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  • Gilbert, A., Flowers, G.E., Miller, G.H., Refsnider, K., Young, N.E., Radic, V. 2017. The projected demise of Barnes Ice Cap: evidence of an unusually warm 21st century Arctic. Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2016GL072394.
  • Pratola, M.T., O. Harari, D. Bingham, J. Parkhouse, G.E. Flowers. 2017. Design on non-convex regions: optimal experiments for spatial process prediction, Technometrics, 59(1), doi:10.1080/00401706.2015.1115674, 36-47.
  • King, L., Hassan, M., Yang, K., Flowers, G. 2016. Flow routing for delineating supraglacial meltwater channel networks. Remote Sensing, 8(12), doi:10.3390/rs8120988, 988.
  • Gilbert, A., Flowers, G.E., Miller, G.H., Rabus, B.T., Van Wychen, W., Gardner, A.S., Copland, L. 2016. Sensitivity of Barnes Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada, to climate state and internal dynamics. Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface, 121, doi:10.1002/2016JF003839, 1516-1539.
  • Flowers, G.E., A.H. Jarosch, P.T.A.P. Belliveau, L.A. Fuhrman. 2016. Short-term velocity variations and sliding sensitivity of a slowly surging glacier. Annals of Glaciology, 57(72), doi:10.1017/aog.2016.7, 71-83.
  • Crompton, J.W. and G.E. Flowers. 2016. Correlations of suspended sediment size with bedrock lithology and glacier dynamics. Annals of Glaciology, 57(72), doi:10.1017/aog.2016.6, 142-150.
  • Beaud, F.B., G.E. Flowers, J.G Venditti. 2016. Efficacy of bedrock erosion by subglacial water flow, Earth Surface Dynamics, 4, 125-145.
  • Crompton, J.W., G.E. Flowers, D. Kirste, B. Hagedorn, M.J. Sharp, 2015. Clay mineral precipitation and low silica in glacier meltwaters explored through reaction path modelling, Journal of Glaciology, 61(230), 1061-1078.
  • Flowers, G.E. 2015. Modelling water flow under glaciers and ice sheets. Proceedings of the Royal Society A 471: 20140907, doi:10.1098/rspa.2014.0907.


  • Beaud, F.B., G.E. Flowers, S. Pimentel. 2014. Seasonal-scale abrasion and quarrying patterns from a two-dimensional ice-flow model coupled to distributed and channelized subglacial drainage. Geomorphology, 219, 176-191.
  • Schoof, C.G., C.A. Rada, N.J. Wilson, G.E. Flowers, M. Haseloff. 2014. Oscillatory subglacial drainage in the absence of surface melt.The Cryosphere, 8, 959-976.
  • Wheler, B.A., MacDougall, A.H., Flowers, G.E., Petersen, E.I., Whitfield, P.H., Kohfeld, K.E. 2014. Effects of temperature forcing provenance and lapse rate on the performance of an empirical glacier-melt model. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 46(2), 379-393.
  • Wilson, N.J., G.E. Flowers, L. Mingo. 2014. Mapping and interpretation of bed reflection power from a surge-type polythermal glacier. Annals of Glaciology, 55(67), 1-8.
  • Williamson, S.N., D.S. Hik, J.A. Gamon, J.L. Kavanaugh, G.E. Flowers. 2014. Estimating mean surface air temperature from MODIS Land Surface Temperature observations in a sub-Arctic alpine environment. Remote Sensing, 6(2), 946-963, doi:10.3390/rs6020946.
  • Flowers, G.E., L. Copland, C.G. Schoof. 2014. Contemporary glacier processes and global change: recent observations from the Kaskawulsh Glacier and Donjek Range, St. Elias Mountains. Arctic, (KLRS 50th Anniversary Issue), 1-20, doi.org/10.14430/arctic4356.
  • Werder, M.A., I. Hewitt, C.G. Schoof, G.E. Flowers. 2013. Modeling channelized and distributed subglacial drainage in two dimensions. Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface, 118, 2140-2158, doi:10.1002/jgrf.20146.
  • Wilson, N.J., G.E. Flowers, L. Mingo. 2013. Comparison of thermal structure and evolution between neighboring subarctic glaciers. Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface, 118, 1443-1459.
  • Joughin, I., S.B. Das, G.E. Flowers, M.D. Behn, R.B. Alley, M.A. King, B.E. Smith, J. Bamber, M.R. van den Broeke, J.H. van Angelen. 2013. Influence of supraglacial lakes and ice-sheet geometry on seasonal ice-flow variability. The Cryosphere, 7, 1185-1192.
  • Wilson, N.J. and G.E. Flowers. 2013. Environmental controls on the thermal structure of alpine glaciers. The Cryosphere, 7, 167-182.
  • MacDougall, A.H., B.A. Wheler and G.E. Flowers. 2011. A preliminary assessment of glacier melt-model parameter sensitivity and transferability in a dry subarctic environment. The Cryosphere, 5, 1011-1028.
  • Flowers, G.E., N. Roux, S. Pimentel, C. Schoof. 2011. Present dynamics and future prognosis of a slowly surging glacier. The Cryosphere, 5, 299-313.
  • MacDougall, A.H. and G.E. Flowers. 2011. Spatial and temporal transferability of a distributed energy-balance glacier melt-model. J. Clim., 24(5), 1480-1498.
  • Wheler, B.A. and G.E. Flowers. 2011. Glacier subsurface heat-flux characterizations for energy balance modelling in the Donjek Range, southwest Yukon Territory, Canada. J. Glaciol. 57(201), 121-133.
  • Pimentel, S. and G.E. Flowers. 2011. A numerical study of hydrologically driven glacier dynamics and subglacial flooding. Proc. Roy. Soc. A., 467, 537-558, doi: 10.1098/rspa.2010.0211.
  • Flowers, G.E. 2010. Glacier hydromechanics: early insights and the lasting legacy of three works by Iken and colleagues. J. Glaciol., 56(200), 1069-1078.
  • Pimentel, S., G.E. Flowers and C.G. Schoof. 2010. A hydrologically coupled higher-order flow-band model of ice dynamics with a Coulomb friction sliding law. J. Geophys. Res. 115, F04023, doi:10.1029/2009JF001621.
  • Mingo, L. and G.E. Flowers. 2010. Instruments and Methods: An integrated lightweight ice-penetrating radar system. J. Glaciol., 56(198), 709-714.


  • De Paoli, L. and G.E. Flowers. 2009. Dynamics of a small surge-type glacier investigated using one-dimensional geophysical inversion. J. Glaciol., 55(194), 1101-1112.
  • Boon, S., G.E. Flowers and D.S. Munro. 2009. Canadian glacier hydrology. Can. Water Res. J., 22, 3903-3918.
  • Flowers, G.E. 2008. Subglacial modulation of the hydrograph from glacierized basins. Hydrol. Proc., 22, 3903-3918.
  • Flowers, G.E., H. Björnsson, Á. Geirsdóttir, G.H. Miller, J.L. Black and G.K.C. Clarke. 2008. Holocene climate conditions and glacier fluctuation in central Iceland from physical modelling and empirical evidence. Quat. Sci. Rev., 27, 797-813.
  • Flowers, G.E., H. Björnsson, Á. Geirsdóttir, G.H. Miller and G.K.C. Clarke. 2007. Glacier fluctuation and inferred climatology of Langjökull ice cap through the Little Ice Age. Quat. Sci. Rev., 22, 2337-2353.
  • Huntington, H.P., M. Boyle, G.E. Flowers, J. Weatherly, L. Hamilton, L. Hinzman, C. Gerlach, R. Zulueta, C. Nicolson and J. Overpeck. 2007. The influence of human activity in the Arctic on climate and climate impacts. Climatic Change, doi:10.1007/s10584-006-9162-y.
  • Fischer, U.H., A. Braun, A. Bauder and G.E. Flowers. 2005. Changes in geometry and subglacial drainage derived form digital elevation models: Unteraargletscher, Switzerland, 1927-97. Ann. Glaciol., 40, 20-24.
  • Marshall, S.J., H. Björnsson, G.E. Flowers and G.K.C. Clarke. 2005. Simulation of Vatnajökull ice cap dynamics. J. Geophys. Rev., 110, F03009, doi:10.1029/2004JF000262.
  • Flowers, G.E., S.J. Marshall, H. Björnsson and G.K.C. Clarke. 2005. Sensitivity of Vatnajökull ice cap hydrology and dynamics to climate warming over the next two centuries. J. Geophys. Rev., 110, F02011, doi:10.1029/2004JF000200.


  • Flowers, G.E., H. Björnsson, F. Pálsson and G.K.C. Clarke. 2004. A coupled sheet-conduit mechanism for jökulhlaup propagation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31 L05401, doi:10.1029/2003GL019088.
  • Hildes, D.H.D., G.K.C. Clarke, G.E. Flowers and S.J. Marshall. 2004. Modelling subglacial erosion and englacial sediment transport of the North American ice sheets.Quat. Sci. Rev., 23, 409-430.
  • Flowers, G.E., H. Björnsson and F. Pálsson. 2003. New insights into the subglacial and periglacial hydrology of Vatnajökull, Iceland, from a distributed physical model. J. Glaciol., 49(165), 257-270.
  • Björnsson, H., F. Pálsson, O. Sigurdsson and G.E. Flowers. 2003 Surges of glaciers in Iceland. Ann. Glaciol., 36, 82-90.
  • Flowers, G.E. and G.K.C. Clarke. 2002. A multicomponent coupled model of glacier hydrology, 1, Theory and synthetic examples. J. Geophys. Res., 107(B11), 2287, doi:10.1029/2001JB001122.
  • Flowers, G.E. and G.K.C. Clarke. 2002. A multicomponent coupled model of glacier hydrology, 2, Application to Trapridge Glacier, Yukon, Canada. J. Geophys. Res., 107(B11), 2288, doi:10.1029/2001JB001124.
  • Flowers, G.E. and G.K.C. Clarke. 2000. An integrated modelling approach to understanding subglacial hydraulic release events. Ann. Glaciol., 31, 222-228.

1999 & Earlier

  • Flowers, G.E. and G.K.C. Clarke. 1999. Surface and bed topography of Trapridge Glacier, Yukon Territory, Canada: digital elevation models and derived hydraulic geometry. Journal of Glaciology, 45(149), 165-174
  • Wieman, C.E., G.E. Flowers and S.L. Gilbert. 1995. Inexpensive laser cooling and trapping experiment for undergraduate laboratories. American Journal of Physics, 63(4), 317-330.