Wise. A. F., Speer, J., Marbouti, F. & Hsiao, Y. T. (2013). Broadening the notion of participation in online discussions: Examining patterns in learners’ online listening behaviors. Instructional Science, 41(2), 323-343. [Published Article Link] [Preprint PDF]
This paper substantially extends the earlier work on cluster analysis described below by examining an illustrative case study of one learner from each cluster as an example of the characteristic behaviors enacted in an actual discussion over time. The additional analysis greatly enhances (and changes) the interpretation of the activity pattern of the Broad Listeners, Reflective Talkers from the initial findings. The paper also presents the theoretical foundation of the notion of online listening, how it differs from the concepts of reading and lurking, and lays out initial dimensions across which it can be studied.
Wise, A. F., Perera, N., Hsiao, Y. , Speer, J., & Marbouti, F. (2012). Microanalytic case studies of individual participation patterns in an asynchronous online discussion in an undergraduate blended course. The Internet and Higher Education, 15(2), 108-117. [Published Article Link] [Preprint PDF]
This paper presents three case studies of students’ participation patterns in online discussions constructed via microanalysis of log-file data, post contents, and the evolving discussion structure. The behaviors of a Thorough, a Self-Monitoring, and an Independent student are each described and compared with a theoretical taxonomy for participation. Implications of the study for research and practice are discussed.
Wise, A. F., Marbouti, F., Hsiao, Y. & Hausknecht, S. (2012). A survey of factors contributing to learners’ “listening” behaviors in asynchronous online discussions. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 47(4), 461-480. [Published Article Link] [Preprint PDF]
This paper expands and strengthens the earlier analysis of the survey data using a multiple regression approach. Additional results focus on the importance of message timing, authorship (in the blended context only), and mastery students' strategy of reading posts thoroughly. Students in one class favored replying to posts that agreed with them while students in the other class favored those that disagreed. Course and student characteristics that may account for these differences are discussed, as are implications for future research and practice.
Wise, A. F., Zhao; Y.; Hausknecht, S. N. & Chui, M.M. (in press). Temporal considerations in analyzing and designing for online discussions in education: Examining duration, sequence, pace and salience. To be published in E. Barbera & P. Reimann (Eds.) Assessment and Evaluation of Time Factors in Online Teaching and Learning. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
This chapter provides an initial foundation for researchers, designers and instructors of online discussions to engage in temporally-aware analysis and design. It begins with an overview of the general temporal characteristics of online discussions and the analytic considerations they raise in terms of timescales, data aggregation and units of analysis. The categories of Duration, Sequence, Pace and Salience are then used as a framework for unpacking the temporal aspects of online discussions in more detail, with guidance provided for designers and instructors to manage temporal challenges and harness temporal opportunities. The chapter conclused with a call for greater theorization of temporal properties, processes, and their effects on learning to support more informed analysis and design of online discussions.
Marbouti, F. & Wise, A. F. (2013). Using a graphical interface to address new post bias in online discussion forums. In N. Rummel, M. Kapur, M. Nathan & S. Puntambekar (Eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Vol II (pp. 305-306). Madison, Wisconsin. [Conference Proceedings PDF]
This study investigated whether students exhibited different new-post reading behaviors when using a graphical discussion forum rather than a traditional text-based linear forum. Detailed examination of clickstream patterns in seven case studies showed several differences in reading strategies between the two forums. Most notably, in the graphical forum students read new posts in connection with other related (new or existing) posts, while in the text-based forum new-post reading was disconnected and scattered.
Wise, A.F., Hausknecht, S., Zhao, Y. (2013). Relationships between listening and speaking in online discussions: An empirical investigation. In N. Rummel, M. Kapur, M. Nathan & S. Puntambekar (Eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Vol I (pp. 534-541). Madison, Wisconsin. [Conference Proceedings PDF] Nominated for Best Paper
This study investigated relationships between how students listen and speak in asynchronous online discussions. Four dimensions of students’ listening were calculated using log-file data and three dimensions of students’ speaking were captured by content analysis. Multi-level mixed-model linear regressions results suggest that when students take the time to read and re-read others’ posts there are related benefits in the quality of the posts they contribute.
Wise, A. F., Zhao; Y. & Hausknecht, S. N. (2013). Learning analytics for online discussions: A pedagogical model for intervention with embedded and extracted analytics. In D. Suthers & K. Verbert (Eds.) Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge (pp. 48-56). Leuven, Belgium: ACM. [Conference Proceedings PDF]
This paper describes an application of learning analytics that builds on our existing research program investigating how students contribute and attend to the messages of others in online discussions. A pedagogical model that translates the concepts and findings of the research program into guidelines for practice and analytics with which students and instructors can assess their discussion participation are presented. The analytics are both embedded in the learning environment and extracted from it, allowing for integrated and reflective metacognitive activity. The pedagogical intervention is based on the principles of (1)Integration (2) Diversity (of Metrics) (3) Agency (4) Reflection (5) Parity and (6) Dialogue.
Wise, A.F. (2013). Initial development and implementation of a pedagogical model for learning analytics in online discussions. In Proceedings of DAILE13 Workshop on Data Analysis and Interpretation for Learning Environments. Villard-de-Lans, France. [Workshop Proceedings PDF]
This paper presents an initial pedagogical model to guide learning analytics interventions based on the principles of (1) Diverse Metrics (2) Active and Negotiated Interpretation (3) Integration with Learning Activity and (4) Explicit Time and Space for Reflection. The model is used to develop an application of learning analytics for online discussions based on our existing research program.
Wise, A. F., Hsiao, Y. T., Marbouti, F. & Zhao, Y. (2012). Tracing ideas and participation in an asynchronous online discussion across individual and group levels over time. In J. van Aalst, K. Thompson, M. Jacobson & P. Reimann (Eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the Learning Sciences 2012 (pp. 431-435). Sydney, Australia: ISLS. [Conference Proceedings PDF]
This paper advances a methodology to support a coordinated multi-level analysis of individual actions and group dynamics in asynchronous online discussions. The approach uses log-file data to examine group and individual participation patterns, and argumentation coding of post contents to probe developmental trajectories of individual and collective understandings. Importantly, these traces of ideas and behaviors are coordinated within and across levels. The method is illustrated with a short sample analysis
Wise, A. F., Hsiao, Y. T., Speer, J., Marbouti, F. & Perera, N. (2012). Initial validation of “listening” behavior typologies for online discussions using microanalytic case studies. In J. van Aalst, K. Thompson, M. Jacobson & P. Reimann (Eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the Learning Sciences 2012 (pp. 56-63). Sydney, Australia: ISLS. [Conference Proceedings PDF]
This study proposes a set of six theoretically-derived prototypical listening patterns: disregardful, preparatory, social, targeted, interactive, and reflective. Microanalytic case studies were conducted to empirically validate and refine the typologies. Five cases with distinct listening approaches are described. Four of these cases align well with the theoretically predicted patterns of disregardful, social, targeted, and interactive; two predicted patterns (preparatory and reflective) were not observed; one empirically identified approach suggests a possible need for an additional content coverage typology.
Wise, A. F., Marbouti, F. Speer, J., & Hsiao, Y. T., (2011). Towards an understanding of “listening” in online discussions: A cluster analysis of learners’ interaction patterns. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2011, Hong Kong, China. [Conference Proceedings PDF]
Using a cluster analysis of learners’ click-stream data from an online discussion forum in a blended business course, this study identified three patterns of behaviors that differentiate between kinds of learners: (1) Superficial Listeners, Intermittent Talkers (2) Concentrated Listeners, Integrated Talkers (3) Broad Listeners, Reflective Talkers. These are compared to past profiles of mastery-oriented, task-focused and minimalist approaches to online learning environments.
Wise, A. F., Speer, J., Hsiao, Y. T., & Marbouti, F. (2011). Factors contributing to learners’ online listening behaviors in online and blended courses. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2011, Hong Kong, China. [Conference Proceedings PDF]
This study surveyed students in online and blended classes to identify factors that influence their online listening behaviors. In both classes learners’ decisions about which posts to view were based on the reply structure. In the online class students often scanned posts as a “triage” strategy; in the blended class replying to posts that provoked a question was associated with a mastery-learning approach but replying to posts that agreed with the learner’s ideas was associated with a work-avoidance approach.