Please note:

To view the Fall 2017 Academic Calendar go to http://www.sfu.ca/students/calendar/2017/fall.html

Biological Sciences Courses

BISC 100 - Introduction to Biology (4)

An introduction to the basic concepts of biology, emphasizing evolution as a unifying theme. Topics include cell structure, mitosis and meiosis, DNA structure and function, evolution and population and ecosystem ecology. Prerequisite: Students with a C or better in Biology 12, who are considering a BISC Major, are encouraged to proceed directly to BISC 101 and 102. Students with credit for BISC 101, 102 or 113, or succeeding biology courses, may not take BISC 100 for further credit. Breadth-Science.

BISC 101 - General Biology (4)

An introduction to the biochemical and physiological mechanisms of living organisms. Topics covered include cell structure and function, DNA replication and the flow of genetic information, enzyme function, metabolism and physiology of microorganisms, plants, and animals. Prerequisite: High school biology 12 (or equivalent) with a C grade or better, or BISC 100 with C- or better, or BISC 113 with C+ or better, or HSCI 100 with C+ or better. Breadth-Science.

BISC 102 - General Biology (4)

Survey of the diversity of life, and its evolutionary history on earth. The student is introduced to the study of genetics, development, and evolution, giving an overview of how these processes interact to produce form and function. Also included are principles of behavior and ecological relationships of organisms to each other and their environment. Prerequisite: High school biology 12 (or equivalent) with a C grade or better, or BISC 100 with C- or better, or BISC 113 with C+ or better, or HSCI 100 with C+ or better. Breadth-Science.

BISC 111 - Special Topics: Current Topics in Biology I (3)

Selected topics in biology intended to fulfil breadth requirements for non-majors. Topics will vary depending on instructor. Breadth-Science.

BISC 112 - Special Topics: Current Topics in Biology II (3)

Selected topics in biology intended to fulfil breadth requirements for non-majors Topics will vary depending on instructor. Breadth-Science.

BISC 113 - Biology in Everyday Life (3)

Emphasizes evolution and scientific inquiry as unifying themes. The diversity and the unity of all living organisms and the methods by which biologists answer questions about the living world are presented in this context. Topics covered include evolution, characteristics of living organisms, reproduction, metabolism, and ecology. Prerequisite: Recommended: Students with a C or better in Biology 12, who are considering a BISC major, are encouraged to proceed directly to BISC 101 and 102. Students with credit for HSCI 100, BISC 101, 102, or succeeding Biology courses, may not take BISC 113 for further credit. Breadth-Science.

BISC 202 - Genetics (3)

Principles and concepts of the transmission of genetic information treated comparatively in man, animal, plant and microbe. Prerequisite: BISC 101 and 102 with a grade of C- or better.

BISC 204 - Introduction to Ecology (3)

An introduction to biotic-environmental relationships and dynamics; ecological concepts; population dynamics, variation, adaptation and evolution. Prerequisite: BISC 101 and 102 with a grade of C- or better. Students with credit for GEOG 215 may not take this course for further credit.

BISC 272 - Special Topics in Biology (3)

Selected topics in areas not currently offered within the undergraduate course offerings in the Department of Biological Sciences. Prerequisite: To be announced in the Undergraduate Schedule of Classes and Examinations. Entry into this course normally requires completion of the lower division core for biological sciences, or permission of the department.

BISC 298 - Introduction to Undergraduate Research in Biological Sciences (3)

Directed study that provides exposure to laboratory or field methods in a research lab with the Department of Biological Sciences. A student may enrol in this course only with prior written agreement of a faculty member to act as a research supervisor.

BISC 300 - Evolution (3)

The phenomenon of organic evolution, and the major forces leading to changes in allele frequencies over time, i.e. natural selection and genetic drift. Topics include adaptation, speciation, the origin of life, and the major evolutionary trends over geological time. Prerequisite: BISC 202 with a grade of C- or better. Recommended: BISC 204. Students with credit for BISC 400 may not take this course for further credit.

BISC 302 - Genetic Analysis (3)

Discussion and manipulations of some of the organisms and techniques applicable to genetic analysis. Students are required to come into the lab on average of two hours per week in addition to the four hour scheduled lab each week for project work. Prerequisite: BISC 202 with a grade of C- or better. Students with credit for BISC 302W may not take this course for further credit.

BISC 302W - Genetic Analysis (3)

Discussion and manipulations of some of the organisms and techniques applicable to genetic analysis. Students are required to come into the lab on average of two hours per week in addition to the four hour scheduled lab each week for project work. Prerequisite: BISC 202 with a grade of C- or better. Students with credit for BISC 302 may not take this course for further credit. Writing.

BISC 303 - Microbiology (4)

The biology of micro-organisms and their significance in the understanding of cellular processes. Students are required to come into the lab on average of two hours per week in addition to the four hour scheduled lab each week for project work. Prerequisite: BISC 102 and MBB 231 with a grade of C- or better.

BISC 305 - Animal Physiology (3)

A comparative study of basic physiological mechanisms in invertebrates and vertebrates. Prerequisite: MBB 221 or 231 and PHYS 102 (or PHYS 121 or 126 or 141) with a grade of C- or better.

BISC 306 - Invertebrate Biology (4)

An introduction to selected invertebrate phyla with an emphasis on functional morphology, diversity and ecology. Prerequisite: BISC 101, 102 and 204 with a grade of C- or better.

BISC 308 - Environmental Toxicology: An Ecological Perspective (3)

Students are introduced to the major environmental toxicants, their sources, and interactions with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Through historical and current case studies of environmental toxicants, this course will provide an understanding of the basic principles of environmental toxicology particularly as they apply to populations, communities and ecosystems. Prerequisite: BISC 101, BISC 102, and either BISC 204 or GEOG 215, all with C- or better. Students who have taken BISC 312, or special topics course BISC 473 with the title "Introduction to Environmental Toxicology", may not take this course for further credit.

BISC 309 - Conservation Biology (3)

An examination of the primary threats to biodiversity, how biological processes contribute to the persistence of populations and structure of communities, and species and landscape approaches to conservation in the real world. Prerequisite: BISC 204 with a grade of C- or better. Students who have taken BISC 474 in Spring 2006 or BISC 475 in Spring 2008 as special topics courses titled 'Conservation Ecology' cannot take this course for further credit.

BISC 313 - Environmental Toxicology: A Mechanistic Perspective (3)

Students are introduced to general principles of toxicological action, testing, evaluation and assessment. The environmental fate and toxic mechanisms of action of several important classes of environmental pollutants in several organisms (including humans) will be examined at different levels of organization, from the molecular and biochemical to the function of organ systems and behavior. Prerequisite: MBB 231 with a grade of C- or better.

BISC 316 - Vertebrate Biology (4)

A review of the evolution and the taxonomy of the vertebrate classes. A comparative study of their organ systems and functions with particular reference to reproduction. A comparison of the functional morphology of some species by laboratory dissections. Prerequisite: BISC 101 and 102 with a grade of C- or better.

BISC 317 - Insect Biology (3)

Life histories, bionomics, comparative morphology, and classification of insects and related organisms. A collection may be required, depending on instructor. Prerequisite: BISC 101 and 102 with a grade of C- or better.

BISC 318 - Parasitology (3)

Ecology and phylogeny of animal parasites (from protozoa to helminthes), including those of humans, domestic animals and wildlife. Parasite success, host-parasite interactions, general epidemiological principles of parasitic infections, and reproductive strategies used by parasites to increase the likelihood of transmission as well as host responses and medical options for past and current parasite problems. Prerequisite: BISC 101 and 102, and 204 or HSCI 212 with a grade of C- or better and completion of 60 units. Recommended: BISC 300 and 306. Students who have taken BISC 418 Parasitology may not take this course for further credit.

BISC 326 - Biology of Algae and Fungi (3)

A survey of form, function and phenetics. Prerequisite: BISC 101 and 102 with a grade of C- or better.

BISC 333 - Developmental Biology (3)

Classical and modern experimental approaches will be described for understanding development of embryos of several species having common and distinctive features. These approaches are at the organismal, cellular, molecular and genetic levels. Prerequisite: BISC 202, MBB 222, MBB 231 with a grade of C- or better.

BISC 337 - Plant Biology (4)

An introductory course covering many aspects of plant biology including the origin and evolution of plants, basic anatomy, plant growth and development and the utilization and impact of plants in human society. Prerequisite: BISC 101 and 102 with a grade of C- or better.

BISC 341 - Practicum I (3)

First term of work experience in the Biological Sciences Co-operative Education Program. Units for this course do not count towards the units required for an SFU degree. Prerequisite: Acceptance in the Biological Sciences Co-operative Education Program.

BISC 342 - Practicum II (3)

Second term of work experience in the Biological Sciences Co-operative Education Program. Units for this course do not count towards the units required for an SFU degree. Prerequisite: BISC 341 and readmission to the Science Co-op Education Program.

BISC 357 - Genetic Engineering (4)

Techniques in gene cloning and the evaluation of gene function are introduced in lectures and practiced in labs. Lab exercises include genomic DNA, RNA, and plasmid purification; PCR; various cloning techniques; and construction of novel genes. Students are introduced to additional techniques in lectures including gene editing, and genome sequencing. Prerequisite: BISC 202, MBB 222, and MBB 231, all with a grade of C- or better. Recommended: MBB 331. Students with credit for MBB 308 may not take this course for further credit.

BISC 360W - Techniques in Ecology and Evolution (3)

A practical lab- and field-based introduction to techniques in ecology and evolution. Students will collect, analyze, and interpret data, using appropriate experimental design and statistical methods. Specific topics include: sampling and describing communities, evaluating spatial patterns, investigating animal behaviour, population estimation, estimating competition, and phylogenetic inference. Prerequisite: BISC 202, BISC 204 (or GEOG 215), and STAT 201, all with C- or better. Students who have taken BISC 404 Plant Ecology may not take BISC 360 for further credit. Writing.

BISC 366 - Plant Physiology (3)

The plant's physical environment and the physiological basis (mechanisms and principles) of the interaction between plants and their environment in relation to their survival and ecological distribution. Prerequisite: MBB 231 with a grade of C- or better.

BISC 371 - Special Topics in Biology for Non-majors (3)

Selected topics in Biology, aimed at students who might not have a background in biology. Science students may take this course as an elective, but may not apply this course toward their upper division program requirements. Prerequisite: A minimum of 45 units. Breadth-Science.

BISC 372 - Special Topics in Biology (3)

Selected topics in areas not currently offered within the undergraduate course offerings in the Department of Biological Sciences. Prerequisite: To be announced in the Undergraduate Schedule of Classes and Examinations.

BISC 373 - Brewing Science (2)

This interdisciplinary course exposes students to the science and art of brewing, including the ingredients and process of brewing. Discussion of malting, barley and hop cultivation, and yeast fermentation, as it relates to the brewing process, as well as business, advertising, marketing of beer will be included. Prerequisite: 60 units. Students with credit for BISC 374 may not take this course for further credit. Students who have completed BISC 372 ST-Brewing Science may not take BISC 373 for further credit. Students may not count this course toward their Biological Science Honours, Majors, or Minor requirements. Breadth-Science.

BISC 374 - Brewing Science with Lab (3)

This interdisciplinary course exposes students to the science and art of brewing, including the ingredients and process of brewing. Discussion of malting, barley and hop cultivation, and yeast fermentation, as it relates to the brewing process, as well as business, advertising, marketing of beer will be included. With lab. Prerequisite: 60 units. Students with credit for BISC 373 may not take this course for further credit. Students who have completed BISC 372 ST-Brewing Science may not take BISC 374 for further credit. Students may not count this course toward their Biological Sciences Honours, Majors, or Minor requirements. Breadth-Science.

BISC 403 - Current Topics in Cell Biology (3)

The lectures will explore two or three major themes in current cell biology, such as cell motility, the cell cycle, and cellular signalling. A critical component of the course is to develop an understanding of the experimental basis of our knowledge about cells. Prerequisite: MBB 222, 231 with C- or better, and completion of 75 units, or completion of BISC 305 or 366 with a C- or better. Students with credit for BISC 372 under this topic may not take this course for further credit.

BISC 404W - Plant Ecology (3)

The study of the distribution and abundance of plants, including how individuals, populations, and communities are affected by abiotic (climate, soil) and biotic (competition, herbivory) factors. A major focus will be life history evolution (pollination, defence, disperal). Experimental and observational laboratory exercises are primarily conducted outdoors. Prerequisite: BISC 101, 102, and 204 with a grade of C- or better. Students with credit for BISC 404 may not take this course for further credit. Writing.

BISC 405 - Neurobiology (3)

Physiology of neuroscience, focusing on cellular and molecular mechanisms. Topics include: cellular and subcellular organization of the nervous system, electrical properties of neurons, ion channels, synaptic transmission, sensory systems, learning and memory, neurodegenerative diseases. Prerequisite: BISC 305 or BPK 305 or BPK 306 with a grade of C- or better. Students who have completed BISC 472 under the title 'Neurobiology' may not complete BISC 405 for further credit.

BISC 407 - Population Dynamics (3)

An evaluation of factors influencing the natural fluctuation and regulation of plant and animal population numbers. Prerequisite: BISC 102 and either BISC 204 or GEOG 215, all with a grade of C- or better.

BISC 410 - Behavioral Ecology (3)

An introduction to the evolution of behavior and its adaptiveness in a natural context. Prerequisite: BISC 102 and either BISC 204 or GEOG 215, all with a grade of C- or better.

BISC 412 - Aquatic Ecology (3)

The scientific study of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Through a combination of lecture and field/lab components, the course will examine a combination of fundamental concepts of aquatic ecology as well as challenges posed to these ecosystems by environmental change. Students will gain hands-on experience with data collection, analysis, and communication. Prerequisite: BISC 101, BISC 102, and either BISC 204 or GEOG 215; all with a grade of C- or better. Students who have completed Special Topics BISC 473 Aquatic Ecology may not take this course for further credit.

BISC 413 - Fisheries Ecology (3)

Fisheries from an ecological point of view, whereby the principles of population dynamics, behaviour, competition and predator-prey relationships are applied to conservation and management of the world's fisheries. Prerequisite: BISC 204 with a grade of C- or better. Students who have taken BISC 472 with the title "Fisheries Ecology" may not take this course for further credit.

BISC 414 - Limnology (3)

An integrated examination of biological, chemical and physical processes in lakes and running water ecosystems. Interactions among biological, chemical and physical controls on the structure, function and dynamics of aquatic ecosystems are emphasized. Environmental problems resulting from human disturbances to aquatic ecosystems are examined. Prerequisite: 75 units of credit in a science program, including BISC 204 with a grade of C- or better or GEOG 215, or permission of the instructor.

BISC 419 - Wildlife Biology (3)

Theoretical and applied aspects of ecology and behavior in relation to wildlife populations and their habitats, with emphasis on important mammals and birds in British Columbia. Prerequisite: BISC 304 with a grade of C- or better. Recommended: BISC 316 and STAT 201.

BISC 420 - Community Ecology (3)

This course will examine the importance of species interactions that occur in ecological communities and the role of biotic and abiotic, natural and anthropogenic processes that underpin large-scale patterns of biodiversity. The course will provide a strong conceptual framework in community ecology with a focus on hypothesis development, alternative methodological approaches, the interpretation of data, and the synthesis of information across studies. Prerequisite: BISC 204 or GEOG 215; with a grade of C- or better. Students who have completed BISC 304 or BISC 404 may not take BISC 420 for further credit.

BISC 421 - Models in Biology: From Molecules to Migration (3)

Students are introduced to models and simulations for biological systems at the ecosystem, organismal, cellular, and molecular levels. They will discover how to design and use models, and will then apply these skills to build their own model using basic mathematical tools, Excel, and Matlab. Prerequisite: MATH 150 or 151, and 152 both with a grade of C+ or better, or MATH 154 and 155 both with a grade of B or better; and at least 60 units; or permission of the instructor. Recommended: A 100 level Biology course. Students who have taken Special Topics course BISC 475 "Movement, Molecules, and Models" may not take BISC 421 for further credit. Quantitative.

BISC 422 - Population Genetics (3)

Theoretical and experimental aspects of inheritance at the population level. Topics include Hardy-Weinberg, one- and two-locus selection theory, introduction to quantitative genetics, and Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection. Prerequisite: BISC 202 with a grade of C- or better and STAT 201.

BISC 423 - Developmental Neurobiology (3)

All aspects of neuronal development from the specification of neurons in the early embryo to the formation and maturation of neuronal circuits. Both invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms will be studied with emphasis on the molecular basis of nervous system development. Prerequisite: BISC 101, BISC 102, BISC 202, MBB 222, MBB 231; all with a grade of C- or better. Recommended: BISC 333 or MBB 331. Students with credit for MBB 444 may not take this course for further credit. Students who have taken Special Topics BISC 472 or BISC 474 Nervous System Development may not take this course for further credit.

BISC 424 - Applied Genomics (3)

The course provides an overview of "omics" methods in large-scale identification of gene functions in various organisms, and demonstrates how this knowledge can be applied in genomics fields, including plant and animal breeding. Prerequisite: BISC 101, BISC 102, BISC 202, MBB 222, MBB 231, and either BISC 357 or MBB 331; all with a grade of C- or better. Students who have taken Special Topics BISC 471 Applied Genomics may not take this course for further credit.

BISC 425 - Sensory Biology (3)

This course will examine the basic physiological mechanisms underlying various senses including vision, audition, olfaction, gustation, and touch. Non-mamalian senses like polarization sensitivity and mechanoreception will also be explored. Lectures will combine concepts from physics, systems neuroscience, cell and molecular biology, and behaviour. The aim is to present an overview of the major sensory mechanisms underlying animal behaviour. Prerequisite: BISC 305, or BPK 305, or BPK 306 with a grade of C- or better. Students who have taken special topics courses BISC 471 or 473 with the title "Sensory Biology" may not take this course for further credit.

BISC 430 - Microbe-Plant Interactions (3)

Interactions between major groups of microbes (including fungi, bacteria, viruses, phytoplasmas and viroids) with higher plants, including the chemical signals which trigger the onset of recognition events that result in a parasitic or mutualistic relationship, and the mechanisms of plant defense. Prerequisite: MBB 231 and at least one of BISC 303, 326, 337 with a grade of C- or better. Students who have completed BISC 475 under the title 'Microbe-Plant Interactions' may not complete BISC 430 for further credit.

BISC 434 - Paleoecology and Palynology (3)

The principles of paleoenvironmental reconstruction, emphasizing the study of pollen grains, spores, and other microfossils in solving problems of paleobiology and earth history. Prerequisite: Minimum 60 units including BISC 204 with a grade of C- or better or GEOG 215. Some background in Botany, Biogeography or Earth Sciences is desirable.

BISC 435 - Introduction to Pest Management (3)

Survey of the natures, causes and consequences of pest problems and of the natural and applied factors and processes that determine their occurrence and intensity. Prerequisite: BISC 317 with a grade of C- or better, or 75 units.

BISC 439 - Industrial Microbiology (4)

This course introduces students to the use of microorganisms in biotechnology, e.g. in the environmental, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The lectures will cover the unique physiology/biochemistry of industrial microorganisms and their use in processes such as fermentation, bioremediation, chemical synthesis and protein production. The laboratory component is designed as a series of exercises that form a complete research project. Prerequisite: BISC 303 with a grade of C- or better, or equivalent.

BISC 440 - Biodiversity (3)

The production and organization of biodiversity (investigations of species, and an in-depth look at taxonomy, systematics and phylogenetics). Evolutionary and ecological theories behind the patterns of biodiversity (the current and future geographic distribution of species, and how biodiversity is related to ecosystem function). The values society gives biodiversity (how our values are reflected in law and regulation). Prerequisite: BISC 300, STAT 201 or equivalent, both with C or better, plus 75 units. Students with credit for BISC 440W may not repeat this course for further credit.

BISC 440W - Biodiversity (3)

The production and organization of biodiversity (investigations of species, and an in-depth look at taxonomy, systematics and phylogenetics). Evolutionary and ecological theories behind the patterns of biodiversity (the current and future geographic distribution of species, and how biodiversity is related to ecosystem function). The values society gives biodiversity (how our values are reflected in law and regulation). Prerequisite: BISC 300, STAT 201 or equivalent, both with C or better, plus 75 units. Students with credit for BISC 440 may not repeat this course for further credit. Writing.

BISC 441 - Evolution of Health and Disease (3)

Application of the principles and theories of evolution and ecology to the study of health and disease, with a particular but not exclusive emphasis on humans. Topics to be covered include the evolutionary ecology of infectious disease, the immune system, cancer, senescence, fetal programming, and the genetic/environmental bases of disease. The course will involve a combination of lectures by the primary faculty member teaching the course, discussions, student research projects (papers, written and revised, and presentations to the class), and specialist guest lectures. Prerequisite: BISC 202 or 204 with a grade of C- or better. Recommended: BISC 300.

BISC 443 - Practicum III (3)

Third term of work experience in the Biological Sciences Co-operative Education Program. Units for this course do not count towards the units required for an SFU degree. Prerequisite: BISC 342 and readmission to the Science Co-op Education Program.

BISC 444 - Practicum IV (3)

Fourth term of work experience in the Biological Sciences Co-operative Education Program. Units for this course do not count towards the units required for an SFU degree. Prerequisite: BISC 443 and re-admission to the science co-operative education program.

BISC 445 - Environmental Physiology of Animals (3)

A discussion of the physiological mechanisms and adaptations which permit animals to live in diverse environments. The course will adopt a comparative approach to physiology. Prerequisite: BISC 305 with a grade of C- or better.

BISC 446 - Practicum V (3)

Fifth term of work experience in the Biological Sciences Co-operative Education Program. Units for this course do not count towards the units required for an SFU degree. Prerequisite: BISC 444 and readmission to the Science Co-op Education Program.

BISC 455 - Endocrinology (3)

A study of endocrine organs and their role in integrating physiological functions in animals. Prerequisite: BISC 305 and one of BISC 306 or 316 with a grade of C- or better.

BISC 457 - Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (3)

An introduction to plant molecular biology and the techniques, applications and issues of plant genetic engineering. Prerequisite: MBB 222, MBB 231 with a grade of C- or better.

BISC 471 - Special Topics in Cells, Molecules and Physiology (3)

Special Topics in Cells, Molecules and Physiology not currently offered in the Department of Biological Science. Prerequisite: To be announced.

BISC 472 - Special Topics in Cells, Molecules and Physiology (3)

Selected topics in areas not currently offered within the undergraduate course offerings in the Department of Biological Sciences. Prerequisite: To be announced.

BISC 473 - Special Topics in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation (3)

Selected topics in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation not currently offered in the Department of Biological Science. Prerequisite: To be announced.

BISC 474 - Special Topics in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation (3)

Selected topics in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation not currently offered in the Department of Biological Science. Prerequisite: To be announced.

BISC 475 - Special Topics in Biology (3)

Selected topics not currently offered in the Department of Biological Sciences. Prerequisite: To be announced.

BISC 490 - Research Design (5)

Student will design an individual research project under the supervision and guidance of a faculty member. The project must relate to biological research or pedagogical research in biology. At the time of application, students will normally have a CGPA of 3.00 (B standing). BISC 490 may be taken in the term prior to BISC 491/492 by students intending to complete the three course ISS. Prerequisite: Completion of all lower division biological sciences courses, plus upper division BISC courses appropriate to the subject of the intended research as determined by the departmental undergraduate curriculum committee; completion of all physics, chemistry and mathematics requirements for the major or honors program.

BISC 491 - Research Technique (5)

Student will carry out an individual research project under the supervision and guidance of a faculty member. The project must relate to biological or pedagogical research in biology. Prerequisite: Completion of all lower division biological sciences courses, plus upper division BISC courses appropriate to the subject of the intended research as determined by the departmental undergraduate curriculum committee; completion of all physics, chemistry and mathematics requirements for the major or honors program; at the time of application, students will normally have a CGPA of 3.00 (B standing). Corequisite: BISC 490 and 492.

BISC 492W - Research Reporting (5)

Student will report on an individual research project under the supervision and guidance of a faculty member. The project must relate to biological or pedagogical research in biology. Prerequisite: Completion of all lower division biological sciences courses, plus upper division BISC courses appropriate to the subject of the intended research as determined by the departmental undergraduate curriculum committee; completion of all physics, chemistry and mathematics requirements for the major or honors program; at the time of application, students will normally have a CGPA of 3.00 (B standing). Corequisite: BISC 490 and BISC 491. Writing.

BISC 497W - Undergraduate Research: Writing Intensive (3)

Directed study, and research or scientific communication, in an area of biology or biological pedagogy. A student may enrol in this course only with prior written agreement of a faculty member to act as a research supervisor, who will also provide instruction and feedback on the writing and presentation of results from the research. A maximum of three upper division research courses can be applied towards the major requirements. Prerequisite: Completion of lower division course requirements. Writing.

BISC 498 - Undergraduate Research I (3)

Directed study, and research or scientific communication, in an area of biology or biological pedagogy. A student may enrol in this course only with prior written agreement of a faculty member to act as a research supervisor. A maximum of three upper division research courses can be applied towards the major prerequisites. Prerequisite: Completion of lower division course requirements.

BISC 499 - Undergraduate Research II (3)

Directed study, and research or scientific communication, in an area of biology or biological pedagogy. A student may enrol in this course only with prior written agreement of a faculty member to act as a research supervisor. A maximum of three upper division research courses can be applied towards the major requirements. Prerequisite: Completion of lower division course requirements.

BISC 601 - Agriculture, Horticulture and Urban Pest Management (2)

A broad range of agricultural pests and their management, with emphasis on insects, crop diseases, and weeds in greenhouses, orchards and field crops. Pest problems in urban environments, including stored products in and near buildings.

BISC 602 - Forest Pest Management (2)

Management of insect, microbial, vertebrate and plant pests of forests and forest products, including seed orchards, nurseries, dryland sorting areas. Emphasis is placed on diagnosis, decision-making, interactions and techniques for forest pest management.

BISC 650 - Environmental Risk Assessment (3)

This course emphasizes recent development in quantitative human health risk assessment and ecological effects based risk assessment of environmental chemicals. Prerequisite: BISC 313.

BISC 651 - Toxicity Tests I: Ecological Effects Based Tests (3)

This course provides the basic concepts and practical experience for the application of ecologically-based toxicity tests. Prerequisite: BISC 313.

BISC 652 - ET Tests II: Mammalian Toxicity Tests (3)

The main focus of this course is on laboratory testing procedures currently employed in the toxicological evaluation of chemicals. Prerequisite: BISC 313 or permission of the department.

BISC 654 - Food and Drug Toxicology (3)

Investigates those toxic compounds in the environment which are added to, contaminate, or supplement one's diet. Prerequisite: BISC 313 or equivalent.

BISC 655 - Environmental Toxicology Seminar (3)

A structured series of seminars on the recent developments of environmental toxicology.

BISC 656 - Master of Environmental Toxicology Project (6)

One term experience in a university or commercial laboratory according to student's interests. Prerequisite: Acceptance into the environmental toxicology program.

BISC 657 - Co-Op Practicum I

First work experience for MET students. Graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis. Prerequisite: Permission of the department.

BISC 658 - Co-op Practicum II

Second work experience for MET students. Graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis. Prerequisite: Permission of the department.

BISC 800 - Skills for the Successful Scientist (1)

Introduction to methods of writing research articles, preparing posters, scientific talks and curricular vitae, time management and scientific ethics. The student-supervisor relationship and conflict resolution are also discussed. Graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

BISC 806 - Evolutionary Theory (3)

A consideration of recent advances and current controversies in our understanding of the development, diversification and adaptation of life through natural selection.

BISC 807 - Ecological and Evolutionary Physiology (3)

This course considers what physiology has to offer behavioral and evolutionary ecology (and vice versa), with a focus on whole organism or 'integrative physiology.'.

BISC 812 - Marine Research Techniques: Scientific Diving (3)

An introduction to the use of diving in marine/freshwater research, related underwater methodology, diving competency and current issues in marine biological research and scientific diving.

BISC 820 - Molecular Mechanisms of Microbial Pathogenesis (3)

A survey of the diverse molecular mechanisms used by selected bacteria, viruses, fungi, and prions to colonize the human host and cause disease. Prerequisite: Undergraduate course in microbiology or permission of the instructor.

BISC 821 - Cell and Molecular Biology Colloquium (1)

Seminars providing a rigorous introduction to recent research in Cell Biology. Papers will be selected along a particular theme, but with a strong emphasis on the experimental basis of our knowledge about cellular mechanisms. This course may be taken up to 3 times to a maximum of 3 credits. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

BISC 824 - Survival and Reproductive Strategies (3)

An examination of strategies for resource acquisition and allocation, and the behavioral, ecological and life history means whereby organisms maximize lifetime reproductive success.

BISC 827 - Seminar in Evolutionary, Behavioural, and Conservation Ecology (1)

Interactive discussions of current issues and cutting-edge methods in evolutionary, behavioural, and conservation ecology.

BISC 830 - Community Ecology and Macroecology (3)

Interspecific interactions, community assembly, and diversity estimation in ecology.

BISC 831 - Research Seminars in Biological Sciences (1)

Advanced research seminars on a variety of current, cutting-edge biological topics. Graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

BISC 832 - Research Seminars in Biological Sciences (1)

Advanced research seminars on a variety of current, cutting-edge biological topics. Graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

BISC 833 - Research Seminars in Biological Sciences (1)

Advanced research seminars on a variety of current, cutting-edge biological topics. Graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

BISC 834 - Essential Cell Biology (3)

Review of basic processes in cell biology including, but not limited to, cell adhesion/migration, cytoskeleton, endo/exocytosis, intracellular trafficking, signal transduction, ion homeostasis, energy generation, protein processing/apoptosis, post-translation modifications, genomics. A review of each topic will be followed by an introduction to cutting-edge work in this field. Prerequisite: Permission of the course co-ordinator.

BISC 838 - Population Dynamics and Demography (3)

Theory and practice of population modeling and demographic analysis.

BISC 839 - Industrial Microbiology (3)

This course introduces students to the use of micro-organisms in biotechnology, e.g. in the environmental, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The lectures will cover the unique physiology and biochemistry of industrial micro-organisms as well as discussing their use in various processes including industrial fermentation, bioremediation, chemical synthesis and protein production (e.g. vaccines) by recombinant organisms. Prerequisite: A second or third year undergraduate microbiology course.

BISC 841 - Plant diseases and plant biotechnology (3)

An examination of the major factors that lead to development of plant diseases, control practices and the applications of plant biotechnology to disease management.

BISC 844 - Biological Controls (3)

Principles, theory, and practice of the use of living organisms in the natural regulation and the control of organisms.

BISC 846 - Insecticide Chemistry and Toxicology (3)

The chemistry of insecticides, with emphasis on their toxicology, metabolism and molecular mechanism of action.

BISC 847 - Pest Management in Practice (3)

Status and special problems of research development and implementation of pest management programs in different kinds of ecosystems; consideration of factors such as management systems, economics, communication, legal and social constraints, and ethics in the practice of pest management.

BISC 849 - Master of Pest Management Thesis (18)

An independent research thesis based on laboratory or field-based research and focused on some aspect of pest management. The research may be supervised by any faculty member in the Department of Biological Sciences.

BISC 852 - Ecological and Molecular Interactions between Insect Vectors and Parasites (3)

Interactions between parasites and their arthropod vectors. Emphasis is placed on recent advances in our understanding of the interactions, including aspects that can be exploited to reduce parasite transmission.

BISC 854 - Ecotoxicology (3)

The proposed course will detail the physiochemical factors that influence contaminant behavior in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Prerequisite: BISC 101, 312, CHEM 102, and 103. Recommended: BISC 414.

BISC 855 - Biochemical Toxicology (3)

This course examines the biodynamics and actions of toxicants on several key biological systems within living organisms at the biochemical and molecular levels. Prerequisite: BISC 313.

BISC 859 - Special Topics I (3)

Selected topics in biological science. The content of this course varies from term to term.

BISC 869 - Special Topics II (3)

BISC 879 - Special Topics III (3)

BISC 880 - Special Topics in Behavioral Ecology (3)

A consideration of advanced special topics in the field of behavioral ecology.

BISC 881 - Special Topics in Cell and Molecular Biology (3)

A student participation seminar course focusing on recent literature on selected topics in cellular, developmental, and molecular biology. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

BISC 883 - Special Topics in Environmental Toxicology (3)

Special topics course with emphasis on recent developments in environmental toxicology.

BISC 884 - Special Topics in Pest Ecology and Management (3)

A course that provides graduate students with an in-depth analysis of a topic in pest ecology and management. The course content will change from year to year to reflect student interests and topical research, and can be taught by any faculty member of the Department of Biological Sciences.

BISC 885 - Special Topics in Animal Physiology (3)

Special topics in comparative vertebrate and invertebrate functional mechanisms and adaptations. Prerequisite: Undergraduate course in animal physiology.

BISC 886 - Special Topics in Marine and Aquatic Biology (3)

Special topics course emphasizing recent developments in the area of aquatic and marine biology.

BISC 887 - Special Topics in Plant Biology (3)

Advanced treatment of selected topics or specialized areas in plant biology. The special topics to be discussed will vary from term to term.

BISC 888 - Directed Readings in Biology (1)

Programs of directed readings and critical discussions offered by staff members to individual students. A formal description of the study program is required (forms available from the graduate secretary). These forms must be approved by the departmental graduate studies committee at the beginning of the term, prior to enrolment.

BISC 889 - Directed Readings in Biology (2)

Intended to cover the same ground as a normal graduate course, it may be given to one or two students when a lecture/seminar is inappropriate.

BISC 890 - Directed Readings in Biology (3)

Programs of directed readings and critical discussions offered by staff members to individual students. A formal description of the study program is required (forms available from the graduate secretary). These forms must be approved by the departmental graduate studies committee at the beginning of the term, prior to enrolment.

BISC 892 - PhD Graduate Candidacy Exam

Oral presentation and defence of a written PhD research proposal. All PhD students enrolled in the BISC PhD graduate program must take BISC 892.

BISC 898 - MSc Thesis (18)

BISC 899 - PhD Thesis (6)