Define: reliquary sanctity, thaumaturgical prowess (11), lachrymose sermonry (29), sine die (43), mandamus
Identify: King's two bodies, political Donatism, ultramontanism (Catholic Encyclopedia (1912 article) vs. 1911 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica), Company of the Holy Sacrament, humanisme dévote, Richer (important to know for the next chapter), Molinism, Fénelon, Télémaque, Augustinus, Mars gallicus, tutiorism. Philosophical isms. NB: I have made links to provide you with some information on the Web. You can take or leave the advertising links that you see.
1. What possible advantages did conversion to Calvinism hold for the monarchy? Why did the monarchy not become Calvinist?
2. In this chapter, we encounter several potential threats to the stability of the French monarchy or to absolutism. Why could the Catholic League, Gallicanism, and the Parlement of Paris be seen as subversive?
3. What formal steps did Louis XIV take to strengthen royal absolutism? You will need to know about the Edict of 1695, to which van Kley will refer again in later chapters.
4. Did the Jesuits pose a threat to the monarchy?
5. What is the difference between Molinism and Jansenism?
6. Why was seventeenth-century Jansenism not in itself a threat to royal absolutism? When did the monarchy begin its attach on Jansenism. Why did the monarchy see it as a threat?
7. Who supported Jansenism?
Four Gallican Articles (1682) adopted by an Assembly of the Clergy. It declared:
That Saint Peter and his successors, vicars of Jesus Christ [the popes], and the entire church have received their power from God alone in spiritual matters that concern salvation, but not in temporal and civil matters…. We declare as a result that kings and sovereigns are not subjected by the order of God to any ecclesiastical authority in temporal matters; that they cannot be deposed either directly or indirectly by authority of the head of the church; that their subjects cannot be released from their duty of submission and obedience or absolved from their oath of fidelity; and that this doctrine, necessary for the public peace and equally advantageous for the church and for the state, must be inviolably followed because it is in conformity with the Word of God, with the tradition of the Holy Fathers, and with the examples of the saints.
That the plenitude of power retained by the Apostolic Holy See and the successors of Saint Peter, vicars of Jesus Christ, in spiritual matters is such that the decrees of the Holy Ecumenical Council of Constance…retain all their force and virtue…and that the church of France does not condone the opinions of those who attack these decrees or who weaken them by saying that their authority is not well established…
That consequently the exercise of the apostolic power must be regulated according to the canons created by the Holy Spirit and consecrated by general respect; that the rules, customs, and constitutions received in this kingdom must be maintained; and that the limits set by our fathers remian unbreachable…
That although the pope has the principal role in questions of faith and his decrees concern all churches and every church in particular, his judgment is not irreversible unless it receives the consent of the church.
Text transcribed from William Beik, Louis XIV and Absolutism: A Brief Study with Documents (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000), 177-78.
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