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School of Criminology | Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Simon Fraser University Calendar | Summer 2019

Police Studies Minor

Program Declaration and Continuation

Students with a minimum 2.25 cumulative grade point average (CGPA) apply for program declaration to the School of Criminology after completing 30 units including all of the Criminology lower division requirements with minimum C- grades.

To continue in the minor, students must maintain a 2.25 CGPA. Students whose CGPA falls below 2.25 cannot enroll in any upper division CRIM courses.


Students are responsible for satisfying the prerequisites for all required and elective courses. The school does not routinely waive the completion of prerequisite courses.

Program Requirements

Lower Division Requirements

All of

CRIM 101 - Introduction to Criminology (3)

Topics will include: examination of different terms and concepts commonly used in criminology, such as crime, delinquency, deviance, criminal, victim, rehabilitation and treatment. Criminology as a body of knowledge and as a profession. Position and subject matter of criminology. Relationship between criminology and other academic disciplines. Specificity of criminology. Relationship between theory and practice. History and evolution of criminological thought. Elements of continuity and discontinuity between classical and modern theories of criminality. Levels of explanations in criminology. Practical applications of criminology. The foundations of a modern criminal policy. Breadth-Social Sciences.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
C100 Distance Education
D100 Val Spicer
Mo 8:30 AM – 10:20 AM
SWH 10041, Burnaby
D101 Mo 10:30 AM – 11:20 AM
SWH 10315, Burnaby
D102 Mo 11:30 AM – 12:20 PM
SWH 10315, Burnaby
D103 Mo 12:30 PM – 1:20 PM
SWH 10315, Burnaby
D104 Mo 2:30 PM – 3:20 PM
SWH 10315, Burnaby
D105 Mo 3:30 PM – 4:20 PM
SWH 10315, Burnaby
D106 Mo 4:30 PM – 5:20 PM
SWH 10315, Burnaby
D107 Tu 8:30 AM – 9:20 AM
SWH 10315, Burnaby
D108 Tu 9:30 AM – 10:20 AM
SWH 10315, Burnaby
D109 Tu 10:30 AM – 11:20 AM
SWH 10315, Burnaby
D110 Tu 11:30 AM – 12:20 PM
SWH 10315, Burnaby
CRIM 131 - Introduction to the Criminal Justice System - A Total System Approach (3)

Introductory analysis of the structure and operation of the Canadian criminal justice system. Examination of the patterns of crime and victimization; police operations, discretion and decision making; the criminal courts, including sentencing; the corrections system, including correctional institutions and community-based models; the youth justice system. Patterns of contact and conflict between various social groups and the criminal justice system. Breadth-Social Sciences.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
C100 Distance Education
D900 Sarah Yercich
Th 10:30 AM – 12:20 PM
SUR 3090, Surrey
D901 Th 2:30 PM – 3:20 PM
SUR 3200, Surrey
D902 Th 2:30 PM – 3:20 PM
SUR 2750, Surrey
D903 Th 3:30 PM – 4:20 PM
SUR 3200, Surrey
D905 Th 4:30 PM – 5:20 PM
SUR 2750, Surrey
CRIM 251 - Introduction to Policing (3)

An examination of the organization and operation of contemporary Canadian policing. Consideration of the history and development of policing in Canada, the role of the police in Canadian society and the police occupation, including recruitment and training. Discussion of police decision making and the exercise of discretion, police powers, and structures of accountability. Managing the police organization. Examination of police-community relations and crime prevention initiatives. Prerequisite: CRIM 131. Students with credit for CRIM 151 may not take this course for further credit.

Upper Division Course Access and Requirements

Students with a minimum 2.25 CGPA are eligible to enroll in upper division Criminology courses upon successful completion of 60 units and Criminology program declaration.

Note that same upper division course may not be used for formal credit in both the criminology major and the police studies minor. Students cannot obtain credit for both the post baccalaureate diploma in police studies and this minor program.

Students complete a minimum of 18 upper division units, chosen from the following list, or from any other 300 or 400 division course that is designated as a police studies course from either the School of Criminology (e.g. Special Topics courses), or from another department. See the School of Criminology's academic advisor for further information.

Minorities and the Criminal Justice System

CRIM 311 - Minorities and the Criminal Justice System (3)

An analysis of political, economic, and ethnic minorities and their relationship with the criminal justice system. Critical analysis of possible discordance, disharmony or conflict between ethnic and racial minorities such as Native Indians, Inuit, Metis, Doukhobor and others and the legal and social norms of the 'host' majority. Women and the criminal justice system. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 419 - Aboriginal/Indigenous Justice (3)

An in-depth examination of Aboriginal/indigenous conceptions of justice in dealing with crime and other trouble in indigenous communities, and in relations among peoples. Prerequisite: CRIM 101 or FNST 101 or 201 or permission of the instructor. Students with credit for this course as CRIM 416 or 418, or FNST 419, may not take this course for further credit.

CRIM 429 - Indigenous Peoples and International Law (3)

An examination of how relations between indigenous and non-indigenous peoples framed and were framed by the development of international law from the 15th century onward. Prerequisite: CRIM 101 or FNST 101 or 201 or permission of instructor. Students with credit for CRIM 416, or 418 under the title "Indigenous Peoples and International Law" or "Indigenous Peoples and Evolving International Relations", or FNST 429 may not take this course for further credit.

Forensic Studies

CRIM 355 - The Forensic Sciences (3)

Examines the use and interpretation of physical forensic evidence in court. It will critically examine and evaluate the major forensic sciences used in criminal investigations today, as well as look at the crime scene. Subjects examined will include forensic pathology, odontology, biology, DNA evidence, firearms evidence, toxicology chemistry and questioned documents. Techniques will be illustrated with case studies. Prerequisite: 45 units. Breadth-Social Sciences.

Section Day/Time Location
C100 Distance Education
CRIM 356 - The Forensic Sciences II (3)

Introduces the methodological principles of analytical procedures and applications relevant to 21st century criminalistics as applied to skeletonized remains. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 357 - Forensic Anatomy (3)

An introduction to human anatomy and physiology relevant to the biological aspects of human forensics. Examines different body systems including form, function and development in the human adult and child, and discusses post mortem alteration to anatomical structures in the context of forensic anthropology and pathology. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 451 - Advanced Techniques in Forensic Science (3)

Looks at the advanced and sometimes more controversial areas of forensic science used in the criminal justice system today. Most areas are those outside the crime lab and require extensive and in-depth training in a very focused field. Seminars may cover areas such as the use of polygraph, blood spatter pattern analysis, entomology, pathology, odontology, anthropology, genocide investigation, facial approximation, crime scene analysis on land, underwater and mass homicide scenarios. Prerequisite: CRIM 101. Recommended: CRIM 355. Students with credit for CRIM 420 in 01-3, 00-3, 99-3, 98-3 or 97-3 may not take this course for further credit.

CRIM 452 - Skeletal Pathology and Criminalistics (3)

The examination of disease processes which affect and reveal themselves in the human skeleton at the level of surface morphology, radiology and histology and other relevant analytical methodologies relevant to criminalistics and human identification. Prerequisite: CRIM 101. Recommended: CRIM 357. Students who have taken this course as CRIM 417 may not take this course for further credit.

Restorative Justice

CRIM 315 - Restorative Justice (4)

The course will contrast restorative justice with the dominant adversarial/retributive/punitive model of justice through a critical analysis of these two paradigms of justice. Several key principles, assumptions, and concepts necessary for understanding the foundation and practice of restorative justice will be introduced and explored. Prerequisite: 45 units. Breadth-Social Sciences.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
D100 Muhammad Asadullah
Mo 2:30 PM – 4:20 PM
SWH 10041, Burnaby
D101 Mo 4:30 PM – 6:20 PM
SWH 10304, Burnaby
D102 Tu 8:30 AM – 10:20 AM
SWH 10304, Burnaby
D103 Tu 10:30 AM – 12:20 PM
SWH 10304, Burnaby
D104 Tu 2:30 PM – 4:20 PM
SWH 10304, Burnaby
D105 Tu 4:30 PM – 6:20 PM
SWH 10304, Burnaby
D106 Tu 12:30 PM – 2:20 PM
SWH 10304, Burnaby
D107 Tu 2:30 PM – 4:20 PM
SWH 9071, Burnaby
CRIM 442 - Restorative Justice Practice: Advanced Topics (3)

An in-depth examination of the various community-based and institutional practices in promoting restorative processes, based on an examination and comparison of the values, philosophical approaches and outcomes of selected western and non-western models. Practices examined will include a range of restorative justice initiatives, including victim-offender mediation, family-group conferencing, multi-party mediation, and various circle remedies. This examination will include the application of restorative justice in the community, in schools and at all levels of the legal process (pre-arrest to post-incarceration and reintegration). Prerequisite: CRIM 315. Recommended: CRIM 343.


CRIM 380 - Introduction to Cybercrime (3)

Explores legal, technical and social issues in cybercrime. Discusses the nature of cybercrime, with specific examples, and methods of regulation in Canada and worldwide. Addresses origins and extent of cybercrime, responses from the legal system and consideration of the wider effects for society. Prerequisite: CRIM 101. Students with credit for CRIM 318 under this topic (Fall 2009 or Spring 2010) may not take this course for further credit.

Section Day/Time Location
C100 Distance Education
CRIM 480 - Computer Forensics and Cybercrime (3)

Advanced exploration of high-tech crime and exploration of the tools and techniques used by cyber-criminals. Examines the techniques used by law enforcement to investigate and prosecute offenders, as well as the probable future development of cybercrime. Prerequisite: CRlM 380. Students who have taken CRIM 416/417/418 under the topic in Spring 2010 may not take this course for further credit.

Section Day/Time Location
C100 Distance Education
CRIM 481 - Advanced Issues in Cybercrime (3)

Analysis of complex, emerging and current cyber-security threats. Discusses methods used to identify cybercrime threats and vulnerabilities, as well as the social, economic and legal implications. Insight into creating an effective defensive plan, and an understanding of future security trends and threats which are likely to develop. Prerequisite: CRIM 380. Students who have taken CRIM 416/417/418 under this topic in Spring 2010 may not take this course for further credit.

Crime Analysis and Crime Prevention

CRIM 350 - Techniques of Crime Prevention I (3)

Techniques of mobilizing community resources for crime prevention. Organizing, implementing and managing citizen efforts to reduce crime. Recruiting citizen assistance, training requirements, establishing and operating citizen organizations, evaluating results. Organizing programs for reducing criminal opportunity, programs for education, employment and recreation. Operating youth services centres, residential programs, crisis intervention and emergency centres. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 352 - Environmental Criminology: Theory and Practice (3)

Explores the history of the field of environmental criminology and critically examines the theoretical approaches within the field. Special emphasis is placed upon the relationship between crime, fear and the environment, the criminality of place and the decision processes involved in criminal events. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 433 - Communities and Crime (3)

Examines communities and neighborhoods as contexts for thinking about a wide range of criminological issues including crime, fear, victimization, policing, and policy. Theoretical explanations and applied research will be used to explore how and why "community" is important for understanding crime and criminal justice. Prerequisite: CRIM 101. Students with credit for this course as CRIM 418 may not take this course for further credit.

CRIM 449 - Major Crime and Forensic Analysis for Law Enforcement (3)

Provides an introduction to crime and intelligence analysis techniques used by law enforcement Lab exercises will include hands-on exposure to ESR1 ArcMap 10 (GIS analysis) and IBM 12 Analyst Notebook (network analysis) tools used by law enforcement. Topics will include: the taxonomy of structured analytic methods; analysis of competing hypotheses; decomposition and visualization; and a detailed examination of the intelligence process. Will also cover the theoretical foundations of crime analysis and crime mapping, with a focus on the effectiveness of police in reducing crime through analytic driven initiatives. Prerequisite: CRIM 101 and CRIM 135. Students who took CRIM 417 Introduction To Crime And Intelligence Analysis: Theory & Practice in Spring 2013, Fall 2013 or Spring 2014 cannot receive further credit for this course.

CRIM 450 - Techniques of Crime Prevention II (5)

Introduction to the modern techniques of crime prevention. Emphasis will be on crime prevention and reduction in fear of crime. Crime prevention through social change. Crime prevention through environmental design. Crime prevention through physical planning and architectural design. The concept of 'defensible space.' Obstructing and reducing the opportunities for the commission of crimes. Evaluating crime prevention programs. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 457 - Crime and Criminal Intelligence Analysis (4)

Examines data handling, data quality and analysis of various criminal justice system information sources common to police services, government agencies and academic researchers. Develops skills in tactical, strategic and administrative crime analysis functionality. Prerequisite: CRIM 352 is recommended. Students who have taken CRIM 418 under this topic may not take this course for further credit.

Special Types of Offenders or Crimes

CRIM 310 - Young Offenders and Criminal Justice: Advanced Topics (3)

Examines some of the more complex contemporary issues relating to young offenders and justice. For any given term, the content of the course will reflect current controversies as well as faculty and student interests. Topics may include social control theory and juvenile justice; an assessment of theories of rehabilitation; the legal philosophy of the young offenders legislation and its impact on juvenile justice; and an evaluation of diversion, deinstitutionalization and de-legalization in Canada and the United States. Prerequisite: CRIM 101 and CRIM 210.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
J100 Amy Conroy
Tu 5:30 PM – 8:20 PM
HCC 1425, Vancouver
CRIM 316 - Sexual Offenders and Sexual Offences (3)

Provides an overview of current theoretical, clinical, and legal issues related to sexual offenders and sexual offences. For each of these issues, consideration will be given to different approaches and perspectives, and debates characterizing them. The topics to be covered include: explanatory models of sexual offending; developmental risk factors of sexual offending; typologies of sexual offenders; criminal careers of sexual offenders; phallometric assessment; actuarial and clinical risk assessment; treatment programs and their effectiveness, and criminal justice system initiatives. Prerequisite: CRIM 101 and 103. Students with credit for CRIM 417 in Spring or Summer 2005 may not take this course for further credit.

CRIM 317 - Sex, Work, and the Law (3)

Examines the history of commercial sex in Canada, the related laws and their impacts; research on the breadth of the commercial sex industry, sex sellers, sex buyers, and third parties; theories about commercial sex involvement and its role in society; legal approaches to addressing commercial sex in other countries; current legal framework, including jurisprudence, relevant Criminal, Immigration, and municipal law. Prerequisite: CRIM 101. Students with credit for CRIM 313 (Specific Types of Crime) prior to Summer 2007 may not take this course for further credit.

CRIM 413 - Terrorism (3)

Considers the nature, extent, and basis of terrorism as an official crime throughout the world and its impact upon criminal justice systems. Theoretical explanations in a comparative perspective will be employed to examine the impact of terrorism on various countries and the response of governments to it. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 454 - Criminal Profiling (3)

Provides an overview of the advanced issues relating to the scientific study, development and evaluation of criminal profiling. Outlines the criminological and psychological principles upon which criminal profiling is based, including classification of violent behaviour, behavioural change and consistency. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 459 - Organized Crime (3)

Examines the many forms of organized crime, including theories and models. Explores specific activities involving organized criminals, traditional organized crime, street gangs and motorcycle gangs, and criminal justice responses to organized crime. Prerequisite: CRIM 101. Students with credit for CRIM 416 in Spring 2009 or CRIM 313 in Fall 2009 may not take this course for further credit.

CRIM 464 - Street Gang Patterns and Policies (3)

Introduces the theoretical, empirical, and policy issues surrounding street gangs. The state of the current gang problem in Canada, the sociodemographics and motivations of individuals who join gangs the effect of gang membership on delinquency, the nature of violence and victimization, and the challenges of desistance will be discussed. Concludes with an overview of gang control strategies and the available policies. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

Section Day/Time Location
C100 Distance Education

Key Issues in Policing

CRIM 314 - Mental Disorder, Criminality and the Law (3)

Critical examination of the impact of psychiatry and related clinical professions on the criminal justice system. Relationship between institutions of mental health and legal control. The relevance of psychiatric theory and decision-making for the processing of mentally disordered offenders. The role of forensic clinicians in the courts, prisons, mental hospitals and related agencies. Specific issues addressed in this course will include psychiatric assessment, criminal responsibility, fitness to stand trial, prediction of dangerousness, treatment of mentally ill criminals and the penal and therapeutic commitment of the insane. Prerequisite: CRIM 101. Recommended: CRIM 131.

CRIM 351 - Police Accountability and Ethics (3)

Examines police accountability including the expected ethical conduct of police, police powers, police decision-making, the exercise of discretion, and the structure of accountability. Specific emphasis on police codes of ethics, core values of police agencies, the function of internal investigations, and the role of civilian review. Prerequisite: CRIM 101 and 251.

CRIM 410 - Decision-making in Criminal Justice (3)

Examination of the factors which influence decision making in the criminal justice system. The exercise of discretion by criminal justice personnel; the role of organizational policies and priorities in decision making; the involvement of victims and the public. Consideration of decision making at specific stages of the criminal justice process. Prerequisite: CRIM 131.

CRIM 431 - Comparative Criminal Justice Systems (3) *

Critical examination of the theory and method of comparative criminal justice. Review of common law systems, civic law systems, and socialist law systems. Specific consideration of the development, structure and operation of the criminal justice systems in selected countries, which may include England, France, Federal Republic of Germany, the former Soviet Union, the People’s Republic of China, and Japan. Focus on the impact of historical, social, political, religious and cultural factors on the criminal justice process. Consideration, of the structure and operation of various components of the criminal justice process in selected countries, including the police, criminal courts, and corrections. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 453 - Policing Illegal Drug Markets (3)

Provides an overview of the theoretical, analytical, and ethical issues related to drug law enforcement. Examines the strategies used by the police in responding to the challenges posed by illegal drug markets. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 455 - Advanced Issues in Policing (3)

Covers the major issues surrounding policing in the 21st century. Topics will vary semester to semester and may include policing gangs; police social disorder; sustainable policing; the police in the global community; quality assurance in policing; policing multi-needs populations; and the delivery of police services in remote and rural communities. Focus on police strategies and the effectiveness of specific policies and interventions designed to address these changes. Prerequisite: CRIM 101, 131 and 251.

CRIM 456 - Investigative Psychology in Policing (3)

Advanced issues relating to the empirical and scientific study of investigative psychology in policing. Outlines the main applications of investigative psychology, including police interrogation techniques, confession, false allegation, lie detection, crisis negotiation, risks and threats assessment, and psychological autopsies. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 458 - Community Policing (3)

Examines the theory and models of contemporary community policing in Canada. Explores crime prevention, crime response, problem-oriented policing, the definition of community, and the role and responsibility of the community. Prerequisite: CRIM 251.

Section Day/Time Location
C100 Distance Education

* When offered with a focus on policing

Declared Criminology students may not take CRIM 301 for credit.

Graduation Requirements

Students must obtain a minimum grade of C- in all required courses. For graduation, students must obtain a minimum 2.25 CGPA, 2.25 UDGPA, 2.25 Criminology program CGPA, and 2.25 Criminology program UDGPA.

Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Degree Requirements

For all bachelor of arts (BA) programs, students complete 120 units, which includes

  • at least 60 units that must be completed at Simon Fraser University
  • at least 45 upper division units, of which at least 30 upper division units must be completed at Simon Fraser University
  • at least 65 units (including 21 upper division units) in Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences courses
  • satisfaction of the writing, quantitative, and breadth requirements
  • an overall cumulative grade point average (CGPA) and upper division CGPA of at least 2.0, and a program (major, joint major, extended minor, minor) CGPA and upper division CGPA of at least 2.0

For students in other Faculties, please check your Faculty's overall degree requirements:

Writing, Quantitative, and Breadth Requirements

Students admitted to Simon Fraser University beginning in the fall 2006 term must meet writing, quantitative and breadth requirements as part of any degree program they may undertake. See Writing, Quantitative, and Breadth Requirements for university-wide information.

WQB Graduation Requirements

A grade of C- or better is required to earn W, Q or B credit



W - Writing


Must include at least one upper division course, taken at Simon Fraser University within the student’s major subject
Q - Quantitative


Q courses may be lower or upper division
B - Breadth


Designated Breadth Must be outside the student’s major subject, and may be lower or upper division
6 units Social Sciences: B-Soc
6 units Humanities: B-Hum
6 units Sciences: B-Sci


Additional Breadth 6 units outside the student’s major subject (may or may not be B-designated courses, and will likely help fulfil individual degree program requirements)

Students choosing to complete a joint major, joint honours, double major, two extended minors, an extended minor and a minor, or two minors may satisfy the breadth requirements (designated or not designated) with courses completed in either one or both program areas.