ACOUSTIC DIMENSIONS OF COMMUNICATION II
Instructor: Barry Truax, K-9676,
778-782-4261, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Website: http://www.sfu.ca/~truax & www.sfu.ca/sonic-studio/
Truax, Acoustic Communication, 2nd ed., Ablex 2001. (QC
Five Village Soundscapes, ARC Publications 1977. (QC
229 D38); reprinted in H. Jarviluoma et al., eds., Acoustic Environments in Change,
Tampere, 2009. (QC
229 A26 2009)
B. Truax, ed., Handbook for Acoustic Ecology, CD-ROM edition, Cambridge
CMNS 359 Readings (online pdf's: www.sfu.ca/sonic-studio/AcousticCommunication;
References: WFAE website: www.wfae.net;
video collection related to acoustic ecology: soundexplorations.blogspot.com
P. Denes & E. Pinson, The
Chain. (QP 306
W.H.Freeman, 2nd ed., 1993. (P95 D46 1993)
W. Ong, Orality and Literacy. Methuen, 1982. (P35 O54)
D. Tannen, ed. Spoken and
Written Language: Exploring Orality
D. Tannen & M.
Saville-Troike, eds. Perspectives on Silence, Ablex, 1985. (P95.53, P47)
A. Wolvin & C. Coakley, Perspectives
Ablex, 1993. (P95.46 P47 1993)
D. Ihde, Listening and Voice: Phenomenologies of
Sound, SUNY Press, 2007 (B 829.5 I34 2007)
J. Attali, Noise (The
Political Economy of Music), The University of Minnesota
(ML 3795 A913)
E. Thompson, The
Modernity, MIT Press,
2002. (NA 2800 T48
J-F. Augoyard, & H. Torgue, eds. Sonic experience: A guide to everyday
sounds (translated by A. McCartney & D. Paquette).
McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005. (BF 353.5 N65 S6513 2005)
B. Smith, The
Acoustic World of Early Modern
England, University of Chicago Press, 1999. (PR 428 P65 S65 1999)
A. Corbin, Village Bells:
Sound and Meaning in the Nineteenth-century French Countryside,
Columbia University Press, 1998. (DC 33.5 C6713 1998)
Speak, Are You Listening? Experiencing Aural Architecture, MIT Press,
443 B585 2007)
P. Kruth & H.Stobart, eds. Sound, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000.
M. Bull & Les Back, eds. The
Oxford, 2003. (GN 275 A83
J. Drobnik, Aural Cultures, YYZ/Walter Phillips Gallery
P. du Gay et al., Doing
Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony
1997. (TK 7881.6 D65 1997)
M. Bull, Sounding Out The
City: Personal Stereos and the
Management of Everyday Life,
Oxford, 2000. (T 14.5 B85 2000)
M. Bull, Sound Moves: iPod Culture and Urban
Experience, Routledge, 2007 (ML 3916 B85 2007)
J. Sterne, The Audible Past: Cultural Origins of
Sound Reproduction, Duke University Press, 2003. (TK 7881.4 S733
J. Sterne, MP3: The Meaning of a Format, Duke
University Press, 2012 (ML 74.4 M6 S74 2012)
J. Sterne, ed. The Sound Studies Reader,
Routledge, 2012 (electronic resource)
M. Ayers, ed. Cybersounds: Essay on Virtual Music Culture,
3916 P67 C93 2006)
P. Théberge, Any Sound
Wesleyan University Press, 1997. (ML
1092 T38 1997)
T. DeNora, Music in
Cambridge University Press, 2000.
V. Erlmann, ed., Hearing Cultures: Essays on Sound,
Listening and Modernity, Oxford: Berg, 2004. (GN 307.5 H4)
V. Erlmann, Reason and Resonance: A History of Modern
Aurality, Zone Books, 2010. (BF 251 E75 2010)
F. Dyson, Sounding New Media: Immerson and
Embodiment in the Arts and Culture, University of California
Press, 2009 (BD 331 D97 2009)
K. Bijsterveld, Mechanical Sound: Technology, Culture, and
Public Problems of Noise in the Twentieth Century, MIT Press,
2008. (TD 892 B548 2008)
& T. Pinch, eds. The Oxford
Handbook of Sound Studies, Oxford, 2012 (QC 225.15 O93 2012)
ed. Soundscapes of the Urban Past:
Staged Sound as Mediated Cultural Heritage, Transcript 2013 (HT
153 S68 2014)
D. Jones & A. Chapman,
Noise and Society, Wiley, 1984. (RA 772 N7 N65)
C. Plack, The Sense of Hearing, Lawrence
Erlbaum, 2005. (BF 251 P57 2005)
S. McAdams &
E. Bigand, eds. Thinking in Sound:
The cognitive psychology of human audition, Clarendon, 1993. (BF
323 L5 T55 1993)
A. Bregman, Auditory Scene Analysis, MIT Press,
1990. (QP 465 B74 1990)
S. Handel, Listening, MIT
Press, 1989. (BF 251 H27 1989/1993)
P. Cook, ed.
Music, Cognition, and Computerized
Sound, MIT Press, 1999. (ML 3805 M881 1999)Proceedings,
The Tuning of the World (conference on acoustic ecology), vol. 2, 1993;
Acoustic Ecology Conference, Stockholm, 1998.
Soundscape, the Journal of
work will normally consist of an essay and a project on any topic in
of acoustic communication. A verbal report on one of these topics is
during the final seminar. The essay and project are expected to take
weeks each and each is to be written up as a substantial report
pages or 4000 words). The essay will discuss the course readings,
by library or other research on a particular topic, and the project
more applied or field oriented (it may involve studio work where the
already has studio experience). Each topic should ideally allow you to
communicational model, based on the course texts, to a specific problem
environmental/media context. Portable recorders and sound level
available for field work.
will be by letter grade average of the two projects (equally weighted
otherwise requested) plus the final terminology quiz, as follows:
Essay, due Week 7, 40%
Project, due one week after
last class, 40%
Terminology Quiz, last lab, 20%
A 1-2 page outline of the essay
and project should also be
submitted as follows:
Essay outline (topic, section
& summary, references) week 5
Project outline (goal,
methodology, analysis method) week 10
school expects that the grades
awarded in this course will bear some reasonable relation to
established university-wide practices with respect to both levels and
distribution of grades. In addition, The School will follow Policy
S10.01 with respect to Academic Integrity, and Policies S10.02, S10.03
and S10.04 as regards Student Discipline (note: as of May 1, 2009 the
previous T10 series of policies covering Intellectual Honesty (T10.02)
and Academic Discipline (T10.03) have been replaced with the new S10
series of policies).
Seminar Topics and Readings:
Note: All Readings are to be
done for the date listed. AC refers
to Acoustic Communication, 2nd edition. FVS refers to Five
Chapters from the books on
are useful supplements to these readings.
Week 1: Introduction: Acoustic &
chapter 1, chapter 4 (pp. 49-59) & chapter 8
Wrightson, “An Introduction to Acoustic Ecology”
Truax, "Electroacoustic music: The inner and outer world", part I
Sterne, "Sonic Imaginations," Ch. 1 from Sound Studies Reader
Ingold, “Against Soundscape”
(opt) Kelman, "Rethinking the Soundscape"
“On the vitality of our discipline: New applications of communication
(opt) Laske, "Composition theory: An
enrichment of music theory"
Week 2: Listening & The Listener as Consumer
chapters 2 & 10
“Shapes, Surfaces, and Interiors"
Week 3: Voice, Soundmaking & Orality
Ballas & Howard,
"Interpreting the language of environmental sounds"
Thompson, “Edison and the Tone Tests”
Mendelsohn, "Listening to radio"
Bull, “Investigating the Culture of Mobile Listening: From Walkman to
(opt) Bull, “Reconfiguring the
Site and Horizon of Experience”
(opt) Blesser & Salter, “Auditory
(opt) Metz, "Aural objects"
(opt) McAdams, "Recognition of sound sources and events"
(opt) Ballas, "Common factors in the identification of brief everyday
Ong, Orality and Literacy (ch. 3)
Kerckhove, "Oral Versus Literate Listening"
Week 4: The Acoustic Community
Franklin, "Silence and the notion of the commons"
Miller, “Silence in the Contemporary Soundscape”
(opt) Hockett, "The origin of speech"
(opt) Ostwald, "Sounds in human communication"
(opt) Lomax, "Song structure
and social structure"
Acoustic & Electroacoustic Community
FVS: Intro. & chapters 1 - 5
Southworth, "The sonic environment of cities"
C. Smith, "The acoustic experience of place"
Feld, "From ethnomusicology to
(opt) Porteous, "Soundscape"
chapters 6 & 7
Rationalization and the Production
of Popular Music"
Global Media in the Late 1990s"
Environment/Music and Environment
Bijsterveld, “The diabolical
symphony of the mechanical age”
Westerkamp, "Listening and soundmaking: A study of music-as-environment"
Orwell, “Pleasure Spots”
(opt) Shepherd, "Music as cultural text"
(opt) Moisala, "Cognitive study of music as culture"
(opt) Cardinell, "Music in
Week 8: Audio Media Analysis II
Huron, "Music in advertising"
Doane, “The voice in cinema: The articulation of body and space”
Mowitt, ad analysis (pp. 173-179) in "The sound of music in the era of
its electronic reproducibility"
(opt) Barber, "Radio: Audio
art's frightful parent"
(opt) Berland, "Radio space
and industrial time"
(opt) Silverman, "Dis-embodying the female voice"
Thompson, chapter 6,
“Electroacoustics and Modern Sound”
du Gay et al., chapter 5 “Consuming the Walkman”
O'Connell, "The Fine Tuning of a Golden Ear: High-end Audio and the
Evolutionary Model of Technology"
Perlman, Marc. “Golden ears and meter readers: The contest for
epistemic authority in audiophilia”
Week 9: The Recorded Document & the Digital Era
them: On the very possibility of sound’s reproduction”
Ch. 1 “Causes” & Ch. 8 “Listening in Cyberspace”
Gould, “The Prospects of Recording”
Week 10: Audiology, Hearing Loss & the Effects
(opt) Hecker, "Glenn Gould, the Vanishing Performer and the Ambivalence
of the Studio"
Bryan & Tempest, "Are our noise laws adequate?"
Campbell, "Ambient stressors"
Hétu, "The hearing
Rosen, "Presbycusis study of a relatively noise-free population in the
Royster & Clark, "Amplified music and its effect on hearing"
(opt) Thiessen, "The effects of noise on sleep"
(opt) Suter, "Noise sources and effects - A new look"
& Electroacoustic Design
chapters 7 & 14
Week 13 Student Presentations
Truax, "Electroacoustic music: The inner and outer world", part II
Wagstaff, "What is acoustic
and Strategies for Acoustic Design”
(opt) Wershler, “Sonic Signage”
(opt) Swedish "Manifesto for a Better Environment of Sound"
In preparation for each lab you
are asked to consult the Handbook terms listed in the Thematic
Engine of the
under the given heading. Terms and concepts that you have trouble with
noted and brought up in class. Following each lab topic you will be
take-home quiz (multiple choice type) to do during the next week. These
discussed at the beginning of the next lab by way of review. A quiz
all of the lab material for the semester (and based on the weekly
will be held during the last lab and will count 20% of the grade.
in Handbook CD-ROM
Interface (plus AC, 2nd ed., pp. 145-152)
Vibration, Pitch and Spectrum
Timbre (B, D,
E) (plus AC, 2nd ed., pp. 137-142)
AC, 2nd ed., pp. 142-145)
Interaction (A, B, C)
Interaction and Acoustic Space (D, E, F, G, H)
consult "Vowel," "Consonant," "Formant," in Handbook
plus seminar readings (Denes
Hearing Loss & Risk Criteria (Audiology diagrams, week 10 pdf)
Systems & Risk Criteria
The Journal of Acoustic Ecology,
2000, pp. 10-13
B. Truax, "Electroacoustic Music: The
Inner and Outer World", in Companion
to Contemporary Musical Thought, vol. 1, Routledge, 1992, part I
J. Sterne, "Sonic Imaginations," chapter 1, The Sound Studies Reader,
A. Kelman, "Rethinking the Soundscape: A Critical Genealogy of a Key
Term in Sound Studies," Senses and
Society, 5(2), 213-34, 2010.
T. Ingold, “Against
A. Carlyle, ed., Autumn Leaves,
W. Leiss, “On the Vitality of our
Discipline: New Applications of Communication Theory,” Canadian Journal of Communication,
16(2), 1991, 291-305.
O.E. Laske, "Composition Theory: An
Enrichment of Music Theory," Interface,
LISTENING & THE
LISTENER AS CONSUMER
and Voice, Ohio
University Press, 1976; reprinted in Soundscape,
Ecology, 2(1), 2001, pp. 16-17.
J. Ballas & J. Howard,
"Interpreting the Language of Environmental Sounds," Environment & Behavior, Jan.
E. Thompson, “Edison and the Tone
Tests”, The Soundscape of Modernity,
H. Mendelsohn, "Listening to Radio,"
in Dexter & White, eds. People,
Society and Mass Communication, 1964.
M. Bull, Sounding Out the City: Personal Stereos
and the Management of Everyday Life. Oxford, 2000. Ch. 3
“Reconfiguring the Site and Horizon of Experience”
M. Bull, “Investigating the Culture
of Mobile Listening: From Walkman to iPod,” in K. O’Hara & B.
Brown, eds. Consuming Music Together,
B. Blesser & L. Salter, “Auditory
Spatial Awareness”, in Spaces Speak,
Are You Listening?. MIT Press, 2007, pp. 11-46.
C. Metz, "Aural Objects," in E. Weis
& J. Belton, eds. Film Sound,
S. McAdams, "Recognition of Sound
Sources and Events," Thinking in
Sound: The cognitive Psychology of Human Audition, Clarendon,
J. Ballas, "Common Factors in the
Identification of an Assortment of Brief Everyday Sounds," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human
Perception and Performance, 19(2), 1993, 250-267.
VOICE, SOUNDMAKING &
chapter 3, Orality and
Literacy, Methuen, 1982.
THE ACOUSTIC &
D. De Kerckhove, "Oral Versus
Literate Listening," chapter 9, The
Skin of Culture, Somerville House Publishing, 1995.
W. Bruneau, "Communicative Silences:
Forms and Functions," Journal of
Communication, 23, 1973, 17-46.
U. Franklin, "Silence and the Notion
of the Commons," Soundscape, The
Journal of Acoustic Ecology, 1(2), 2000, pp. 14-17.
W. Miller, “Silence in the
Contemporary Soundscape,” Soundscape,
Ecology, 1(2), 2000, pp. 18-19.
C. Hockett, "The Origin of Speech," Scientific American, Sept. 1960.
P. Ostwald, "Sounds in Human
Communication," in Communication and
Social Interaction, Grune & Stratton.
A. Lomax, "Song Structure and Social
Structure," Ethnology, vol.
Behavior, vol. 1,
no. 1, 1969.
C. Smith, "The Acoustic Experience of
Place," Proceedings, The
Tuning of the World Conference, Banff, vol. 2, 1993.
S. Feld, "From Ethnomusicology to
Echo-muse-ecology," The Soundscape
Newsletter, no. 8, 1994.
J.D. Porteous, "Soundscape," chapter
3, Landscapes of the Mind,
University of Toronto Press, 1990.
Technological Rationalization and the
Production of Popular Music," New
Formations, vol. 8, 1989, pp. 99-111.
ENVIRONMENT/MUSIC AND ENVIRONMENT
E. Herman & R. McChesney,
excerpts from "The Global Media in the Late 1990s," The Global Media, Cassell, 1997.
The Soundscape of Modernity,
ch. 4 “Noise and Modern Culture”, MIT Press, 2002.
K. Bijsterveld, “The Diabolical
Symphony of the Mechanical Age,” Social
Science, 31(1), February 2001, 37-70.
H. Westerkamp, "Listening and
Soundmaking: A Study of Music-as-Environment," in D. Lander & M.
Lexier, eds. Sound by Artists,
G. Orwell, “Pleasure Spots,” The Collected Essays, vol. 4,
Harcourt, Brace & World, 1968 pp. 78-81.
J. Shepherd, "Music as cultural
text," in Companion to Contemporary
Musical Thought, vol. 1, Routledge, 1992.
P. Moisala, "Cognitive Study of Music
as Culture - Basic Premises for Cognitive Musicology," Journal of New Music Research, 24,
R.L. Cardinell, "Music in Industry,"
in Schullian & Schoen, eds., Music
AUDIO MEDIA ANALYSIS
Parent," in D. Lander & M.
Lexier, eds. Sound by Artists,
D. Huron, "Music in Advertising: An
Analytic Paradigm," The Musical
Quarterly, 73, 1989, 557-574.
M.A. Doane, “The Voice in Cinema: The
Articulation of Body and Space,” in E.Weis & J.Belton, eds. Film Sound, Columbia University
J. Mowitt, "The Sound of Music in the
Era of its Electronic Reproducibility," in R. Leppert & S. McClary,
eds. Music and Society,
Cambridge University Press, 1987, pp. 173-197.
K. Silverman, "Dis-Embodying the
Female Voice," in Re-Vision: Essays
on Feminist Film Criticism, The American Film Institute
Monograph Series, vol. 3, 1984.
J. Berland, "Radio Space and
Industrial Time," in Canadian Music:
Issues of Hegemony and Identity, B. Diamond and R. Witmer, eds.,
Canadian Scholars Press, 1993.
Noise (The Political Economy
of Music), The Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1985. Ch. 4
“Repeating”, p. 87-120 (“The Emplacement of Recording” and “Double
E. Thompson, The Soundscape of Modernity, ch. 6,
“Electroacoustics and Modern Sound”, MIT Press, 2002.
P. du Gay et al., Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the
Sony Walkman, Sage Publications, 1997. Ch. 5 “Consuming the
P. Théberge, “Musicians as Market,
Consumers of Technology,” OneTwoThreeFour,
J. O'Connell, "The Fine Tuning of a
Golden Ear: High-end Audio and the Evolutionary Model of Technology," Technology and Culture, vol. 33,
no. 1, 1992, pp. 1-37.
M. Perlman, “Golden ears and meter
readers: The Contest for Epistemic Authority in Audiophilia,” Social Studies of Science, 35(5),
AUDIOLOGY, HEARING LOSS AND
THE EFFECTS OF NOISE
Effects of Sound," chapter
17, Our Acoustic Environment,
J. Campbell, "Ambient Stressors," Environment & Behavior, 15(3),
May 1983.M. Bryan
& W. Tempest, "Are Our
Noise Laws Adequate," Applied
Acoustics, 6, 1973, 219-232.
R. Hétu, "The Hearing Conservation
Paradigm and the Experienced Effects of Occupational Noise Exposure, Canadian Acoustics, 22(1), 1994,
S. Rosen, "Presbycusis Study of a
Relatively Noise-Free Population in the Sudan, Transactions, American Otological Society,
J. & L. Royster & W. Clark,
"Amplified Music (from stereo headsets) and its Effect on Hearing," Hearing Instruments, vol. 41, no.
10, 1990, pp. 28-30.
G. Thiessen, "Effects of Noise on
Sleep," in Effects of Noise on Man,
A. Suter, "Noise Sources and Effects
- A New Look," Sound and Vibration,
THE RECORDED DOCUMENT
& THE DIGITAL ERA
for Them: On the Very Possibility of Sound’s
Reproduction,” Cultural Studies,
ELECTROACOUSTIC DESIGN (and
J. Sterne, “The mp3 as Cultural
Artifact,” New Media and Society,
T. Taylor, Strange Sounds: Music, Technology, and
Culture, Routledge, 2001. Ch. 2 “Music, Technology, Agency, and
M. Katz, Capturing Sound : How Technology Has
Changed Music, University of California Press, 2004. Ch. 1
“Causes” & Ch. 8 “Listening in Cyberspace”
G. Gould, "The Prospects of
Recording," Hi Fidelity,
T. Hecker, "Glenn Gould, the Vanishing Performer and the
Ambivalence of the Studio, Leonardo
Music Journal, 18, 77-83. 2008.
and Outer World", in Companion
Contemporary Musical Thought,
1, Routledge, 1992, part II (pp. 385-398).
Communication and Environmental Sound Composition," Contemporary Music Review, 15(1),
B. Truax, "Genres and
Techniques of Soundscape Composition as Developed at Simon Fraser
University," Organised Sound, 7(1),
B. Truax, "Soundscape Composition as
Global Music: Electroacoustic Music as Soundscape,"Organised Sound, 13(2), 103-109,
B. Truax, “Models and Strategies for
Acoustic Design”, 1998 (www.sfu.ca/~truax/models.html)
J. Drever, "Soundscape Composition: The Convergence of Ethnography and
Acousmatic Music," Organised Sound,
H. Westerkamp, "Linking Soundscape Composition and Acoustic Ecology," Organised Sound, 7(1), 51-56, 2002.
G. Wagstaff, "What is Acoustic
Ecology's 'Ecology'," Soundscape
Newsletter, no. 9, 1999.
D. Wershler, “Sonic Signage:
[murmur], the Refrain, and Territoriality,” Canadian Journal of Communication,
33, 405-418, 2008.