Sound. The Hague, The Netherlands: Mouton, 1973.

Ostwald, P. F. Sounds in Human Communication. In Communication and Social Interaction, Grune & Stratton, 1977.

Ong, W. Orality and Literacy, Methuen, 1982.

Sundberg, J. The Acoustics of the Singing Voice. Scientific American, Mar. 1977.

Tannen, D. ed. Spoken and Written Language: Exploring Orality and Literacy, Ablex, 1982.

Tannen, D. & Saville-Troike, M. eds. Perspectives on Silence, Ablex, 1985.

Vihman, M. M. Phonological Development: The origins of language in the child. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1996.

Vygotsky, L. S. Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 1962.

Watzlawick, P., Beavin, J. H., & Jackson, D. D. Pragmatics of Human Communication. New York: Norton, 1967.

Waugh, L. R., & van Schooneveld, C. H., eds. The Melody of Language (intonation and prosody). Baltimore, MD: University Park Press, 1980.

Zakharine, D. & N. Meise, eds. Electrified Voices: Medial, Socio-Historical and Cultural Aspects of Voice Transfer, V & R Unipress, 2013.



Bregman, A. Auditory Scene Analysis, MIT Press, 1990.

Handel, S. Listening, MIT Press, 1989

Ballas, J. & Howard, J. Interpreting the Language of Environmental Sounds. Environment & Behavior, Jan. 1987.

Ballas, J. Common Factors in the Identification of an Assortment of Brief Everyday Sounds. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19(2), 1993, 250-267.

Hull, J. Sound: An Enrichment or State, Soundscape, The Journal of Acoustic Ecology, 2(1), 2001, pp. 10-15.

Ihde, D. Listening and Voice: Phenomenologies of Sound, SUNY Press, 2007.

Ihde, D. Shapes, Surfaces, and Interiors. from Listening and Voice, Ohio University Press, 1976; reprinted in Soundscape, The Journal of Acoustic Ecology, 2(1), 2001, pp. 16-17.

Ihde, D. & Slaughter, T. Studies in the Phenomenology of Sound: Listening. International Philosophical Journal, 10, 1970.

Lacey, K. Listening Publics: The Politics and Experience of Listening in the Media Age, Polity Press, 2013.

McAdams, S. & Bigand, E. eds. Thinking in Sound: The cognitive psychology of human audition, Clarendon, 1993.

Metz, C. Aural Objects. In E. Weis & J. Belton, eds. Film Sound, Columbia University Press, 1985.

Moray, N. Listening and attention. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 1969.

Smalley, D. The listening imagination: Listening in the electroacoustic era. In J. Paynter, T. Howell, R. Orton and P. Seymour, eds. Companion to Contemporary Musical Thought. London: Routledge, 1992.

Wolvin, A. & Coakley, C. Perspectives on Listening, Ablex, 1993.

Wolvin, A. D., & Coakley, C. G. Listening. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown, 1982.

Westerkamp, H. Listening and Soundmaking: A Study of Music-as-Environment. In D. Lander & M. Lexier, eds. Sound by Artists, Art Metropole & Walter Phillips Gallery, 1990.



 (representative texts only)


Brüel, P.V. Do We Measure Damaging Noise Correctly. B & K Technical Review, no. 1, 1976.

Cochlear Implants. NIH Consensus Statement, 1988; and The Use of Cochlear Implants: A Position Paper. Canadian Cultural Society of the Deaf, n.d

see also:, and:

Hétu, R. The Hearing Conservation Paradigm and the Experienced Effects of Occupational Noise Exposure. Canadian Acoustics, 22(1), 1994, pp. 3-19.

Noble, W. The Evaluation of Disability and Handicap in Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. Canadian Acoustics, 19(2), 23-26, 1991.

Rosen, S. Presbycusis Study of a Relatively Noise-Free Population in the Sudan. Transactions, American Otological Society, vol. 50, 1962.

Royster, J. & L., & Clark, W. Amplified Music (from stereo headsets) and its Effect on Hearing. Hearing Instruments, vol. 41, no. 10, 1990, pp. 28-30.



Bijsterveld, K. Mechanical Sound: Technology, Culture, and Public Problems of Noise in the Twentieth Century, MIT Press, 2008. (TD 892 B548 2008)

Bryan, M. & Tempest, W. Are Our Noise Laws Adequate. Applied Acoustics, 6, 1973, 219-232.

Campbell, J. Ambient Stressors. Environment and Behavior, 15(3), 1983, pp. 355-380.

Fighting Noise in the 1990s, OECD Publications, Paris, 1991.

Hawkins, M. & Large, J. Subjective response to noise in rural villages, particularly from road traffic. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 88 (3), 321-331, 1983.

Jones, D. & Chapman, A. eds. Noise and Society, Wiley, 1984.

Kryter, K. D. The Effects of Noise on Man. New York: Academic Press, 2nd. ed., 1985.

Suter, A. Noise Sources and Effects - A New Look. Sound and Vibration, Jan. 1992, 18-38.

Tempest, W., ed. The Noise Handbook. London: Academic, 1985.

Thiessen, G. Effects of Noise on Sleep. In Effects of Noise on Man, National Research Council Document 15383, 1976.

White, F. A. Our Acoustic Environment, Wiley, 1975.


Bijsterveld, K., Mechanical Sound: Technology, Culture, and Public Problems of Noise in the Twentieth Century, MIT Press, 2008.

Schwartz, H., Making Noise: From Babel to the Big Bang and Beyond, Zone Books, 2011.


Barnes, S. H. Muzak: The hidden messages in music. Lewiston, NY: E. Mellen Press, 1988.

Cardinell, R.L. Music in Industry. In Schullian & Schoen, eds., Music and Medicine, 1948.

DeNora, T. Music in Everyday Life, Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Westerkamp, H. Listening and Soundmaking: A Study of Music-as-Environment. In D. Lander & M. Lexier, eds. Sound by Artists, Art Metropole & Walter Phillips Gallery, 1990.