SFU Additive Manufacturing Laboratory

Peer Reviewed SCI Journal Publications

- Highlights: Papers published in Adv.Mater. (impact factor 27)  #58, Joule (impact factor 27) #47

- Journal Cover Images: Adv. Elect. Mater. #49, Adv.Intell. Sys. #50, Adv.Mater. Technol. #53, #60

- Research Topics:

   1) 3D Conductive Printing: #41, #42, #43, #46, #47, #48, #61, #62

   2) Advanced 3D Printing: #48, #47, #46, #43, #42, #41

   3) Architectured Solid: #39, #44, #48, #52, #56, #60

   4) Sensing Robots: #52, #53, #58, #60, #61

   5) Wearables: #22, #24, #25, #30, #34, #35, #36, #37, #38, #45, #61

   6) Chemical Sensors: #38, #45, #49, #50, #51, #53, #55, #59

   7) Wireless Sensors: #25, #31, #35, #49, #53




Peer Reviewed Conference Proceedings

20. C. Bao, and W.S. Kim*, “3D Printed Ion-selective Field Effect Transistors”,  Proceeding of IEEE IFETC, 8583990, August 2018. DOI

19. T. Kim, K. Andrews, and W.S. Kim*, “3D Printed Flexible Coreless Transformers”,  Proceeding of IEEE FETC, 8584017, August 2018. DOI

18. R. Trankanu, T. Kim, and W.S. Kim*, “A 3D printed Flexible Passive RFID for Temperature Sensing”,  Proceeding of FETC, 8583913, August 2018. DOI

17. J.S. Park, and W.S. Kim*, “A Wireless Motion Detection System with Silver Nano Ink Printed Accelerometer”,  Proceeding of IEEE NMDC, 1570189599, September 2015. DOI

16. B. Chou, J.S. Park, and W.S. Kim*, “3D Printed Inductor Designs Decorated with Silver Nano Ink”,  Proceeding of IEEE NMDC, 1570189605,  September 2015. DOI

15. R. Kazemzadeh, and W.S. Kim*, “Piezo-resistive Pressure Sensor Array with Phto-thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide”,  Proceeding of Materials Research Society, MRSS15-2135390,  April 2015. DOI

14.  J. Kim, and W.S. Kim*, “Evaluation of Stress Distribution in Direct Stamping of Silver Nano Ink

       by Analysis of Finite-element Model”,  Proceeding of IEEE Nano, TuDPS.19, August 2014. DOI

  1. 13. J. Kim, J. Park, B. Keane, and W.S. Kim*, “Stretchable Inter-Connection by Printed Silver

       Nano-Ink”,  Proceeding of IEEE Nano, TuDPS.18, August 2014. DOI

  1. 12. R. Kazemzadeh, and W.S. Kim*, “Flexible Temperature Sensor with Laser Scribed Graphene

       Oxide”,  Proceeding of IEEE Nano, TuDPS.20,  August 2014. DOI

  1. 11.J. Park, and W.S. Kim*, “Sustained Percolation in Stretched Silver Nanowire Networks for Stretchable Inter-Connection Applications”,  MRS Proceeding, Vol. 1685 April 25th 2014. DOI

  1. 10.Y. Zhang and W.S. Kim*, “A Flexible Accelerometer System for Human Pulse Monitoring”,  MRS Proceeding, April 25th 2014.

9.  H. Son, J. Park, Y.S. Nam and W.S. Kim*, “Flexible Fibrous Piezo-Electric Sensors on Printed Silver Electrodes”,  MRS Proceeding, April 25th 2014.

8.  W.S. Kim* and Chupeng Lei, “Directly Printed Paper Accelerometer”, Proceedings of ICOMM 2013, #21, March 2013. DOI

7.  T. Ng, J. Kim, W.S. Kim*, “Nano-needle pressure sensor integrated with printed organic transistors”,  Proceedings of IEEE INEC, pp. 405-406, January 2013. DOI

6.  J. Kim, T. Hsieh, W.S. Kim*, “Roll-to-roll Apparatus for Residue-free Direct Stamping of Functional Nano-inks”,  MRS Proceeding #1529, MRSF12-1529-2203-05, December 2012. DOI

  1. 5.  J. Kim, K. Wubs, B.S. Bae, W.S. Kim*, “Mechanically durable flexible strain sensors stamped with silver nano-inks”, Polymeric Materials: Science & Engineering Preprints, #288, ACS National meeting in San Diego March 2012. DOI

4.  J. Kim, T. Ng, W.S. Kim*, “Highly sensitive pressure sensor array fabricated with flexible nano-needle assemblies”,  Polymeric Materials: Science & Engineering Preprints, #198, ACS National meeting in San Diego March 2012. DOI

3.  W.S. Kim*, D. Kalia, and J. Kim “Ultra-sensitive Flexible Pressure Sensor with Stamped Polyurethane Rubber” Proceeding of IEEE Nano, pp. 1607-1610, 2011. DOI


     12. W.S. Kim and Jiseok Kim, “Direct Stamping of Silver Nanoparticle Inks for Thick Electrode”

             US Provisional  No. 61/672,156


       Prior to SFU career


17.W.S. Kim, L. Jia, E.L. Thomas, “Hierarchically Ordered Topographic Patterns via Plasmonic Mask Photolithography”, Advanced Materials, 21, pp.1921-1926 (2009).

16.A. Moujoud, H.J. Kim, S.H. Kang, G.J. Oh, W.S. Kim, B.S. Bae, and S.Y. Shin, “Double component long period waveguide grating filter in sol-gel material”, Optics Express, 15, pp.15147-15153 (2007).

15.W.S. Kim, M.G. Kim, A.H. Ahn, B.S. Bae, and C.B. Park, “Protein Micro-Patterning on Bi-Functional Organic-Inorganic Sol-Gel Hybrid Materials”, Langmuir, 23, pp.4732-4736 (2007).

14.W.S. Kim, D.G. Choi and B.S. Bae, “Ultraviolet-nanoimprint of 40 nm Scale Patterns Using Functionally Modified Fluorinated Hybrid Materials”, Nanotechnology, 17, pp.3319-3324 (2006).

13. W.S. Kim, J.H. Jin, and B.S. Bae, “Low Adhesive Force of Fluorinated Sol-gel Hybrid Materials for Easy Demolding in UV-based Nano Imprint”, Nanotechnology, 17, pp.1212-1216 (2006). 

12.A. Moujoud, W.S. Kim, B.S. Bae, and S.Y. Shin, “Thermally-stable Optical Characteristics of Sol-gel Hybrid Material Films”, Applied Physics Letters, 88, 101916 (2006).

11.D.J. Kang, W.S. Kim, and B.S.Bae, “Direct Photo-fabrication of Refractive Index Modulated Multimode Optical Waveguide Using Photosensitive Sol-gel Hybrid Materials”, Applied Physics Letters, 87, 221106 (2005).

10.D.G. Choi, J.H. Jeong, Y.S. Shim, E.S. Lee, W.S.Kim, and B.S. Bae, “Fluorinated Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Mold for Nanoimprint and Soft Lithography”, Langmuir, 21, pp.9390-9392  (2005).

9.W.S. Kim, K.B. Yoon and B.S. Bae, “Nanopatterning of photonic crystal with photocurable high refractive index material by UV-based nanoimprint technique”, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 15, pp.4535-4539 (2005).

8.W.S. Kim, K.S. Kim, Y.J. Eo, K.B. Yoon and  B.S. Bae, “Synthesis of the fluorinated hybrid material for UV embossing of large core optical waveguide structure”, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 15, pp.465-469 (2005). 

7.W.S. Kim, K.-S. Kim, Y.-C. Kim and B.-S. Bae, “Thermowetting Embossing Nano Imprinting (TENI) of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials”, Thin Solid Films, 476[1], pp.181-184 (2005).  

6.E.-S. Kang, W.S. Kim, K.-S. Kim and B.-S. Bae, "Modification of Thermo-Optic Character istics of Sol-Gel Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials", Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 32, pp. 277-280 (2004).

5.E.-S. Kang, W.S. Kim, K.-S. Kim and B.-S. Bae, "Reducing the thermal dependence of silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating using inorganic-organic hybrid materials", IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 16[12], pp2625-2627 (2004).

4.W.S. Kim, J.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Shin, B.-S. Bae and Y.-C. Kim, “Fabrication of Ridge Waveguides by UV Embossing and Stamping of Sol-Gel Hybrid Materials” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 16[8], pp. 1888-1890 (2004). 

3.W.S. Kim, R. Houbertz, T.-H. Lee, and B.-S. Bae, “Effect of Photoinitiator on Photopolymeri- zation of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Polymers (ORMOCER)“, Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 42, pp.1979-1986 (2004). 

2.R. Houbertz, W.S. Kim, G. Domann, J. Schulz, B. Olsowski, and L. Frolich, “Impact of photo-initiators on the photopolymerization and the optical properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers“ Applied Physics Letters, 84[7], pp. 1105-1107 (2004).

1.J.U. Park, W.S. Kim, and B.S. Bae, “Photoinduced Low Refractive Index in a Photosensitive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Material”. Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 13, pp. 738 (2003).

PUBLICATIONS (SCI-extended journal papers)

1.C. G. Choi, W.S. Kim, and B.S. Bae, “Low Dielectric Constant Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials by Non-Hydrolytic Sol-Gel Method”. Electronic Materials Letters, vol. 1, pp.87 (2005).

PUBLICATIONS of Invited Book Chapter

1.W.S. Kim, and B.S. Bae, in Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology II, edited by H. S. Nalwa (American Scientific Publishers, 2010), Chapter. 153, “Soft Materials for Nano Imprint Lithography”.



1.B.S. Bae, W.S. Kim and D.G. Choi, “Fluorinated Organosilane Compound for Producing Mold Used for Replicating Patterns, Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Mold for Pattern Replication Produced by Using the Same, Method of Replication of Pattern Using the Mold and Pattern Replicated by the Method”, Korea Patent No. Reg.10-700435 (03/21/2007).

2.B.S. Bae, W.S. Kim and D.J. Kang, “Flexible Film Optical Waveguide Fabricated by UV Moulding of Sol-Gel Hybrid Materials”, PCT, Publication number; WO 06/112592 A1  (10/26/2006).

3.B.S. Bae, D.J. Kang, J.K. Kim and W.S. Kim , “Manufacturing Method for Planar Multimode Optical Waveguide by Direct Photo-patterning”, PCT, Publication number; WO 06/075849 A1 (07/20/2006).


1.W.S. Kim, C. Voung, J. Junginger, N. Hu, and V. Skorokhod, “Electro-photographic Imaging Apparatus with Extended Cleaning Life Comprising Surface-Patterned Photoreceptor”, US Patent (2010XXXX).

2.W.S. Kim, P. Liu, Y. Wu, and N. Hu, “Highly Conductive Thick Silver Electrode Fabricated by Stamping with Silver Nanoparticles”, US Patent (20100230).

3.W.S. Kim, N. Hu, Y. Gagnon and J. Junginger, “Fabrication of stable graphene solution via chemical synthesis from graphite flakes”, US Patent (20091590).

4.W.S. Kim, C. Voung, J. Junginger, N. Hu, and V. Skorokhod, “Assembled CRU with Stamp Roll for Controlled Delivery of Healing Materials in BCR Charging system”, US Patent (20091413).

5.W.S. Kim, J. Junginger, N. Hu, and V. Skorokhod, “Patterned Bias Charge Roller (BCR) Surface Fabricated by Imprinting Lithography for Long Life BCR”, US Patent (20091303).

6.W.S. Kim, E. Chow, K. Law, N. Hu, and Y. Wu, “Large area transfer stamping of chemically modified graphene”, US Patent (20090703).

7.W.S. Kim, N. Hu, and J. Coggan, “PASCO Overcoat layer containing Core-shell PTFE”, US Patent (20090560).

8.W.S. Kim, Y. Qi, and N. Hu, “Practical methodology of micro/nano-imprinting of polyimide film with stamping of PTFE particles onto the film in-situ to enable long life fusers”, US Patent (20090519).

  1. 9.W.S. Kim, N. Hu, and J. Coggan, “A practical method for forming teflon core-shell particles and application of such particles”, US Patent (20090493).

10.W.S. Kim, and J. Junginger, “A photoreceptor surface treatment which reduces PEG”, US Patent (20090480).

11.W.S. Kim, N. Hu, V. Skorokhod, and G. McGuire, “Controlled delivery of healing materials on photoreceptor surface using micro- or nano-inking Process”, US Patent (20090426).


1.W.S. Kim, J.K. Kim, and B.S. Bae, “Soft-Lithography of Inorganic-organic Hybrid Glasses for the Fabrication of Micro-structure Devices”, 20th ICG'04 Proceedings in Kyoto, 20, 0-11-039 (2004).

2.B.S. Bae, W.S. Kim and K.B. Yoon, “Zero Bending Loss Flexible Film Optical Waveguide Fabricated by UV Moulding of Sol-Gel Hybrid Materials”, IPRA’05 Proceedings in San Diego, (2005).

54. X. Min, and W. S. Kim*, “Beyond High Voltage in the Digital Microfluidic Devices for an Integrated Portable Sensing Systems” Mcrofluidics and Nanofluidics, 23, pp. 127 (2019). DOI

53. T. Kim, M. Kaur, and W. S. Kim*, “Humanoid robot actuation through precise chemical sensing signalsAdvanced Materials Technologies, 1900570 (2019). DOI


52. M. Kaur, and W. S. Kim*, “Towards A Smart Compliant Robotic Gripper Equipped with 3D Designed Cellular Fingers Advanced Intelligent Systems, 1900019 (2019). DOI

  1. 51.  X. Min, C. Bao, and W. S. Kim*, “Additively Manufactured Digital Microfluidic Platforms for Ion-selective Sensing” ACS Sensors 4, pp 918–923 (2019). DOI


50.  C. Bao, M. Kaur, and W. S. Kim*, “Toward a Highly    Selective Artificial Saliva Sensors using Hybrid Printed Field Effect Transistors” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 285, pp. 186-192 (2019). DOI

  1. 49.  T. Kim, C. Bao, M. Hausmann, G. Siqueira, T. Zimmermann, and W. S. Kim*, “3D Printed Disposable Wireless Ion Sensors with Biocompatible Cellulose Composites” Advanced Electronic Materials 5, pp. 1800778 (2019). DOI  Selected as a Journal Front Cover

  1. 48.  S. Park, M. Kaur, D. Yun, and W. S. Kim*, “Hierarchically Designed Electron Paths in 3D Printed Energy Storage Devices” Langmuir, 34, pp. 10897-10904 (2018). DOI

  1. 47.   Y. Dong, C. Bao, and W. S. Kim*, “Sustainable Additive Manufacturing of Printed Circuit Boards” Joule (Cell Press) 2, pp. 579-582 (2018). DOI

  1. 46.  T. Kim, R. Trangkanukulkij, and W. S. Kim*, “Nozzle Shape Guided Filler Orientation in 3D Printed Photo-curable Nanocomposite” Scientific Reports, 8, pp. 3805 (2018). DOI

  1. 45.  Y. Dong, X. Min, and W. S. Kim*, “A 3D Printed Integrated Electro-chemical Sensor System” IEEE Sensors Journal, 18, pp. 2959-2966. (2018). DOI

  1. 44.   M. Kaur, T. Yun, S. Han, E.L. Thomas and W. S. Kim*, “3D Printed Stretch-dominated Micro-trusses” Materials & Design, 134, pp. 272-280 (2017). DOI

43.   K. Andersen, Y. Dong, and W. S. Kim*, “Highly Conductive 3D Printing with Low-melting Alloy          Filament” Advanced Engineering Materials, 19, pp. 1700301 (2017). DOI

  1. 42.   J. Park, T. Kim and W. S. Kim*, “Cellulose Composite with Low Percolation Threshold for 3D Printed Electronics” Scientific Reports, 7, pp. 3246 (2017). DOI

  1. 41.    L. Jian, T. Kim, J. Park, J. Wang, and W. S. Kim*, “High Performance 3D Printed Electronics Using Electroless Plated Copper” AIP Advances 7, pp. 035314 (2017). DOI

  1. 40.  H. Hariri, J. Kim, W. S. Kim, L. Frechette, and P. Masson, “Performance Validation of Printed Strain Sensors for Active Control of Intelligent Tires” Applied Acoustics 123, pp. 73-84 (2017). DOI

  1. 39.  M. Kaur, S.M. Han, and W. S. Kim*, “3D-Printed Cellular Architecture Materials”, MRS Communications 7, pp. 8-19 (2017). DOI

  1. 38.   M. Abrar, Y. Dong, P. Lee, and W. S. Kim*, “Bendable Electro-chemical Lactate Sensor with Printed Silver Nano Ink” Scientific Reports, 6, pp. 30565 (2016). DOI

  1. 37.   H. Jang, and W. S. Kim*, “Shear-induced Dry Transfer of Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin Film via Roll-to-roll PrintingApplied Physics Letters, 108, pp.091601 (2016). DOI

  1. 36.   J. Kim, and W. S. Kim*, “A Paired Stretchable Printed Sensor System for Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring” Sensors & Actuators:A. Physical, 238, pp. 329-336 (2016). DOI

  1. 35.   J. Park, S. Robinovitch, and W. S. Kim*, “A Wireless Wristband Accelerometer for Monitoring of Rubber Band Exercises” IEEE Sensors Journal, 16, pp.1143-1150 (2016). DOI

  1. 34.  L. Motha, J. Kim, and W. S. Kim*, “Instrumented Rubber Insole for Plantar Pressure Sensing” Organic Electronics, 23, pp.82-86 (2015). DOI

  1. 33.   R. Kazemzadeh, K. Andersen , L. Motha and W. S. Kim*, “Highly Sensitive Pressure Sensor with Reduced Graphene Oxide” IEEE Electron Device Letters 36, pp.180-182 (2015). DOI

  1. 32.   J. Kim, and W. S. Kim*, “Stretching Silver: Printed Metallic Nano Inks for Stretchable Conductor Applications” IEEE Nano Magazine 8, pp. 6-13 (2014). DOI

  1. 31.   J. Kim, Z. Wang, and W. S. Kim*, “Stretchable RFID for Wireless Strain Sensing with Silver Nano Ink”  IEEE Sensors Journal 14 (12), pp. 4395-4401 (2014). DOI

  1. 30.   Y. Zhang, and W. S. Kim*, “Highly Sensitive Attachable Printed Sensor for Monitoring Vital Signs” Soft Robotics 1 (2), pp. 132-135 (2014). DOI

  1. 29.   H. Son, J. Park, J. Huang, J. Kim, Y. Nam and W. S. Kim*, “Flexible Fibrous Piezo-electric Sensors on Printed Silver Electrodes” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, 13, pp. 709-711 (2014). DOI

  1. 28.  J. Park, M. Rezaei, and W. S. Kim*, “Sustained Percolation in Stretched Silver Nanowire Network for Stretchable Interconnection Applications” Advanced Engineering Materials, 16, pp. 905-908 (2014). DOI

  1. 27.   J. Kim, J. Jong and W. S. Kim*, “Repeatedly Bendable Paper Touch Pad via Direct Stamping of Silver Nano Ink with Pressure-Induced Low Temperature Annealing” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology ,12, pp. 1139-1143 (2013). DOI

  1. 26.   Y. Zhang, T. Lei, and W. S. Kim*, “Design-optimized Membrane-based Flexible Paper Accelerometer with Silver Nano Ink” Applied Physics Letters 103, pp.073304 (2013). DOI

  1. 25.  T. Rai, P. Dantes, B. Bahreyni and W. S. Kim*, “Stretchable RF Antenna with Silver Nanowires” IEEE Electron Device Letters 34, pp.544-546 (2013). DOI

  1. 24.  J. Kim, Tina Ng, and W. S. Kim*, “Highly Sensitive Tactile Sensor Controlled by OTFT ” Applied Physics Letters 101, pp.103308 (2012). DOI

  1. 23.  J. Kim, K. Wubs, B. S. Bae and W. S. Kim*, “Direct Stamping of Silver Nanoparticles toward Residue-free Thick Electrode ” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 13, pp. 035004 (2012). DOI


  1. 22.  T. Aktar, and W. S. Kim*, “Reversibly Stretchable Transparent Conductive Coatings of Spray-deposited Silver Nanowires” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 4, pp.1855-1859 (2012). DOI


  1. 21.   T. Aktar, J. Joseph, and W. S. Kim*, “Fabrication of Sensitivity Controllable Flexible Force Sensor via Spray Coating of Graphite Ink”, IEEE Electronic Device Letters, 33, pp.902-904 (2012). DOI

  1. 20.   J. Kim, Pinyen Lin, and W. S. Kim*,  “Mechanically Robust Super-oleophobic Stamp for Direct          Stamping of Silver Nanoparticle Ink”, Thin Solid Films, 520, pp.4339-4343 (2012). DOI

  1. 19.   J. Kim, B. Lew, and W. S. Kim*, “Facile Fabrication of Super-hydrophobic Nano-needle Arrays via Breath Figures Method” Nanoscale Research Letters, 6, pp. 616 (2011). DOI

55. C. Bao, and W. S. Kim*, “Perspective onf Printed Solid-state Ion Sensors toward Highly Sensitivity and Selectivity” Adv. Eng. Mater pp. 2000116 (2020). DOI

56. S. Park, G. Goodall, and W. S. Kim*, “Perspectives on 3D Designed Micro-supercapacitors” Materials & Design 193, pp. 108797 (2020). DOI

58. M. Kaur, T.H Kim, and W. S. Kim*, “New frontiers in 3D Structural Sensing Robots” Advanced Materials, 2002534  (2021). DOI

57. X. Min, and W. S. Kim*, “An artificial xylem chip: a 3D printed vertical digital microfluidic platform” Langmuir 36, pp. 14841 (2020). DOI

59. C. Bao, S. Seol, and W. S. Kim*, “A 3D Integrated Neuromorphic Sensing System” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemicals 332, pp.129527 (2021). DOI

60. T. H. Kim, J. Vanloo, and W. S. Kim*, “3D Origami Sensing Robots for Cooperative Healthcare monitoring” Advanced Materials Technology pp. 202000938 (2021). DOI

65. T. H. Kim, C. Bao, Z. Chen, and W. S. Kim*, “3D printed leech-inspired orgami dry electrodes for electrophysicology sensing robots” npj Flexible Electronics, 6 (2022). DOI

63. D. Baker, T.H Kim, C. Bao, and W. S. Kim*, “3D Structural Electronics by Coaxial printing” Submitted (2021). DOI

62. D. Baker, and W. S. Kim*, “Highly Conductive 3D Printable Materials for Structural Electronics” ACS Applied Electronic Materials, 3, pp. 2423-2433 (2021). DOI

64. T. H. Kim, X. Min, D. Baker, W. Lee, and W. S. Kim*, “3D architectured air sensing tibes for a portable mechanical ventilator” Flexible and Printed Electronics, 6, pp. 035010 (2021). DOI

66. C. Bao, T. H. Kim, A. H. Kalhori, and W. S. Kim*, “Neuromorphic Hamanoid Hands built by 6-axis Robot 3D printing” Submitted (2021). DOI

61. W. S. Kim* and J. Paik, “Soft Bionic Sensors and Actuators” Advanced Intelligent Systems 3, pp. 210003 (2021). DOI