DYNAMICS or DYNAMIC
Music / Electroacoustics
Strictly speaking, dynamics refer to the variations in LOUDNESS of a musical composition or specific NOTEs.
Compare: DYNAMIC RANGE, VOLUME.
The most common dynamic markings, from quietest to loudest, are the following:
pianissimo (very soft)
mezzo-piano (medium soft)
mezzo-forte (medium loud)
fortissimo (very loud)
These terms have no absolute values and are relative to one another according to the context of the music. Changes in dynamic levels are indicated as follows:
cresc. crescendo (increasing loudness)
decresc. decrescendo (decreasing loudness)
In ELECTROACOUSTIC applications, the term dynamic refers to time-dependent behaviour, such as the motion of a dynamic MICROPHONE, or the time-dependence of dynamic filtering or spatial modulation.