SFU Calendar 2001-2002

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School of Resource and Environmental Management

9677 Shrum Classroom Building, (604) 2914659 Tel, (604) 2914968 Fax, www.rem.sfu.ca


P.W. Williams BA (Ott), MA (Wat), PhD (Utah State)

Emeritus Professor

J.L. Knetsch BS, MS (Mich State), MPA, PhD (Harv)


J.C. Day BS, MSc (W Ont), PhD (Chic)- resource management policy, water resources, impact assessment

R.M. Peterman BSc (Calif), PhD (Br Col) - fish population dynamics and management, simulation modelling, risk assessment, decision analysis

P.W. Williams BA (Ott), MA (Wat), PhD (Utah State) - policy, planning and management issues in tourism and outdoor recreation

Associate Professors

A.M. Gill BA (Hull), MA (Alta), PhD (Manit) - tourism, resource communities*

F. Gobas BSc, MSc (Amst), PhD (Tor) - environmental chemistry and toxicology, environmental fate modelling

T.I. Gunton BA, MA (Wat), PhD (Br Col) - regional resource and development planning

M. Jaccard BA, MRM (S Fraser), PhD (Grenoble) - resource and environmental economics with primary research interests in the field of energy and sustainable economics

K. Lertzman BSc (Man), MSc, PhD (Br Col) - forest ecology, long term forest dynamics, landscape ecology, conservation biology, global change

E. Pinkerton BA (Wellesley), MAT (Harv), MA, PhD (Brandeis) - maritime anthropology, community roles in management of adjacent renewable resources

Assistant Professors

W. Haider MSc (Austria), MA (Car), PhD (McG) - parks and outdoor recreation, human dimensions in resource management, choice modelling, social decision support systems

D. Knowler BA, MA (Alta) PhD (York, UK) - ecological economics, bioeconomic modelling, natural resource management in developing countries, valuation of environmental resources

Associated Faculty

A.S. Harestad, Biological Sciences

M. Roseland, Geography

R.D. Routledge, Mathematics

M. Schmidt, Geography

Adjunct Professors

T. Berry BSc (Sask), MRM (S Fraser) - Principal, Compass Resource Management Ltd. (resource and environmental economics, sustainability analysis, electricity market reform, multi-criteria decision analysis)

D. Bisson BEnvStud (Wat), BLaw (Calg), MBC (SFraser) - Senior Advisor, Environmental Health, Safety, Westcoast Energy Inc., Corporate (environmental legal and management advice, development and implementation of environmental management system EMS, environmental audit standards, ISO 14000 gap analysis and cost benefit analysis, GHG emission reduction trading pilot)

D. Boyd BComm (Alta), BLaw (Tor), MA (McG) - Senior Association, Faculty of Law, University of Victoria (environmental law)

M.J. Bradford BSc, MSc (S Fraser), PhD (McG) - research scientist Department of Fisheries and Oceans (water flow effects on chinook salmon)

A. Fall BSc, PhD (S Fraser) - research consultant working on landscape ecology, spatially explicit simulation, natural disturbance models and sustainable forest management

H. Harker BSc (Kings Point, NY), MSc (Alaska), PhD (Wat) - Director of Planning, Regional District of Comox-Strathcona

E. Heyerdahl BSc (Ore), MSc, Phd (Wash), Research Forester, USDA Forest Service (dendochronology, fire ecology and the analysis of historical fire regimes)

R. Hoos BSc (Calg), MSc (Vic, BC) - Director of Northern Affairs, Polar Gas, Calgary (environmental impact assessment)

M. Ikonomou BSc (Trent), MSc, PhD (Alta) - research scientist, Department of Fisheries and Oceans (mass spectrometry, environmental analytical chemistry and environmental pollution as it relates to fresh water and marine ecosystems)

M. Kent BA (S Fraser), MSc (Alta) - Director, Highway Environment, BC Ministry of Transportation and Highways (impact assessment, environmental conflicts)

W. Kurz DipHolzwirt (Hamburg), PhD For (Br Col) - forest ecology and management, global carbon budgets

D. Marmorek BES (Wat), MSC (Br Col) - Director and partner, Environmental and Social Systems Analysts Ltd. (ESSA), Vancouver BC (adaptive environmental assessment and management; ecological impacts of acid deposition)

J. Marra BA (Montana), PhD (Cant) - Principal Shoreland Solutions, Newport, Oregon (coastal processes, geomorphology, planning and management, hazards, public involvement, GIS)

D.W.I. Marshall BSc (Qu) - Program Director, Fraser Basin Management Program (environmental and social impact assessment)

J.S. MacDonald BSc (S Fraser), PhD (WOnt) - fisheries scientist, Department of Fisheries and Oceans (ecosystems processes in watersheds, tophic ecology and habitat science)

A. MacKinnon BSc, MSc (Br Col), Manager, Forest Ecology, BC Ministry of Forests (forest ecology)

A. Murray BEnvStu (Wat), MSc Res Mgmt (Cant) - Manager, Environment, Vancouver International Airport Authority (environmental assessment at airports, impact assessment, environmental management systems, ISO 14,000 standards)

J. Nyboer BSc (Alta), BEd (Tor), MRM, PhD (SFraser) - Executive Director, Canadian Industry Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Centre (CIEEDAC) and Energy Research Group (ERG) (energy system modelling, industrial energy use analysis, energy efficiency analysis, technology assessment

D. O'Gorman BA (Alta), MA (Br Col) - Deputy Commissioner, Commission on Resources and Environment, Victoria

N. Pellatt BSc, PhD (S Fraser) - Coastal Ecologist, Parks Canada (coastal ecology, paleoecology)

P. Ross BSc (Trent), MSc (Dal), PhD (Utrecht) - environmental contaminants in marine mammals, modelling contaminants in the eco-system

S.G. Sigurdson BA (Manit), QC - Principal, The CSE Group (development of regulatory frameworks and conflict management systems; fisheries issues to environmental assessments; forest management to health care, resource, land use, and environmental matters, often involving First Nations)

D. Ware BSc, PhD (Br Col) - research scientist, Northwest Ecosystems Institute (fish population ecology, dynamics and productivity)

P. Wright BS (Lakehead), MS, PhD (Ohio State) - (environmental conflict resolution, parks and outdoor recreation)

*joint appointment with geography

The School of Resource and Environmental Management offers two interdisciplinary graduate programs in resource management: a master's degree (MRM) in resource management and a PhD degree in resource and environmental management.

These programs are designed for recent graduates from a range of disciplines, and for individuals with experience in private organizations or public agencies dealing with natural resources and the environment. Relevant disciplines of undergraduate training or experience include fields such as biology, engineering, chemistry, forestry and geology, as well as business administration, economics, geography, planning and a variety of social sciences. The graduate programs provide training for professional careers in private or public organizations and preparation for further training for research and academic careers. Some courses are scheduled in the evenings or week long blocks. An optional cooperative education program permits students to work in a private organization or a resource management agency to gain first hand experience.

Students take an integrated sequence of courses in complementary fields, pursue further courses in their area of specialization in the school and throughout the University, and complete a research project on a topic involving more than one traditional discipline. The aim is to increase familiarity and competence in understanding the dynamics of natural resources, the strategies and techniques of natural resource and environmental planning and management, and the biological, ecological, physical, social, economic and institutional implications of resource decisions. Students also become familiar with various quantitative methods of analysis and aids to decision making. In the field of natural resources, in particular, it is important that an academic program stress problem-solving as well as creative and critical thinking skills rather than focus primarily on subject matter such as fisheries, economics, or forestry.

The courses are designed specifically for resource and environmental management students. This full time faculty complement provides a strong focus and integration that significantly enhances the graduate educational experience.

Faculty and student research evaluates the effectiveness of existing natural resource management policies and, where appropriate develops alternatives. Innovative strategies often emerge from research into the biological dynamics of natural resources, or the institutional, social, economic or public policy aspects of their management. The emphasis in course materials and research programs is not simply to identify and describe resource and environmental problems, but to better understand causes and design acceptable solutions. Researchers apply a range of approaches including costbenefit analysis, simulation modelling, legal and institutional assessment frameworks, and social surveys to address critical and emerging natural resource management and environmental issues on local, national, and international scales. Considerable research is in collaboration with resource management agencies to facilitate implementation of research results.

Cooperative Education

The REM cooperative education program places students in a resource or environmental management agency (government or private) to gain professional work experience in applied problem solving. The optional coop program can lead to work that is directly applicable to REM 699 Research Project.

Centres and Institutes

Co-operative Research Management Institute

REM faculty play an active role in the Co-operative Research Management Institute. This institute is a unit on the Burnaby Mountain campus that houses personnel from natural resources management agencies. The institute can facilitate solutions to difficult multidisciplinary issues in resource management by providing an environment where personnel from different management agencies such as forestry, fisheries and wildlife can work side-by-side along with SFU faculty, graduate students, post-doctoral fellows and research associates on a daily basis. The university benefits from greater concentration of expertise in resource management on campus and from new opportunities for multidisciplinary, collaborative research programs.

Tourism Research

In keeping with its multidisciplinary character, the school plays a leading role in Simon Fraser University's Centre for Tourism Policy and Research which undertakes research, professional development seminars and workshops, and conducts planning and marketing research projects for public and private sector tourism organizations.

Admission Requirements

Refer to the Graduate General Regulations (page 297) for admission requirements. Contact the School of Resource and Environmental Management directly for an application package.

Those with degree qualifications in fields not directly related but with extensive experience in resource management are encouraged to apply.

Individuals will vary in their preparation for the various disciplines involved in the school. Therefore, admission to the school might be conditional upon the completion of certain undergraduate courses.

Application deadline: February 15.

Master's Program


Students must complete seven required courses (see list below), six graduate level elective courses and a research project (REM 699). A minimum of 69 credit hours is required to complete the degree, consisting of 43 credit hours of required courses and 26 credit hours of elective courses. In exceptional cases, if a student provides evidence of advanced education that is equivalent to one of the required courses, the student may be granted a waiver for that course, thereby reducing the number of required courses to six.

Prerequisite Courses

All students must be familiar with the material covered in an undergraduate course in parametric and nonparametric statistics.

Required Courses

Students must complete all of

REM 601-5 Natural Resources Management I: Theory and Practice

REM 611-5 Applied Population and Community Ecology

REM 621-5 Economics of Natural Resources

REM 631-5 River Basin Analysis, Planning and Management

REM 698-3 Field Resource Management Workshop

REM 699-10 Research Project

REM 801-5 Principles of Research Methods and Design in Resource and Environmental Management

and one of

REM 642-5 Regional Planning I

REM 644-5 Public Policy Analysis and Administration

Elective Courses

To fulfil the requirement for six elective courses, students generally choose courses that support and complement their particular research interests. Students may, in consultation with their senior supervisor, select REM courses and/or courses from other departments.

Doctoral Program


To qualify for admission, an applicant must satisfy all of the university requirements for admission as outlined in SFU's graduate general regulations. Applicants must have:

All applicants must submit the following with their application:

Applicants must be accepted by an identified senior supervisor prior to admittance. PhD applicants are strongly advised to visit the University for an inteview prior to February 15 of the year of requested admission. see "1.3.4 Admission to a Doctoral Program"..

Transfer from the Master's Program to the PhD Program

A student in the MRM program who shows exceptional ability may apply to transfer to the PhD program only if the student has the ability to carry out innovative independent and original PhD level research in that field and he or she has obtained high academic standing in previous university work. All applicable university regulations governing such transfers must be met, and such transfers are only permitted when the student has been in the master's program for at least two but not more than four semesters.

Transfer applications must be approved by the student's supervisory committee, the REM graduate studies committee, and the senate graduate studies committee. Transfer students will be eligible to earn only the PhD degree.

Degree Requirements

All REM PhD students must complete

REM 801-5 Principles of Research Methods and Design in Resource and Environmental Management

REM 802-5 Institutional Design and Decision Making for Environmental Management

REM 698-3 Field Resource Management Workshop

and two elective graduate courses

The selection of elective courses must be approved by the student's senior supervisor.

Elective courses, which are meant to support the student's preparation for comprehensive examinations and/or dissertation research, may be taken outside REM, if approved by the student's supervisory committee.

The student's supervisory committee may recommend that the student completes courses in addition to the three required and two elective courses in order to strengthen the student's background in areas directly related to the student's thesis research.

Students who have transferred from the REM master's program into the REM PhD program may obtain a course waiver for REM 801, 802, and 698 if they have received credit for these courses within five years of their commencement of the PhD program. Students cannot obtain course waivers for the two elective courses. If a student receives a course waiver, the student is not required to replace the course for which the waiver was received with another course.

Students who have completed the REM master's program and are accepted into the REM PhD program within a period of five years after completing the REM master's program, must substitute other suitable graduate level courses for any of the PhD program required courses (listed above) that they have taken as part of the REM master's program. These course substitutions must be approved by the student's senior supervisor.

Comprehensive Examinations

To complete the PhD degree the student must pass the REM PhD comprehensive examination. The purpose of the examination is to examine the candidate's knowledge and abilities in disciplinary areas that are different from but related to the area of the student's thesis research. The comprehensive examination process includes three main disciplinary areas, i.e.

To complete the comprehensive examination, the student must prepare three written field statements. The field statements are then evaluated by the comprehensive examination committee in accordance with the policies and procedures of the School of Resource and Environmental Management.

If the candidate fails the comprehensive exam, and this assessment is approved by the graduate studies committee, the student will be required to withdraw from the PhD program.

Detailed information about the comprehensive examination procedures, dates, and deadlines are provided in the PhD Handbook of the School of Resource and Environmental Management.

Thesis Proposal

All PhD candidates must submit a written thesis proposal by the end of the seventh semester of full time enrolment in the program. In conjunction with the members of the supervisory committee, students develop a detailed written research proposal which must be defended before the supervisory committee. This thesis proposal is intended to demonstrate that the candidate's research abilities are adequate for PhD level research and to determine that the proposed research is feasible and has merit. The student must pass the thesis proposal defence to remain in the program.


A written thesis based on the candidate's original contribution to research in the field of resource and environmental science and management is the final requirement for the PhD program and must include aspects of at least two disciplinary areas (such as ecology and policy, or toxicology and law). The topic must be approved as noted above and the student's progress will be evaluated annually in accordance with the graduate general regulations. When the thesis is essentially complete, the student must first present it to a departmental colloquium, prior to proceeding to the formal thesis defence. This presentation shall form the basis of the supervisory committee's recommendation as to readiness for defence. All PhD candidates must then pass the formal thesis defence, which is conducted in accordance with University regulations. All other general requirements for a PhD are as outlined in the graduate general regulations.

Residence Requirement

A PhD candidate must be registered and in residence at Simon Fraser University for the minimum number of semesters as described in the Graduate General Regulations (page 297).


All REM PhD students must complete at least four courses as follows.

REM 801-5 Principles of Research Methods and Design in Resource and Environmental Management

REM 802-5 Institutional Design and Decision Making for Environmental Management

At least one course in the student's primary field

At least one course in the student's secondary field

All courses in the school can be taken for credit toward a PhD degree except REM 601 and directed studies courses.

Graduate Courses

REM 601-5 The Social Science of Natural Resources Management

An introduction to the relevance of social science perspectives, data and analytical tools in resource management, especially as these complement, supplement or critique perspectives from natural science or economics. Not for credit toward a PhD in resource and environmental management.

REM 602-5 Natural Resource Management II: Advanced Seminar

A professional group workshop course focusing on specific resource and environmental problems. Prerequisite: eight REM courses or permission of instructor.

REM 610-5 Applied Environmental Toxicology and Environmental Management of Contaminants

A study of the environmental behavior and toxic effects of chemical substances in the environment and the application of methodologies for their assessment and management.

REM 611-5 Population and Community Ecology

A review of population, community, and ecosystem ecology; implications of these areas for methods of resource management and environmental assessment.

REM 612-5 Simulation Modelling in Natural Resource Management

Methods of constructing simulations models and analyzing them through sensitivity analysis. Application of simulation modelling to research and management of environmental and resource systems. Topics will include management of wildlife, forests, insect pests, fisheries, pollution problems, energy resources, and recreational land use. Prerequisite: REM 611 or permission of the instructor.

REM 613-5 Current Topics in Fisheries Management

Models of fish population dynamics, methods of data analysis, and management in the context of uncertainty. Case studies of management of various world fisheries. In-depth exploration of selected current fisheries problems including extensive data analysis. Focus will be primarily on biological aspects of fisheries management while illustrating how these interface with economic, social and institutional concerns of managers. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

REM 621-5 Ecological Economics

Introduction to economic concepts for management of the environment and specific natural resources. Key issues are definitions of sustainability, the substitution capability between human-made and natural capital, and the appropriate application of economics to sustainable development analysis and policies.

REM 625-5 Risk Assessment and Decision Analysis for Management of Natural Resources

Use of quantitative methods of risk assessment and decision analysis to explicitly take uncertainty into account when making decisions in management of natural resources. Methods of quantifying uncertainty and the resulting risks. Examples from management of forests, wildlife, fisheries, water resources, energy, and toxic chemicals. Communicating information about uncertainties and the resulting risks to resource managers, the public, and scientists. Advantages and limitations of various quantitative methods. Includes computer laboratories. Prerequisite: REM 612 and 621, or permission of instructor.

REM 631-5 River Basin Analysis, Planning and Management

A review of geomorphic and hydrologic principles; the morphology of drainage basins and rivers; selected case studies of impact assessment and river restoration.

REM 632-5 Terrain Evaluation

The extensive classification of a landscape based on geology, geomorphology, soils, vegetation, historic and current land use, and the assessment of qualitative values as an aid to multiple land use management.

REM 633-5 Introduction to Remote Sensing and Aerial Photographic Interpretation

The application of these techniques in the acquisition and display of selected resource data. Topics include air photo interpretation, multi-band photography, thermal infrared imagery, satellite imagery, orthophotography, topographic and thematic mapping, and computer cartography.

REM 641-5 Law and Resources

A study of legal interventions related to resource planning and environmental control. The course looks at several aspects of environmental and recourse law including administrative and constitutional law, fisheries and forestry regulation, and native rights.

REM 642-5 Regional Planning I

Theory and techniques of regional analysis; planning models and their application to key resource sectors.

REM 643-5 Environmental Conflict and Dispute Resolution

This course examines theoretical aspects of conflict and dispute resolution in natural resource management settings and is designed to assist students in understanding the nature of environmental conflict and the role of environmental dispute resolution (EDR) techniques.

REM 644-5 Public Policy Analysis and Administration

Analysis of methods of policy-making and problem solving with particular emphasis on natural resource issues. Topics include goal setting, problem definition, program scheduling, policy evaluation, policy implementation and public administration. A practical analysis of the structure and processes surrounding major contemporary policy issues.

REM 645-5 Resource Development Communities

Examination of the impact of resource developments on communities in Canada. An overview of the social organization of resources-based communities and an analysis of the participatory process in decision making in resource management.

REM 646-5 Environmental and Social Impact Assessment and Environmental Management Systems

Evaluation and application of current methodologies for social, economic, and biophysical impact assessment and the ISO 14001 standard for environmental management systems.

REM 647-5 Parks and Outdoor Recreation Planning

The course examines a combination of both ecological and market-based resource assessment and planning techniques for conservation and use of parks, forests, and protected areas. Visitor behavior and management in recreation and protected areas settings will be examined.

REM 648-5 The Tourism System

This course will examine the social, environmental and economic components of tourism. Topics will include theoretical concepts and elements of tourism, historical evolution, spatial patterns, and case studies of tourism development in various parts of the world. Discussion of tourism planning and management will focus on the development of tourism as a renewable resource.

REM 649-5 Tourism Planning and Policy

The course provides frameworks and methodologies for understanding the policy and planning initiatives of public and private sector organizations. Foundations for resource assessment, market analysis, product-market matching and regional tourism strategy development are explored in detail. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

REM 650-5 Energy and Materials Management and Policy

Management strategies and policies to achieve sustainable flows of energy and materials in the economy. Eco-efficiency strategies reduce these flows while resource substitution strategies seek more environmentally benign flows. Applies expertise from economics, ecology, thermodynamics, engineering, geology and behavioural sciences.

REM 651-5 Project Evaluation and Non-market Valuation Methods

This course extends environmental and ecological economics concepts to the field of project appraisal and non-market valuation. Includes the methods and limitations of standard cost-benefit analysis (CBA), as well as new techniques in the valuation of non-market environmental resources and ways to incorporate considerations such as the depletion of natural resources in project work. The course concludes with treatment of a number of alternatives to CBA, including multi-attribute techniques and the precautionary principle. Prerequisite: ECON 200, REM 621, or permission of instructor. Prerequisite: ECON 200, REM 621, or permission of instructor.

REM 652-5 Community Tourism Planning and Development

The course critically examines approaches employed by communities incorporating tourism into their development strategies. Techniques for optimizing the resource potential of communities from economic, social, cultural and environmental perspectives are explored with a view toward developing policies for `appropriate' community tourism. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

REM 655-5 Water Planning and Management

Evaluation of theoretical models and management experiences; federal, provincial and international institutional arrangements and jurisdictional responsibilities; emerging problems and opportunities. This is primarily a field course in which water and environmental management systems in British Columbia are compared with those in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California.

REM 658-5 Energy Systems Modelling

Training and practical experience in the use of the range of techniques for modelling energy systems: linear programming, econometrics, input-output, energy service models, integrated systems. Prerequisite: REM 621 and 650.

REM 660-5 Special Topics in Natural Resources Management

Special topics in areas not currently offered within the offerings of the resource and environmental management program.

REM 661-5 Special Topics in Resources Management

Special topics in areas not currently offered within the offerings of the resource and environmental management program.

REM 662-5 Special Topics in Resources Management

Special topics in areas not currently offered within the offerings of the resource and environmental management program.

REM 663-5 Special Topics in Resource Management

Special topics in areas not currently offered within the offerings of the resource and environmental management program.

REM 664-5 Directed Studies

Special topics in areas not currently offered within the offerings of the resource and environmental management program.

REM 670-5 Introduction to Forestry

Examines the theory and practice of forest management based on an understanding of the linkages between forest ecosystem dynamics, economics, policy and social concerns. Principles are illustrated with reference to contemporary forestry issues. Prerequisite: REM 611 or permission of instructor.

REM 671-5 Forest Ecology

Structure, function and development of forest ecosystems. Population, community, ecosystem and landscape approaches are used to enable students to understand the biology and management of forests in terms of the processes driving spatial and temporal dynamics.

REM 672-5 Silviculture

Principles and practice of silviculture; lecture and laboratory, with added emphasis on the state of the art in British Columbia. Prerequisite: REM 671, equivalent course, or permission of instructor.

REM 690-0 Practicum I

First semester of work experience in the School of Resource and Environmental Management's Cooperative Education Program.

REM 691-0 Practicum II

Second semester of work experience in the School of Resource and Environmental Management's Cooperative Education Program. Prerequisite: students must have completed at least one semester's courses and permission of REM's co-op co-ordinator.

REM 698-3 Field Resource Management Workshop

An intensive field course introducing students to the diversity of issues and viewpoints concerning management of natural resources. Problem areas will include forestry, mining, fisheries and wildlife management, energy, recreation and land use planning.

REM 699-10 Research Project

A research project dealing with a specific interdisciplinary problem in resource management, administration or allocation. The study must result in the preparation of a formal paper and the presentation of a seminar.

REM 801-5 Principles of Research Methods and Design in Resource and Environmental Management

Students will develop skills and insight into the design, implementation and analysis of interdisciplinary research in natural resource and environmental management. This will help prepare students to carry out their own research projects. Students who entered REM during or prior to the Fall 1994 semester and who have received credit for any one of MRM 601, 611 or 621 may not take REM 801 for credit.

REM 802-5 Institutional Design and Decision Making for Environmental Management

Students will develop a sophisticated understanding of the institutional structure and methods of decision making in natural resource and environmental management. This course complements material covered in a variety of masters level courses.

REM 899-0 PhD Thesis

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Index : searchable with the Find function in your web browser Calendar.pdfs Office of the Registrar / SFU
Table of Contents : searchable with the Find function in your web browser Course Database or Course Outlines
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Financial Assistance