# Midterm Exam

## Spring 2002

1.    Define the Case Filter. (5). For extra credit (3), it is possible to use the Case features ([±Case_Inh] and [±Nom]) to represent the Case Filter. How can you do this? (3)

*NP if NP has phonetic form but no Case.

The theory states that a feature must have a value or the form(s) containing it will crash. Hence, the feature [ Nom] will crash unless it can be assigned a value (+ or -). In the former having no Case is equivalent to saying that the feature has no value.

2.    Define the Last Resort Principle. (5)

Don't do it until you aboslutely have to.

3.    What principle(s) or rules do the following sentences violate? Explain with the correct form of the sentence (a derivation is not required here): (20)

2a   *These cars had be be painted.

In both cases, splitting failed to occur. Splittin is the default, and form has to be marked to over ride this rule. 'BE' is not one of them. Once split, both sides are phonetically spelled out.

2b   *The some essays were reading by much students.

'The' is [+Def], 'some' is [-Def], 'the' governs 'some; (in the more conservative form of the theory. The features of definiteness here does not agree; hence the S crashes.

'much' is [-Ct] whereas 'student' is [+Ct]; again there is no agreement and the S crashes.

According to the given correct setnence, the verb is modified positively by the operators Voice and Tense. The affix 'ing' shows up in 2b; 'ing' is the spellout of the progressive aspect, not the passive voice. Hence the S crashes.

The intended sentences are:

2a'    These cars had been being painted.

2b'    Some essays were read by many students.

4.   Determine the full logical (argument) structure for the following sentence, derive its surface structure (short of moving the argument to the subject position). Use full form trees: (30)

3a    Eight deer migrated.

5.    Determine the logical structure of the following sentence and derive their surface structures (short of moving the argument to the subject position). You may use a short form by listing NPs without expanding them except for identifying each operator and its given morphological form (CAPS).. Explain each step in the drawn structure (you may omit NP): (30)

4a    Some insects have been eaten.

6.    Name three strategies that syntax uses to arrive at a grammatical phonetic form of the sentence. (10)

Copy the value of a feature to the same feature with no set value for that feature under terms of government.

Copy a feature adjoining it to its host.

Insert a dummy.