Courses in Acoustic Communication
CMNS 859-5 : ACOUSTIC DIMENSIONS OF COMMUNICATION
Instructor: Barry Truax, K-9676, 778-782-4261, email: email@example.com
Website: http://www.sfu.ca/~truax & www.sfu.ca/sonic-studio/
Texts: B. Truax, Acoustic Communication, 2nd ed., Ablex 2001. (QC 225.15 T78)
Five Village Soundscapes, ARC Publications 1977. (QC 229 D38); reprinted in H. Jarviluoma et al., eds., Acoustic Environments in Change, Tampere, 2009. (QC 229 A26 2009)
B. Truax, ed., Handbook for Acoustic Ecology, CD-ROM edition, Cambridge Street Publishing, 1999.
CMNS 359/859 Readings (online pdf's: www.sfu.ca/sonic-studio/AcousticCommunication; see Index below)
References: WFAE website: www.wfae.net; video collection related to acoustic ecology: soundexplorations.blogspot.com
P. Denes & E. Pinson, The Speech Chain. (QP 306 D45), W.H.Freeman, 2nd ed., 1993. (P95 D46 1993)
W. Ong, Orality and Literacy. Methuen, 1982. (P35 O54)
D. Tannen, ed. Spoken and Written Language: Exploring Orality and Literacy, Ablex, 1982. (P302 S6)
D. Tannen & M. Saville-Troike, eds. Perspectives on Silence, Ablex, 1985. (P95.53, P47)
A. Wolvin & C. Coakley, Perspectives on Listening, Ablex, 1993. (P95.46 P47 1993)
D. Ihde, Listening and Voice: Phenomenologies of Sound, SUNY Press, 2007 (B 829.5 I34 2007)
J. Attali, Noise (The Political Economy of Music), The University of Minnesota Press, 1985. (ML 3795 A913)
E. Thompson, The Soundscape of Modernity, MIT Press, 2002. (NA 2800 T48 2002)
J-F. Augoyard, & H. Torgue, eds. Sonic experience: A guide to everyday sounds (translated by A. McCartney & D. Paquette). McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005. (BF 353.5 N65 S6513 2005)
B. Smith, The Acoustic World of Early Modern England, University of Chicago Press, 1999. (PR 428 P65 S65 1999)
A. Corbin, Village Bells: Sound and Meaning in the Nineteenth-century French Countryside, Columbia University Press, 1998. (DC 33.5 C6713 1998)
B. Blesser & L.R. Salter, Spaces Speak, Are You Listening? Experiencing Aural Architecture, MIT Press, 2007. (QP 443 B585 2007)
P. Kruth & H. Stobart, eds. Sound, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000. (QC 225.6 S68 2000)
M. Bull & Les Back, eds. The Auditory Culture Reader, Oxford, 2003. (GN 275 A83 2003)
J. Drobnik, Aural Cultures, YYZ/Walter Phillips Gallery Editions, 2004.
P. du Gay et al., Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman, Sage Publications, 1997. (TK 7881.6 D65 1997)
M. Bull, Sounding Out The City: Personal Stereos and the Management of Everyday Life, Oxford 2000 (T 14.5 B85)
M. Bull, Sound Moves: iPod Culture and Urban Experience, Routledge, 2007 (ML 3916 B85 2007)
J. Sterne, The Audible Past: Cultural Origins of Sound Reproduction, Duke University Press, 2003. (TK 7881.4 S733 2003)
J. Sterne, MP3: The Meaning of a Format, Duke University Press, 2012 (ML 74.4 M6 S74 2012)
J. Sterne, ed. The Sound Studies Reader, Routledge, 2012 (electronic resource)
M. Ayers, ed. Cybersounds: Essay on Virtual Music Culture, Peter Lang, 2006. (ML 3916 P67 C93 2006)
P. Théberge, Any Sound You Can Imagine, Wesleyan University Press, 1997. (ML 1092 T38 1997)
T. DeNora, Music in Everyday Life, Cambridge University Press, 2000. (electronic resource)
V. Erlmann, ed., Hearing Cultures: Essays on Sound, Listening and Modernity, Oxford: Berg, 2004. (GN 307.5 H4)
V. Erlmann, Reason and Resonance: A History of Modern Aurality, Zone Books, 2010. (BF 251 E75 2010)
F. Dyson, Sounding New Media: Immerson and Embodiment in the Arts and Culture, University of California Press, 2009 (BD 331 D97 2009)
K. Bijsterveld, Mechanical Sound: Technology, Culture, and Public Problems of Noise in the Twentieth Century, MIT Press, 2008. (TD 892 B548 2008)
K. Bijsterveld & T. Pinch, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Sound Studies, Oxford, 2012 (QC 225.15 O93 2012)
K. Bijsterveld, ed. Soundscapes of the Urban Past: Staged Sound as Mediated Cultural Heritage, Transcript 2013 (HT 153 S68 2014)
D. Jones & A. Chapman, eds. Noise and Society, Wiley, 1984. (RA 772 N7 N65)
C. Plack, The Sense of Hearing, Lawrence Erlbaum, 2005. (BF 251 P57 2005)
S. McAdams & E. Bigand, eds. Thinking in Sound: The cognitive psychology of human audition, Clarendon, 1993. (BF 323 L5 T55 1993)
A. Bregman, Auditory Scene Analysis, MIT Press, 1990. (QP 465 B74 1990)
S. Handel, Listening, MIT Press, 1989. (BF 251 H27 1989/1993)
P. Cook, ed. Music, Cognition, and Computerized Sound, MIT Press, 1999. (ML 3805 M881 1999)
Proceedings, The Tuning of the World (conference on acoustic ecology), vol. 2, 1993; Acoustic Ecology Conference, Stockholm, 1998.
Soundscape, the Journal of Acoustic Ecology, WFAE.This course is intended as an intensive survey of the field of acoustic communication, that is, to the study of sound, its behaviour, uses, effects, and design in social, cultural, environmental and media contexts. The topics to be presented will include acoustics, psychoacoustics, environmental acoustics and acoustic design, soundscape studies, electroacoustic media, noise in the community, language and soundmaking, as well as theories of sound cognition and information processing.
The course topics are divided between two formats as outlined below, the first (the seminar) dealing with the concepts and models of acoustic communication, and the second (the lab) dealing with specific terminology and applied examples concerning sound and its perception. Two term papers (approx. 15 pages or 4000 words) are expected to deal with topics of the student’s choice in these areas. The reference books listed above should be consulted where appropriate. A letter grade average will be made of the two term papers, weighted equally unless otherwise requested. The essays will be due in week 7 and one week after the last class.
In-class presentation: during the final seminar, each student will be asked to present a brief overview of one of their research topics.
The school expects that the grades awarded in this course will bear some reasonable relation to established university-wide practices with respect to both levels and distribution of grades. In addition, The School will follow Policy S10.01 with respect to Academic Integrity, and Policies S10.02, S10.03 and S10.04 as regards Student Discipline (note: as of May 1, 2009 the previous T10 series of policies covering Intellectual Honesty (T10.02) and Academic Discipline (T10.03) have been replaced with the new S10 series of policies).
Seminar Topics and Readings:
Note: All Readings are to be done for the date listed. AC refers to Acoustic Communication, 2nd edition. FVS refers to Five Village Soundscapes. Chapters from the books on reserve are useful supplements to these readings.
Date Topic & Readings
Week 1: Introduction: Acoustic & Electroacoustic Communication
AC: chapter 1, chapter 4 (pp. 49-59) & chapter 8
Wrightson, “An Introduction to Acoustic Ecology”
Truax, "Electroacoustic music: The inner and outer world", part I
Sterne, "Sonic Imaginations," Ch. 1 from Sound Studies Reader
T. Ingold, “Against Soundscape”
Kelman, "Rethinking the Soundscape"
Leiss, “On the vitality of our discipline: New applications of communication theory”
(opt) Laske, "Composition theory: An enrichment of music theory"
Week 2: Listening & The Listener as Consumer
AC: chapters 2 & 10
Ihde, “Shapes, Surfaces, and Interiors"
Ballas & Howard, "Interpreting the language of environmental sounds"
Thompson, “Edison and the Tone Tests”
Mendelsohn, "Listening to radio"
Bull, “Reconfiguring the Site and Horizon of Experience”
Bull, “Investigating the Culture of Mobile Listening: From Walkman to iPod”
Blesser & Salter, “Auditory Spatial Awareness”
(opt) Metz, "Aural objects"
(opt) McAdams, "Recognition of sound sources and events"
(opt) Ballas, "Common factors in the identification of brief everyday sounds"
(opt) Gaver, "Explorations in Ecological Acoustics"
Week 3: Voice, Soundmaking & Orality
AC: chapter 3
Ong, Orality and Literacy (ch. 3)
De Kerckhove, "Oral Versus Literate Listening"
Bruneau, "Communicative silences: Forms and functions"
Franklin, "Silence and the notion of the commons"
Miller, “Silence in the Contemporary Soundscape”
(opt) Hockett, "The origin of speech"
(opt) Ostwald, "Sounds in human communication"
(opt) Lomax, "Song structure and social structure"
Week 4: The Acoustic Community
AC: chapter 5
FVS: Intro. & chapters 1 - 5
Southworth, "The sonic environment of cities"
C. Smith, "The acoustic experience of place"
Feld, "From ethnomusicology to echo-muse-ecology"
(opt) Porteous, "Soundscape"
Week 5: The Acoustic & Electroacoustic Community
AC: chapter 12
FVS: chapters 6 & 7
Théberge, "The 'Sound' of Music: Technological Rationalization and the Production of Popular Music"
Herman & McChesney, excerpts from "The Global Media in the Late 1990s"
Week 6: Noise and Environment/Music and Environment
AC: chapters 6
Thompson, chapter 4 “Noise and Modern Culture”
Bijsterveld, “The diabolical symphony of the mechanical age”
Westerkamp, "Listening and soundmaking: A study of music-as-environment"
Orwell, “Pleasure Spots”
(opt) Shepherd, "Music as cultural text"
(opt) Moisala, "Cognitive study of music as culture"
(opt) Cardinell, "Music in industry"
Week 7: Audio Media Analysis I
AC: chapter 11
Barber, "Radio: Audio art's frightful parent"
Huron, "Music in advertising"
Doane, “The voice in cinema: The articulation of body and space”
Mowitt, ad analysis (pp. 173-179) in "The sound of music in the era of its electronic reproducibility"
(opt) Berland, "Radio space and industrial time"
(opt) Silverman, "Dis-embodying the female voice"
Week 8: Audio Media Analysis II
Attali, chapter 4 "Repeating"
Thompson, chapter 6, “Electroacoustics and Modern Sound”
du Gay et al., chapter 5 “Consuming the Walkman”
Théberge, “Musicians as Market, Consumers of Technology”
(opt) O'Connell, "The Fine Tuning of a Golden Ear: High-end Audio and the Evolutionary Model of Technology"
(opt) Perlman, Marc. “Golden ears and meter readers: The contest for epistemic authority in audiophilia”
Week 9: The Recorded Document & the Digital Era
AC: chapter 13
Sterne, “A machine to hear for them: On the very possibility of sound’s reproduction”
Sterne, “The mp3 as Cultural Artifact”
Taylor, Ch. 1 “Music, Technology, Agency, and Practice”
Katz, Ch. 1 “Causes” & Ch. 8 “Listening in Cyberspace”
(opt) Gould, “The Prospects of Recording”Week 10: Audiology, Hearing Loss & the Effects of Noise
(opt) Hecker, "Glenn Gould, the Vanishing Performer and the Ambivalence of the Studio"
White, "Physiological and psychological effects of sound"
Bryan & Tempest, "Are our noise laws adequate?"
Campbell, "Ambient stressors"
Hétu, "The hearing conservation paradigm"
Rosen, "Presbycusis study of a relatively noise-free population in the Sudan"
Royster & Clark, "Amplified music and its effect on hearing"
(opt) Thiessen, "The effects of noise on sleep"
(opt) Suter, "Noise sources and effects - A new look"
Week 11: Soundscape Composition
Truax, "Soundscape, Acoustic Communication and Environmental Sound Composition"Week 12: Acoustic & Electroacoustic Design
Truax, "Genres and Techniques of Soundscape Composition as Developed at SFU"
Truax, "Soundscape Compositiona s Global Music: Electroacoustic Music as Soundscape"
Drever, "Soundscape Composition: The Convergence of Ethnography and Acousmatic Music"
Westerkamp, "Linking Soundscape Composition and Acoustic Ecology"
AC: chapters 7 & 14
Truax, "Electroacoustic music: The inner and outer world", part II
Wagstaff, "What is acoustic ecology's 'ecology'"
Truax, “Models and Strategies for Acoustic Design”
(opt) Wershler, “Sonic Signage”
(opt) Swedish "Manifesto for a Better Environment of Sound"
Week 13 Student Presentations
Lab Schedule: (note: Grad students audit this part of the course)
In preparation for each lab you are asked to consult the Handbook terms listed in the Thematic Search Engine of the CD-ROM under the given heading. Terms and concepts that you have trouble with should be noted and brought up in class. A list of suggested additional readings is provided below, along with the acoustic and psychoacoustic texts that are on library reserve, should the student wish to incorporate this material into one of their term papers.
Introduction(s) in Handbook CD-ROM
Sound-Medium Interface (plus AC, 2nd ed., pp. 145-152)
Vibration, Pitch and Spectrum (A, B)
Vibration and Timbre (C, D, E) (plus AC, 2nd ed., pp. 137-142) Week 5 Sound-Environment Interaction (A, B, C) Week 6 Sound-Environment Interaction and Acoustic Space (D, E, F, G, H) Week 7 Magnitude (plus AC, 2nd ed., pp. 142-145) Week 8 Sound-Sound Interaction Week 9 Speech Acoustics: consult "Vowel," "Consonant," "Formant," in Handbook
plus seminar readings (Denes & Pinson, Sundberg)
Week 10 Audiology, Hearing Loss & Risk Criteria Week 11 Noise Measurement Systems & Risk Criteria Week 12 Review Week 13 Final Quiz (undergraduate)
INDEX TO READINGS
ACOUSTIC & ELECTROACOUSTIC COMMUNICATIONK. Wrightson, “An Introduction to Acoustic Ecology,” Soundscape, The Journal of Acoustic Ecology, 1(1), 2000, pp. 10-13.
B. Truax, "Electroacoustic Music: The Inner and Outer World", in Companion to Contemporary Musical Thought, vol. 1, Routledge, 1992, part I (pp. 374-385).
J. Sterne, "Sonic Imaginations," chapter 1, The Sound Studies Reader, Routledge, 2012.
A. Kelman, "Rethinking the Soundscape: A Critical Genealogy of a Key Term in Sound Studies," Senses and Society, 5(2), 213-34, 2010.
T. Ingold, “Against Soundscape”, in A. Carlyle, ed., Autumn Leaves, Double Entendre, Paris 2007.
W. Leiss, “On the Vitality of our Discipline: New Applications of Communication Theory,” Canadian Journal of Communication, 16(2), 1991, 291-305.
O.E. Laske, "Composition Theory: An Enrichment of Music Theory," Interface, vol. 18, 1989, pp. 45-69.
LISTENING & THE LISTENER AS CONSUMERD. Ihde, “Shapes, Surfaces, and Interiors,” from Listening and Voice, Ohio University Press, 1976; reprinted in Soundscape, The Journal of Acoustic Ecology, 2(1), 2001, pp. 16-17.
J. Ballas & J. Howard, "Interpreting the Language of Environmental Sounds," Environment & Behavior, Jan. 1987.
E. Thompson, “Edison and the Tone Tests”, The Soundscape of Modernity, MIT Press, 2002, pp. 235-247.
H. Mendelsohn, "Listening to Radio," in Dexter & White, eds. People, Society and Mass Communication, 1964.
M. Bull, Sounding Out the City: Personal Stereos and the Management of Everyday Life. Oxford, 2000. Ch. 3 “Reconfiguring the Site and Horizon of Experience”.
M. Bull, “Investigating the Culture of Mobile Listening: From Walkman to iPod,” in K. O’Hara & B. Brown, eds. Consuming Music Together, Spring 2006.
B. Blesser & L. Salter, “Auditory Spatial Awareness”, in Spaces Speak, Are You Listening?. MIT Press, 2007, pp. 11-46.
C. Metz, "Aural Objects," in E. Weis & J. Belton, eds. Film Sound, Columbia University Press, 1985.
S. McAdams, "Recognition of Sound Sources and Events," Thinking in Sound: The cognitive Psychology of Human Audition, Clarendon, 1993, 174-179.
J. Ballas, "Common Factors in the Identification of an Assortment of Brief Everyday Sounds," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19(2), 1993, 250-267.
VOICE, SOUNDMAKING & ORALITYW. Ong, "The Psychodynamics of Orality," chapter 3, Orality and Literacy, Methuen, 1982.THE ACOUSTIC & ELECTROACOUSTIC COMMUNITY
D. De Kerckhove, "Oral Versus Literate Listening," chapter 9, The Skin of Culture, Somerville House Publishing, 1995.
W. Bruneau, "Communicative Silences: Forms and Functions," Journal of Communication, 23, 1973, 17-46.
U. Franklin, "Silence and the Notion of the Commons," Soundscape, The Journal of Acoustic Ecology, 1(2), 2000, pp. 14-17.
W. Miller, “Silence in the Contemporary Soundscape,” Soundscape, The Journal of Acoustic Ecology, 1(2), 2000, pp. 18-19.
C. Hockett, "The Origin of Speech," Scientific American, Sept. 1960.
P. Ostwald, "Sounds in Human Communication," in Communication and Social Interaction, Grune & Stratton.
A. Lomax, "Song Structure and Social Structure," Ethnology, vol. 1, 1962.
M. Southworth, "The Sonic Environment of Cities," Environment and Behavior, vol. 1, no. 1, 1969.
C. Smith, "The Acoustic Experience of Place," Proceedings, The Tuning of the World Conference, Banff, vol. 2, 1993.
S. Feld, "From Ethnomusicology to Echo-muse-ecology," The Soundscape Newsletter, no. 8, 1994.
J.D. Porteous, "Soundscape," chapter 3, Landscapes of the Mind, University of Toronto Press, 1990.
P. Théberge, "The 'Sound' of Music: Technological Rationalization and the Production of Popular Music," New Formations, vol. 8, 1989, pp. 99-111.
E. Herman & R. McChesney, excerpts from "The Global Media in the Late 1990s," The Global Media, Cassell, 1997.
NOISE AND ENVIRONMENT/MUSIC AND ENVIRONMENT
E. Thompson, The Soundscape of Modernity, ch. 4 “Noise and Modern Culture”, MIT Press, 2002.
K. Bijsterveld, “The Diabolical Symphony of the Mechanical Age,” Social Studies of Science, 31(1), February 2001, 37-70.
H. Westerkamp, "Listening and Soundmaking: A Study of Music-as-Environment," in D. Lander & M. Lexier, eds. Sound by Artists, Art Metropole & Walter Phillips Gallery, 1990.
G. Orwell, “Pleasure Spots,” The Collected Essays, vol. 4, Harcourt, Brace & World, 1968 pp. 78-81.
J. Shepherd, "Music as cultural text," in Companion to Contemporary Musical Thought, vol. 1, Routledge, 1992.
P. Moisala, "Cognitive Study of Music as Culture - Basic Premises for Cognitive Musicology," Journal of New Music Research, 24, 1995, 8-20.
R.L. Cardinell, "Music in Industry," in Schullian & Schoen, eds., Music and Medicine, 1948.
AUDIO MEDIA ANALYSIS
B. Barber, "Radio: Audio Art's Frightful Parent," in D. Lander & M. Lexier, eds. Sound by Artists, Art Metropole & Walter Phillips Gallery, 1990.AUDIOLOGY, HEARING LOSS AND THE EFFECTS OF NOISE
D. Huron, "Music in Advertising: An Analytic Paradigm," The Musical Quarterly, 73, 1989, 557-574.
M.A. Doane, “The Voice in Cinema: The Articulation of Body and Space,” in E.Weis & J.Belton, eds. Film Sound, Columbia University Press, 1985.
J. Mowitt, "The Sound of Music in the Era of its Electronic Reproducibility," in R. Leppert & S. McClary, eds. Music and Society, Cambridge University Press, 1987, pp. 173-197.
K. Silverman, "Dis-Embodying the Female Voice," in Re-Vision: Essays on Feminist Film Criticism, The American Film Institute Monograph Series, vol. 3, 1984.
J. Berland, "Radio Space and Industrial Time," in Canadian Music: Issues of Hegemony and Identity, B. Diamond and R. Witmer, eds., Canadian Scholars Press, 1993.
J. Attali, Noise (The Political Economy of Music), The Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1985. Ch. 4 “Repeating”, p. 87-120 (“The Emplacement of Recording” and “Double Repetition”).
E. Thompson, The Soundscape of Modernity, ch. 6, “Electroacoustics and Modern Sound”, MIT Press, 2002.
P. du Gay et al., Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman, Sage Publications, 1997. Ch. 5 “Consuming the Walkman”.
P. Théberge, “Musicians as Market, Consumers of Technology,” OneTwoThreeFour, 9, 1990, 53-90.
J. O'Connell, "The Fine Tuning of a Golden Ear: High-end Audio and the Evolutionary Model of Technology," Technology and Culture, vol. 33, no. 1, 1992, pp. 1-37.
M. Perlman, “Golden ears and meter readers: The Contest for Epistemic Authority in Audiophilia,” Social Studies of Science, 35(5), 2004, 783-807.
F. A. White, "Physiological and Psychological Effects of Sound," chapter 17, Our Acoustic Environment, Wiley, 1975.
J. Campbell, "Ambient Stressors," Environment & Behavior, 15(3), May 1983.
M. Bryan & W. Tempest, "Are Our Noise Laws Adequate," Applied Acoustics, 6, 1973, 219-232.
R. Hétu, "The Hearing Conservation Paradigm and the Experienced Effects of Occupational Noise Exposure, Canadian Acoustics, 22(1), 1994, pp. 3-19.
S. Rosen, "Presbycusis Study of a Relatively Noise-Free Population in the Sudan, Transactions, American Otological Society, vol. 50, 1962.
J. & L. Royster & W. Clark, "Amplified Music (from stereo headsets) and its Effect on Hearing," Hearing Instruments, vol. 41, no. 10, 1990, pp. 28-30.
G. Thiessen, "Effects of Noise on Sleep," in Effects of Noise on Man, National Research Council Document 15383, 1976.
A. Suter, "Noise Sources and Effects - A New Look," Sound and Vibration, Jan. 1992, 18-38.
THE RECORDED DOCUMENT & THE DIGITAL ERA
J. Sterne, “A Machine to Hear for Them: On the Very Possibility of Sound’s Reproduction,” Cultural Studies, 15(2), 2001, 259-294.
J. Sterne, “The mp3 as Cultural Artifact,” New Media and Society, 8(5), 2006, 825-842.
T. Taylor, Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, and Culture, Routledge, 2001. Ch. 2 “Music, Technology, Agency, and Practice”
M. Katz, Capturing Sound : How Technology Has Changed Music, University of California Press, 2004. Ch. 1 “Causes” & Ch. 8 “Listening in Cyberspace”
G. Gould, "The Prospects of Recording," Hi Fidelity, 16(46), 1966.
T. Hecker, "Glenn Gould, the Vanishing Performer and the Ambivalence of the Studio," Leonardo Music Journal, 18, 77-83, 2008.
ACOUSTIC & ELECTROACOUSTIC DESIGN (and Soundscape Composition)
B. Truax, "Electroacoustic Music: The Inner and Outer World", in Companion to Contemporary Musical Thought, vol. 1, Routledge, 1992, part II (pp. 385-398).
B. Truax, "Soundscape, Acoustic Communication and Environmental Sound Composition," Contemporary Music Review, 15(1), 49-65, 1996.
B. Truax, "Genres and Techniques of Soundscape Composition as Developed at SFU," Organised Sound, 13(2), 103-109, 2002.
B. Truax, "Soundscape Composition as Global Music: Electroacoustic Music as Soundscape,"Organised Sound, 13(2), 103-109, 2008.
B. Truax, “Models and Strategies for Acoustic Design”, 1998 (www.sfu.ca/~truax/models.html)
J. Drever, "Soundscape Composition: The Convergence of Ethnography and Acousmatic Music," Organised Sound, 7(1), 21-27, 2002.
H. Westerkamp, "Linking Soundscape Composition and Acoustic Ecology," Organised Sound, 7(1), 51-56, 2002.
G. Wagstaff, "What is Acoustic Ecology's 'Ecology'," Soundscape Newsletter, no. 9, 1999.
D. Wershler, “Sonic Signage: [murmur], the Refrain, and Territoriality,” Canadian Journal of Communication, 33, 405-418, 2008.