Time Management - Systematic Review


Our systematic review analyzes operational definitions of TM, and identifies relations of TM to performance in post-secondary education and work contexts. A broad set of search terms were used to identify 227 sources; culled to 49 after review. Theoretical and operational definitions of TM vary considerably, limiting generalizability of empirical findings, clarity of recommendations, and opportunity to meta-analytically explore effect sizes. Procrastination consistently negatively related to TM. Performance, learning strategies and motivation variables correlated positively with TM.  Findings were mixed for task characteristics and individual differences. Studies exploring the work context emphasized task characteristics, negative well-being variables and work performance whereas in the school context learning strategies were emphasized. Across studies, a limitation was measuring effective TM by self-report rather than behavior, violating recommendations by Claessens et al. (2007). Overall, findings suggest benefits of TM in work and school contexts; however, generalizability is limited by inconsistencies in the TM literature.



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