Dr. George P. Nicholas - Selected Publications

Books

Nicholas, G.P. (editor)
2010  Being and Becoming Indigenous Archaeologists. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA.   http://www.lcoastpress.com/book.php?id=277

Murphy, P.J., G.P. Nicholas, and M. Ignace (editors)
1999  Coyote U: Stories and Teachings from the Secwepemc Education Institute. Theytus Press, Penticton.

Nicholas, G.P. and T.D. Andrews (editors)
1997  At a Crossroads: Archaeology and First Peoples in Canada, Archaeology Press, SFU, Burnaby, B.C.

Nicholas, G.P. (editor)
1988 Holocene Human Ecology in Northeastern North America. Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology Series. Plenum Press, New   York.

Special Publications

Walker, A., B. Egan, and G. Nicholas (editors). 2016. DNA and Indigeneity: The Changing Role of Genetics in Indigenous Rights, Tribal Belonging, and Repatriation. Symposium Proceedings. IPinCH Project, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC.  http://www.sfu.ca/ipinch/sites/default/files/resources/reports/dnaindigeneity_proceedings_2016.pdf

Hollowell, J.J., and G.P Nicholas (editors)
2009 Decoding Implications of the Genographic Project for Cultural Heritage Studies. Special issue of the International Journal of Cultural  Property. 16(2): 103-220.

Book Chapters and Journal Articles (by topic)

Ethics, Theory, and Practice

2017 — Culture, Rights, Indigeneity, and Intervention: Addressing Inequality in Indigenous Heritage Protection and Control. In Archaeologies of ‘Us’ and ‘Them’ –Debating the Ethics and Politics of Ethnicity and Indigeneity in Archaeology and Heritage Discourse, edited by C. Hillerdal, A. Karlström, C-G. Ojala, pp. 199–216. Routledge, London and New York.

2015 —  and B. Egan, K. Bannister, and E. Benson. Intervention as a Strategy in Protecting Indigenous Cultural Heritage. The SAA Archaeological Record 15(4): 41–47. http://onlinedigeditions.com/publication/?i=272889#{"issue_id":272889,"page":0}

2015 K. Bannister and G. Nicholas. Irony as Inspiration—From Academic Research to Community Action in Protecting Biocultural Landscapes. Langscape Magazine 4(1): 62-67.

2014  A. Martindale and G. Nicholas. Wayfinding: Archaeology as Federated Knowledge. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 38(2): 434–465.

2014 — and N.M. Markey. Traditional Knowledge, Archaeological Evidence, and Other Ways of Knowing. In Material Culture as Evidence: Best Practices and Exemplary Cases in Archaeology, edited by R. Chapman and A. Wylie, pp. 287-307. Routledge Press.

2014 — Reconciling Inequalities in Archaeological Practice and Heritage Research. In Transforming Archaeology From Excavation to Engagement, edited by S. Atalay, L. Clauss, R. McGuire, and J. Welch, pp. 133-158. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA.

2012 — and Alison Wylie.  “Do Not Do Unto Others...”: Cultural Misrecognition and the Harms of Appropriation in an Open Source World.” In Appropriating the Past: Philosophical Perspectives on Archaeological Practice, edited by R. Coningham and G. Scarre, Cambridge University Press.

2012— “Making Us Uneasy”: Clarke, Wobst, and their Critique of Archaeological Practices. Archaeologies 8(3): 209-224.

2011 —, A. Roberts, D. Schaepe, J. Walkins, L. Leader-Elliot, and S. Rowley. A Consideration of Theory, Principles and Practice in Collaborative Archaeology. Archaeological Review from Cambridge 26(2): 11-30.

2009 J.J. Hollowell and G.P. Nicholas. Using Ethnographic Methods to Articulate Community-Based Conceptions of Cultural Heritage Management. Public Archaeology 8(2/3): 141–160.

2009 — and A. Wylie.  Archaeological Finds: Legacies of Appropriation, Modes of Response. In The Ethics of Cultural Appropriation, edited by C. Brunck and J.O. Young, pp. 11-54. Blackwell.

2008 J.J. Hollowell and G.P. Nicholas.  A Critical Assessment of Uses of Ethnography in Archaeology. In Ethnographic Archaeologies: Reflections on Stakeholders and Archaeological Practices, edited by Q. Castenada and C. Matthews, pp. 63–94. AltaMira Press, CA.

2007 — and J.J. Hollowell.  Ethical Challenges to a Postcolonial Archaeology. In Archaeology and Capitalism: From Ethics to Politics, edited by Y. Hamilakas and P. Duke, pp. 59–82. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA.

2007 — and J. Welch and E.C. Yellowhorn. In The Collaborative Continuum: Archaeological Engagements with Descendant Communitie,  edited by C. Colwell-Chathaphonh and T.J. Ferguson, pp. 273-299. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.

Indigenous Peoples and Archaeology

2014  J. Watkins and G. Nicholas. 2014. Why Indigenous Archaeology is Important as a Means of Changing Relationships between Archaeologists and Indigenous Communities. In Indigenous Heritage and Cultural Tourism: Theories and Practices on Utilizing the Ainu Heritage, edited by M. Okada and H. Kato, pp. 141-151. Center for Ainu and Indigenous Studies, Hokkaido University, Japan.

2014 — Indigenous Archaeology (“Archaeology, Indigenous). In Oxford Bibliography of Anthropology, edited by J.L. Jackson. Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press.

2011 — Indigenous Archaeology in the Late Glacial Period: Bridging 10,000 Years. In Ta’n Wetapeksi’k: Understanding from Where We Come, edited by T. Bernard, L. Morine Rosenmeier, and S. Farrell, pp. 199-212. Eastern Woodland Publishing, Truro, NS.

2010 — Seeking the End of Indigenous Archaeology. In Bridging the Divide: Indigenous Communities and Archaeology into the 21st Century, edited by H. Allen and C. Phillips. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA.

2010 Colwell-Chanthaphonh, C., T. J. Ferguson, D. Lippert, R. H. McGuire, G. P. Nicholas, J. E. Watkins, and L. J. Zimmerman. The Premise and Promise of Indigenous Archaeology (Comment on R. McGhee’s “Aboriginalism and the Problems of Indigenous Archaeology.” American Antiquity (April).

2010 — Indigenous Archaeology in the Late Glacial Period: Bridging 10,000 Years. In Ta ’n Wetapeksi’k: Understanding from Where We Come, edited by T. Bernard, L. Morine Rosenmeier, and S. Farrell.  Eastern Woodland Publishing, Truro, NS. forthcoming.

2008 — and J. Jules and C. Dan.  Moving Beyond Kennewick: Alternative Native American Perspectives on Bioarchaeological Data and Intellectual Property Rights. In Kennewick Man: Perspectives on the Ancient One, edited by C. Smith, L. Zimmerman, D. Lippert, and J. Watkins, pp. 233-243. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA.

2008 — Melding Science and Community Values: Indigenous Archaeology Programs and the Negotiation of Cultural Differences. In Collaborating at the Trowel’s Edge: Teaching and Learning in Indigenous Archaeology, edited by Stephen Silliman, pp. 28-249. University of Arizona Press.

2008 — Native Peoples and Archaeology (Indigenous Archaeology). In The Encyclopedia of Archaeology, edited by D. Pearsall, Vol. 3: 1660-1669. Elsevier, Oxford.

2006 — Decolonizing the Archaeological Landscape: The Practice and Politics of Archaeology in British Columbia. Special issue on “Decolonizing Archaeology,” edited by S. Atalay. American Indian Quarterly 30(1): 350-380.  

2005 — The Persistence of Memory, The Politics of Desire: Archaeological Impacts on Aboriginal Peoples and Their Response. In Decolonizing Archaeological Theory and Practice, edited by C. Smith and H.M. Wobst. pp. 81-103 Routledge.

2004 E. McLay, K. Bannister, L. Joe, and B. Thom, and G.P. Nicholas‘A’lhut tu tet Sulhween—“Respecting the Ancestors”: Report of the Hul’qumi’num Heritage Law Case Study. Project for Protection and Repatriation of First Nation Cultural Heritage Project. Hul’qumi’num Treaty Group and Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC). 87 pp. http://www.law.ualberta.ca/research/aboriginalculturalheritage/researchpapers.htm

2004 — Understanding the Present, Honouring the Past. In Indigenous Peoples and Archaeology, edited by T. Peck and E. Siefried and G. Oetelaar, pp. 11-27. University of Calgary Archaeological Association.

2004 — A Necessary Tension: Integrating Processual, Postprocessual, and Other Approaches to the Past. In Indigenous Peoples and Archaeology, edited by T. Peck and E. Siefried and G. Oetelaar, pp. 114-129. University of Calgary Archaeological Association.

2003 — and N. Markey. Notes from the Underground: Some Thoughts on 'The Future Management of Archaeological Resources. The Midden 34(3): 7-13.

2001 — The Past and Future of Indigenous Archaeology: Global Challenges, North American Perspectives, Australian Prospects. Australian Archaeology 52: 29-40.

2000 — Indigenous Land Rights, Education, and Archaeology in Canada: Postmodern/ Postcolonial Perspectives by a Non-Canadian White Guy. In Native Title and the Transformation of Archaeology in the Postcolonial World", edited by I. Lilley, Oceania Monographs (special issue), pp. 121–137.

2000 — Archaeology, Education, and the Secwepemc (Updated version). In Forging Respect: Archaeologists and Native Americans Working Together, edited by K.E. Dongoske, K.E. Aldenderfer, and K. Doehner, pp. 153-163. Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.

1997 — Archaeology, Education, and the Secwepemc. SAA Bulletin. Society for American Archaeology 15(2): 9-11.

1997 — At a Crossroads. American Anthropological Association Newsletter. January, p. 23.

1997 — Education and Empowerment: Archaeology With, For, and By the Shuswap Nation. In At A Crossroads: Archaeology and First Peoples in Canada, edited by G.P. Nicholas and T. Andrews, pp. 85–104. Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C.

1997 — and T. Andrews.  Indigenous Archaeology in the Postmodern World. In At A Crossroads: Archaeology and First Peoples in Canada, edited by G.P. Nicholas and T. Andrews, pp. 1-18. Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C.

1997 — and T. Andrews.  On the Edge. In At A Crossroads: Archaeology and First Peoples in Canada, edited by G.P. Nicholas and T. Andrews, pp. 276-280. Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C.

1991 — and G. Baptiste, C. Coles, J. Gilbert, N. Markey, and D. Dillman.  "Telling a Fresh Story": Archaeology and Aboriginal People. In Coyote U: Stories and Teachings from the Secwepemc Education Institute, edited by P.J. Murphy, G.P. Nicolas and M.B. Ignace, pp. 97-105. Theytus Press, Penticton.

Intellectual Property

2017 — Touching the Intangible: Situating Material Culture in the Realm of Indigenous Heritage Research. In The Routledge Companion to Cultural Property, edited by H. Geismar and J. Anderson, pp. 212–231. Routledge, London and New York.

2014 — Indigenous Cultural Heritage in the Age of Technological Reproducibility: Towards a Postcolonial Ethic of the Public Domain. In Dynamic Fair Dealing: Creating Canadian Culture Online, edited by R. J. Coombe and D. Wershler, pp. 213-224. University of Toronto Press.

2014 — and IPinCH Team. Intellectual Property Issues in Cultural Heritage (IPinCH) Project, pp. 3921-3924. Global Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Springer, New York.

2014 B. Vezina and G.P. Nicholas. Supporting Indigenous Communities at the Grassroots. WIPO Magazine February, pp. 12-15. World Intellectual Property Organization.

2012 D. Pullman and G.P. Nicholas. Intellectual Property and the Ethical/Legal Status of Human DNA: The (Ir)Relevance of Context. Inuit Studies 35 (1+2): 146-164

2012 D. Brown and G.P. Nicholas. Protecting Indigenous Cultural Property in the Age of Digital Democracy: Conventional Legal Approaches to Canadian First Nations and Maori Heritage. Journal of Material Culture 17(3): 307-324

2012 — Intellectual Property Issues in Archaeology. Oxford Companion to Archaeology, 2nd edition, edited by N. A. Silberman, Oxford University Press.

2010 —, C. Bell, R. Coombe, J. Welch, B. Noble, J. Anderson, K. Bannister, and J. Watkins. 2010 Intellectual Property Issues in Heritage Management—Part 2: Ethical Considerations, Legal Issues, and Collaborative Practice. Heritage Management 3(1): 117-147.

2009 — and C. Bell, K. Bannister, S. Ouzman, and J. Anderson (2009) Intellectual Property Issues in Heritage Management—Part 1: Challenges and Opportunities Relating to Appropriation, Information Access, Bioarchaeology, and Cultural Tourism. Heritage Management 2(1) 261–286.

2009 J. Hollowell and G. P. Nicholas (2009) Introduction to “Decoding Implications of the Genographic Project for Archaeology and Cultural Heritage.” International Journal of Cultural Property 16(2): 133–140.

2008 — Policies and Protocols for Archaeological Sites and Associated Cultural and Intellectual Property. In Protection of First Nations Cultural Heritage: Laws, Policy and Reform, edited by C. Bell and Robert Paterson, pp. 203-220. UBC Press Vancouver, BC.

2008 E. McLay, K. Bannister, L. Joe, and B. Thom, and G.P. Nicholas‘A’lhut tu tet Sulhween— “Respecting the Ancestors”: Understanding Hul’qumi’num Heritage Laws and Concerns for Protection of Archaeological Heritage. In First Nations Cultural Heritage and Law: Cases, Studies, Voices and Perspectives, edited by C. Bell and Val Napoleon, pp. 158-202. UBC Press, Vancouver.

2007 J. Hollowell and G.P. Nicholas.  Intellectual Property Rights and Archaeology: A Case from The Midden. The Midden 39(4): 10-15.

2006 — and J. Hollowell. Intellectual Property Issues in Archaeology? In Archaeological Ethics, 2nd ed., edited b K. D. Vitelli and C. Colwell-Chanthaphonh, pp., 206-211. AltaMira Press, Lanham, MD.

2005 — Four Examples of Research Agreements Concerning Intellectual Property with Applications to Archaeological Research. Discussion paper, “Open Content and ‘Community Heritage’: Bridging the Divide.” Alexandria Archive Institute, San Francisco.

2004 — and K.P. Bannister. Reply to Smith. Current Anthropology 45(4): 528-529.

2004 — and K.P. Bannister.  Copyrighting the Past? Emerging Intellectual Property Rights Issues in Archaeology. Current Anthropology 45(3).

2004 — and K.P. Bannister.  Intellectual Property Rights and Indigenous Cultural Heritage in Archaeology. In Indigenous Intellectual Property Rights in Archaeology, edited by M. Riley. AltaMira Press, Walnut Grove, CA.

Wetlands Archaeology / Landscape Archaeology

2012 — Towards an Anthropology of Wetland Archaeology: Hunter-Gatherers and Wetlands in Practice and Theory. In The Oxford Handbook of Wetland Archaeology, edited by F. Menotti and A. O’Sullivan, pp. 761-778. Oxford University Press.

2007 — Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers and Wetland Environments: Theoretical Issues, Economic Organization, and Resource Management Strategies. In Wetlands: Local Issues, World Perspectives, edited by M. Lillie and S. Ellis, pp. 46-62. Oxbow Press, Oxford.

2007 — Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers and Wetland Environments: Mobility/Sedentism and Sociopolitical Organization. In Wetlands: Local Issues, World Perspectives, edited by M. Lillie and S. Ellis, pp. 245-257. Oxbox Press, Oxford.

2007 N. Draper, S. Hemming, and R. Luebbers, and G. P. Nicholas. Specialists’ Report on Heritage Management “Best Practice” for Monitoring Drought Related Dredging, River Murray, Lower Lakes and Coorong Region. In Report for the Ngarrindjeri Heritage & Native Title Management Committees. Australian Cultural Heritage Management Pty, Ltd., pp. 49. Hindmarsh, S.A. Australia.

2001 — Wet Sites, Wetland Sites, and Cultural Resource Management Strategies. In Enduring Records: The Environmental and Cultural Heritage of Wetlands edited by B. Purdy, pp. 262-270. Oxbow Books, Oxford.

1998 — Wetlands and Hunter-Gatherers: A Global Perspective. Current Anthropology. 39 (5): 720-733.

1992 — The Role of Wetlands in Northeastern Prehistory: Part 2. Man in the Northeast 43.

1991 — The Role of Wetlands in Northeastern Prehistory: Part 1. Man in the Northeast 42.

Prehistoric Land Use and Human Ecology

2016 — and  N.J. Bonneau, and L. Westfall. Archaeological Approaches to Long-Term Secwepemc Plant Use in the Interior Plateau, British Columbia. In Secwepemc People and Plants: Research Papers in Shuswap Ethnobotany, edited by M. Ignace, N. Turner, and S. Peacock, pp. 67–125. Contributions in Ethnobiology, Society for Ethnobiology.

2011 C.F. Speller, G. P. Nicholas, and D. Y. Yang.  Feather Barbs as a Rich Source of mtDNA Ideal for Minimally Destructive DNA Analysis in Forensic Wildlife Cases. Investigative Genetics 2:16. http://www.investigativegenetics.com/content/2/1/16

2010 — and L. Westfall.  Long-Term Secwepemc Plant Use: Initial Results of Archaeological and Archaeobotanical Investigations in the Interior Plateau, British Columbia. To appear in Secwepemc People and Plants: Research Papers in Shuswap Ethnobotany, edited by S. Peacock, N. J. Turner, and M. Ignace. forthcoming.

1998 — A Light But Lasting Footprint: Human Influences on the Northeastern Landscape. In The Archaeological Northeast, edited by M.L. Levine, M.S. Nassaney, and K.E. Sassaman, pp. 25-38. Bergin and Garvey, Greenwich, CT.

1998 — Assessing Climatic Influences on Human Affairs: Wetlands and the Maximum Holocene Warming in the Northeast. Journal of Middle Atlantic Archaeology 14: 147-160.

1994 — Prehistoric Human Ecosystems in the Northeast: Interpreting Past Landscapes and Land  Use. In Great Lakes Archaeology and Paleocology: Exploring Interdisciplinary Initiatives for the Nineties, edited by B.G. Warner and R.I. MacDonald, pp. 117-140. Quaternary Sciences Institute, University of Waterloo and ESCART Press.

1993 — Prehistoric Human Ecology as Cultural Resource Management. In Cultural Resource Management: Archaeological Research, Preservation Planning, and Public Education in the Northeastern United States, edited by J. Kerber, pp. 17-50. Bergin and Garvey, Greenwich, CT.

Essays and Other Publications

2016 — Who Are We? In The Changing Role of Genetics in Indigenous Rights, Tribal Belonging, and Repatriation: Symposium Proceedings, edited by A. Walker, B. Egan, and G. Nicholas, pp. 7-8. IPinCH Project, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC.

2016 — and A. Walker. Towards an Understanding of Indigenous DNA Research. In DNA and Indigeneity: The Changing Role of Genetics in Indigenous Rights, Tribal Belonging, and Repatriation. Symposium Proceedings, edited by A. Walker, B. Egan, and G. Nicholas, pp. 55-57. IPinCH Project website. IPinCH Project, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC.

2014 — Joe Edward Watkins (Biographical Entry), p. 7708-7711. Global Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Springer, New York.

2014 — and J. Watkins. Indigenous Archaeologies in Archaeological Theory, pp. 3777-3786. Global Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Springer, New York.

2014 J. Watkins and G.P. Nicholas. Indigenous Archaeologies: North American Perspective, pp. 3794-3803. Global Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Springer, New York.

2014 — and N. M. Markey. Secwepemc Cultural Education Society/Simon Fraser University (SCES-SFU) Indigenous Archaeology Program, pp. 6548-6550. Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology, Springer, New York.

2012 — and R. R. Aloua. Archaeology and Non-Western Societies and Indigenous Peoples: Introduction. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, 2nd ed., edited by N.A. Silberman, Vol. 2: 491-492. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

2012 — and the IPinCH Collective.  Collaborative, Community-Based Heritage Research, and the IPinCH Project. SAA Archaeological Record (September): 30-32.

2011  S. Carr-Locke, and G.P. Nicholas. Working Towards Greater Equity and Understanding: Examples of Collaborative Archaeology and Museum Initiatives with Indigenous Peoples in North America. Society for Applied Anthropology Newsletter 22(1): 4-9.

2010 L. Mortensen, and G.P. Nicholas. Riding the Tourism Train? Navigating Intellectual Property, Heritage and Community-Based Approaches to Cultural Tourism. Anthropology News (November): 11–12.

2010 —, J. Welch, Alan Goodman, and Randall McGuire. Beyond the Tangible: Repatriation of Cultural Heritage, Bioarchaeological Data, and Intellectual Property. Anthropology News 51(3): 10-11.2008 Hollowell, J.J., and G.P. Nicholas.  Intellectual Property Issues in Archaeological Publication: Some Questions to Ponder.  In Archaeologies 4(2): 208–217.

2008 — Comment on History and Its Discontents: Stone Statues, Native Histories, and Archaeologists”, by Gnecco and Hernadez.  In Current Anthropology 49(3): 458-459.

2007 — On Archaeology and the “Burden” of Responsibility. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 31(2): iii-vii.

2007 — On Representativeness in Archaeology. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 31(1): iii-vii.

2007 Welch, J.R., D. R. Burley and M. Klassen, and G. Nicholas.  CRM, SFU, & You: Options for Professional Preparation from Simon Fraser University. The Midden 39(4): 16-19.

2006 — On Historicizing Archaeology. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 30(2): iii-vi.

2006 — On Archaeological Theory as a Rite of Passage. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 30(1): iii-vi.

2005 — On “Reality” Archaeology. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 29(2): iii-vi.

2005 — On mtDNA and Archaeological Ethics. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 29 (1): iii-vi.

2004 — On Underestimating the Past. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 28(2): iii-iv.

2001 — On Representations of Race and Racism. Current Anthropology 42(1): 140-143.

1999 — Coyote Creates the Past (fiction). In Coyote U: Stories and Teachings from the Secwepemc Education Institute, edited by P.J. Murphy, G.P. Nicholas, and M.B. Ignace, pp. 92-93. Theytus Press, Penticton.

1994 — On the Goddess Myth and Methodology. Current Anthropology 35: 448-450.

1992 — The Yanomami in the Classroom: Cultural Diversity, Indigenous Land Rights and Applied Anthropology. Cultural Survival Quarterly Spring: 28-30.

Videos and Video Interviews

2017  “Activism, Education, and the Protection of Cultural Heritage in British Columbia.” The Shepard Krech III Lecture for 2017. Haffenreffer Museum, Brown University. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kG2Z8CU5m8c

2014  “Why Heritage is Not Just About ‘Things’.” TEDx Yellowknife, in conjunction with Itaa Yati Traditional Knowledge Symposium. Yellowknife, NWT.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HbPLXTJwVMY&list=PLjMPDTlr8hYk3cIx-Xa00FR3uAde6VnK6

2014 “At the Intersection of Indigenous and Western Knowledge Systems: Traditional Knowledge, Scientific Reasoning, and Intangible Heritage Protection.”Itaa Yati Traditional Knowledge Symposium. Yellowknife, NWT.” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AUpwX9kSqgI&t=5s

2014 “Culture, Community, and Collaboration: New Directions for Protecting Indigenous Heritage,” SFU President’s Lecture Series. http://www.sfu.ca/ipinch/resources/videos/culture-community-and-collaboration-new-directions-protecting-indigenous-heritage

2014 SFU Research Masterclass Series: "Decolonizing Archaeology—In Theory and Practice” http://www.irmacs.sfu.ca/event/13323

2010 Oral Traditions Into Written Traditions,” (B. Winter, Producer). http://www.sfu.ca/ipinch/resources/videos/oral-tradition-written-tradition