Please note:

To view the Fall 2017 Academic Calendar go to http://www.sfu.ca/students/calendar/2017/fall.html

Earth Sciences Courses

EASC 101 - Dynamic Earth (3)

Origin and character of minerals, rocks, Earth structure, Earth surface processes and plate tectonic theory. Primarily designed to deliver prereq. information to EASC majors/honours and students pursuing degrees in other Departments and Faculties that require a strong foundational course in Earth Science. Breadth-Science.

EASC 103 - The Rise and Fall of the Dinosaurs (3)

Class Dinosauria and how our understanding of this extinct group continues to evolve in the light of new discoveries. Topics include the rise of the dinosaurs, criteria for the recognition of the different groups, fossil data regarding dinosaur metabolism, evidence of dinosaur behavior, possible evolutionary relationships with birds, and theories of dinosaur extinction. Students may not take EASC 103 for credit towards EASC major or minor program requirements. Students with credit for EASC 103W may not take this course for further credit. Breadth-Science.

EASC 104 - Geohazards - Earth in Turmoil (3)

An introduction to the range of geological hazards that affect the Earth, the environment and humanity. Topics covered will include the hazards and risks related to volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides and avalanches, tsunamis, geomagnetic storms and other potentially cataclysmic events. The forecasting and possible mitigation of these geohazards will also be investigated. Students may not take EASC 104 for credit towards EASC major or minor program requirements. Students with credit for GEOG 312 may not take this course for further credit. Breadth-Science.

EASC 106 - Earth Through Time (3)

An introduction to the changes that the Earth has experienced, from its initial formation to the present day, intended for non-majors. Topics include changes in plate tectonic style, mountain building periods, glaciations during Earth history, formation of life, the fossil record and evolution, major extinctions, and the rise of man. Students with credit in EASC 102 may not take EASC 106 for additional credit. Students may not take EASC 106 for credit towards EASC major or minor program requirements. Breadth-Science.

EASC 107 - Economic Geological Resources (3)

An overview of Earth's major economic resources. Topics will include geologic processes which produce significant natural resources including metals, hydrocarbons and other energy resources, industrial minerals, and groundwater. Emphasis will be placed on relations between earth sciences and aspects of economics, business, history, politics, and environmental issues. Much of the focus will be on the changing nature of resource exploration and extraction, and how this may evolve in the near to distant future. Students may not use EASC 107 for credit towards Earth Sciences major or minor program requirements. Breadth-Science.

EASC 108 - Exploring the Solar System (3)

An introduction to the geology of our solar system through a comparative survey of the planets. Emphasis will be on the geology of the Earth and how we can use this knowledge to learn more about the neighboring planets. A wealth of accessible information now exists from which we can attempt to reconstruct the geological history of each planetary surface in our solar system. Comparative planetology will be used to explore such topics as the structure and origin of the solar system, the origin and fate of the Earth, the importance of water in the solar system, the formation and geological history of planetary lithospheres and atmospheres. Breadth-Science.

EASC 201 - Stratigraphy and Sedimentation (3)

An introduction to the nature, origin and interpretation of stratified earth materials. Principles of lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, the facies concept. Prerequisite: EASC 102 or 210. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 202 - Introduction to Mineralogy (3)

Introduction to crystallography, crystal chemistry and chemical properties and chemical principles necessary for the study of minerals. Prerequisite: EASC 101 and CHEM 121. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 204 - Structural Geology I (3)

Description, classification and interpretation of earth structures: folds, faults, joints, cleavage and lineations. Elementary rock mechanics. Prerequisite: EASC 210, PHYS 101 or 120 or 125 or 140. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 205 - Introduction to Petrology (3)

Optical phenomena related to the use of the polarizing microscope in the identification of minerals in thin section. Petrogenesis and classification of igneous sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Hand specimen and thin section identification of rocks and minerals. Prerequisite: EASC 202, CHEM 122, and one of: (PHYS 102 and PHYS 130), (PHYS 121 and PHYS 133), (PHYS 126 and PHYS 133) or (PHYS 141). All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 206 - Field Geology I (2)

Methods of field navigation, geological mapping and the interpretation of geological field data including cross sections, the geological time scale, and stratigraphic sections and columns. Includes two weekend field trips. Field locations may vary from year to year. All lectures and field trips are mandatory. Prerequisite: EASC 101 and prerequisite/co-requisite: EASC 210. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 207 - Introduction to Applied Geophysics (3)

An introduction to geophysics emphasizing seismic, magnetic and gravimetric observations of the Earth. Applied geophysics. Prerequisite: MATH 152, and one of: (PHYS 102 and PHYS 130), (PHYS 121 and PHYS 133), (PHYS 126 and PHYS 133) or (PHYS 141). All with a grade of C- or better. Quantitative.

EASC 208 - Introduction to Geochemistry (3)

Distribution and cycles of elements, minerals and rocks on and within Earth. Understanding and evolution of Earth systems through high and low temperature fluid-rock interaction, aqueous geochemistry, stable and radiogenic isotopes. Prerequisite: EASC 202, CHEM 121, 122 and 126. All with a grade of C- or better. Quantitative.

EASC 209W - Environmental Geoscience (4)

Environmental geology is a branch of Earth science that deals with the relationship of people to their geological habitat. Topics covered will include environmental impact of mineral extraction and logging; erosion and sedimentation in rural and urban environments; and mass movements in mountainous terrain. The course includes two 1-day field trips that usually occur on Saturdays. This course is primarily designed for EASC program students and those pursuing degrees in other Departments and Faculties that require a strong foundational course in Environmental Geoscience. Prerequisite: EASC 101 with a grade of C- or better. Students with credits for EASC 303W may not take this course for credit. Writing.

EASC 210 - Historical Geology (3)

The study of the evolution of the Earth, the geological time scale, fossils and evolution, stratigraphic concepts, geological history of western Canada. Prerequisite: EASC 101 with a grade of C- or better. Breadth-Science.

EASC 300 - Selected Topics in Earth Sciences (3)

An in-depth treatment of selected topics of earth sciences. Prerequisite: To be determined by instructor.

EASC 301 - Igneous Petrology (3)

Integrated theoretical and practical investigation of igneous rocks. Topics include melt generation, ascent and modification of magma, and solidification of magma in plutonic and volcanic environments. Emphasis will be placed on mineralogy, geochemistry and petrography. Relations between magmatic and tectonic processes will be explored. Prerequisite: EASC 205 and 208. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 302 - Sedimentary Petrology (3)

Description and classification, field and microscopic identification of sedimentary rocks; petrogenesis and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Prerequisite: STAT 201 or 270, EASC 201 and 205. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 304 - Hydrogeology (3)

An introduction to the basic concepts and principles governing the flow of groundwater in the subsurface environment. These are used to develop an understanding of aquifers and their physical properties, groundwater sustainability and management, and interaction of groundwater with surface water. In addition, as a foundation course in fluids in geologic media, this course has relevance to the oil and gas and mining industries, as well as to engineering applications such as dewatering. Prerequisite: EASC 101 and PHYS 102 or 121 or 126 or 141; and 12 additional units in earth sciences, physical geography or environmental science. All with a grade of C- or better. Quantitative.

EASC 305 - Quantitative Methods for the Earth Sciences (3)

Implementation of mathematical methods and numerical techniques for problem solving in the Earth Sciences. Examples and lab assignments will use Excel spreadsheets and/or Matlab computer programming/display software. Concepts covered include quantitative techniques for field data and error analysis in the geosciences, basic computer programming concepts and numerical modeling of Earth processes. Prerequisite: EASC 101; MATH 152, PHYS 121 or 126 or 102 or 141, and STAT 201 or 270 (all with a grade of C- or better), and six units in any 200 division or higher EASC courses.

EASC 306 - Field Geology II (3)

A 10-14 day field camp held after final exams in the spring term. Students will learn how to observe, record and interpret geological features, and will carry out geological mapping and analysis. Lectures on field methods, equipment and safety may precede the field camp. Field locations may vary from year to year. Prerequisite: Prerequisite/Corequisite: EASC 201, 204, 205, and 206. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 307 - Applied Geophysics (3)

Application, instrumentation and limitations of electrical, electromagnetic, ground penetrating radar and seismic methods for engineering and geoscience applications. Prerequisite: EASC 207 with a grade of C- or better. Quantitative.

EASC 308 - Field Geology III (3)

A 10-14 day field school held at the end of the summer term. Students will observe and interpret sedimentary and glacial geomorphic features, investigate natural hazard mechanisms and become acquainted with environmental geoscience topics. Students will carry out geological, geotechnical and geophysical surveying and analysis. Field locations may vary from year to year. Prerequisite: EASC 201, 206 and 209W. Recommended: EASC 207. All with a grade of C- or better. Students with credit for EASC 406 may not take this course for further credit.

EASC 309 - Global Tectonics (3)

The study of motion and deformation of the earth's crust and upper mantle at a regional and global scale. A detailed examination of plate tectonic theory: plate boundary types, mechanics of plate movements, basin formation and mountain building. Case studies of major orogenic belts of the world highlighting regional structural deformation processes in response to tectonic stresses. Students are required to attend a weekend field trip during this course. Prerequisite: EASC 201, 204, 205, 206 and 207. All with a grade of C- or better. Students with credit for EASC 407 prior to fall 1998 may not take this course for further credit.

EASC 310W - Paleontology (3)

Principles of classification, morphology and development of the major groups of animals and plants in the geological record; the paleoecologic significance of fossils. Prerequisite: EASC 102 or 210. Recommended: BISC 102. All with a grade of C- or better. Students with credit for EASC 203 or EASC 310 may not take this course for further credit. Writing.

EASC 311 - Metamorphic Petrology (3)

Investigation of the physicochemical processes responsible for the origin of metamorphic rocks. Integrated study of the mineralogy, textures and phase relations through examination of hand sample and petrographic thin sections. Prerequisite: Pre/Co-requisite: EASC 301 and 302. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 312 - Stratigraphy (3)

The principles of stratigraphy, and their integration with sedimentary facies analysis. Techniques applicable to outcrop and subsurface correlation, as well as the principal stratigraphic paradigms and their application to the rock record are discussed. Prerequisite: EASC 201 and 204. Recommended: EASC 206, 302. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 313 - Introduction to Soil and Rock Engineering (3)

An introduction to the engineering properties and behavior of soil and rock. Laboratory and field measurements of soil and rock properties. Applications in engineering design will be illustrated with case studies of slope stability, road design, foundations and underground excavations. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of soil and rock mechanics in the resources sector. Prerequisite: EASC 101, 204 or permission of instructor. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 314 - Principles of Glaciology (3)

An introduction to the study of ice in the modern environment from a geophysical perspective, with a focus on glaciers and ice sheets. Topics include the physical and chemical properties of ice, glacier mass and energy balance, glacier and ice-sheet hydraulics and dynamics, fast ice flow and the relationship between ice and climate. Prerequisite: 60 units, including MATH 152, PHYS 102 or 121 or 126 or 141, and any 100-level EASC course or permission of the instructor. Recommended: EASC 101. All with a grade of C- or better. Quantitative.

EASC 315W - Geochemistry of Natural Waters (3)

Emphasis is on the fundamentals of water-rock interactions and the chemistry of natural waters, developing an understanding of the physical and chemical principles that govern the geochemistry of water within Earth's crust. Topics will include water sample collection and analysis, chemical thermodynamics, gas-water-rock interactions and geochemical modeling. The applications range from weathering and recharge to acid rock drainage and diagenesis. Prerequisite: CHEM 122 and 126. Corequisite or prerequisite: EASC 304. All with a grade of C- or better. Students with credit for EASC 412 and/or EASC 315 may not complete this course for further credit. Writing.

EASC 317 - Global Geophysics (3)

Application of geophysical methods to the study of the Earth's evolution and its interior structure: geometrical nature of plate tectonics on a sphere; the Earth's magnetic field and its use in reconstruction of past plate motions; earthquake seismology and understanding the deep interior, gravity and lithospheric flexure, radioactive decay and an absolute geological time scale; heat loss and mantle convection; structure of oceanic lithosphere; structure of continental lithosphere; the early Earth and the tectonics of other planets. Prerequisite: EASC 207 with a grade of C- or better, or permission of instructor. Quantitative.

EASC 400 - Selected Topics in Earth Sciences (3)

An advanced, in-depth treatment of a specialized area of earth sciences. Prerequisite: To be determined by instructor.

EASC 401 - Mineral Deposits (3)

The petrology and genesis of metalliferous ore deposits; description of classic ore deposits; the occurrence and exploitation of industrial and non-metallic minerals. Prerequisite: EASC 201, 204, 208, 301 and 311. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 402 - Sedimentology (3)

Sediment transport in fluids, the formation, character and classification of internal structures in sediments and paleoenvironmental analysis. Prerequisite: EASC 302 with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 403 - Quaternary Geology (3)

Stratigraphy and history of the Quaternary Period with emphasis on glaciation, glacial sediments, and landforms. The course includes several 1-day trips and at least one 3-day trip. Prerequisite: EASC 201, EASC 209W or GEOG 213, and EASC 308. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 404 - Structural Geology II (3)

Application of advanced concepts in structural geology to a variety of tectonic problems; deformation mechanisms; flow concepts applied to ductile deformation; description and interpretation of microstructural fabrics; strain partitioning from grain scale to global scale. Prerequisite: Pre/corequisite: EASC 301 and 309. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 405 - Water, Environment, and Climate Change (3)

Applies and integrates concepts from hydrological science to assess the various impacts to water cycles over a range of scales, considering both climate and other environmental stressors. Secondary impacts of climate change on water resources (including water for humans and aquatic ecosystems) are explored, focusing on current issues to generate ideas for potential mitigative and adaptive solutions. Prerequisite: EASC 315, or both EASC 304 and GEOG 311. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 408 - Regional Geology of Western Canada (3)

The stratigraphy, structure and historical geology of western Canada. Terrane analysis. Important mineral and fossil sites will be discussed. Students are required to attend one 4 day field trip during the course. Prerequisite: /Corequsite: EASC 309 with a C- or better. Students with credit for EASC 305 prior to fall 1998 may not take this course for further credit.

EASC 410 - Groundwater Contamination and Transport (3)

An introduction to contaminant hydrogeology and mass transport processes in groundwater regimes. Topics include natural groundwater quality, sources of contamination, for example from mine waste, agriculture, saltwater intrusion, and industrial activities, and the processes and principles governing mass transport, including advection, dispersion and diffusion. The course also explores methodologies for site investigation as well as various remediation methods. Prerequisite: EASC 315W or EASC 412. All with a grade of C- or better. Quantitative.

EASC 411 - Terrain Analysis (3)

Application and role of Quaternary Geology in terrain mapping and terrain analysis and will emphasize the British Columbia Terrain Classification System. Applications of terrain maps, including landslide, earthquake and volcanic hazard mapping will be discussed. The lab sessions will cover morphological mapping, surficial material genesis, geomorphic processes and finally, production of a terrain and terrain stability map. The course includes three days in the field to ground truth the map. Prerequisite: EASC 206 and 209W or GEOG 213. Recommended: GEOG 252 and 313. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 413 - Resource Geotechnics (3)

Application of geotechnics to the resource sector with particular emphasis on forestry and minerals. Topics covered will include: Engineering geological characterization, slope failure mechanisms in soil and rock, methods of slope stability analysis, techniques of slope reinforcement and stabilization, slope monitoring, road construction and deactivation, underground excavations and petroleum geotechnics. Brief case studies will be used to illustrate the influence of geotechnics in the forestry, mining and the petroleum industries. Prerequisite: EASC 313 with a grade of C- or better or permission of instructor.

EASC 415 - Groundwater Modelling (3)

An introduction to groundwater modelling providing theory and practical experience in developing numerical groundwater models using state-of-the-art software. Emphasis is placed on modelling flow in the saturated zone, but unsaturated zone hydrology, solute transport, and density dependent flow are also covered. Prerequisite: EASC 304. Students with credit for EASC 400 in Spring 2016 only may not take this course for further credit.

EASC 416 - Field and Lab Techniques in Hydrogeology (3)

Theoretical and applied aspects of physical hydrogeology and aqueous geochemistry are linked by providing students with hands-on experience using hydrogeological equipment (data loggers, pumps, chemical sampling equipment), implementing sampling and testing protocols, and using state-of-the-art laboratory analytical facilities. Weekly field and lab based exercises are required. Prerequisite: EASC 315W with a grade of C- or better. Quantitative.

EASC 420 - Petroleum Geology (3)

Elements of the petroleum system, including basin type, source rock origination, migration, and trapping mechanisms. Techniques used to identify and map potential hydrocarbon reservoirs in the subsurface, including geophysical methods, surface mapping, well log correlation, and core/chip sample descriptions will be discussed. This material will be presented in a context that demonstrates the life cycle of a hydrocarbon field from exploration (early), delineation (assessment), and production (mature) stages. Datasets available during different stages of development will be discussed in light of their pertinence to optimal reservoir performance. Prerequisite: EASC 304, 309. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 421 - Volcanology (3)

An introduction to physical and chemical volcanology through a comprehensive examination of volcanic eruptions and their consequences. The main topics covered are the rheological properties of magmas and lavas, structure of volcanic landforms, eruption dynamics, monitoring and hazard assessment, the emplacement of volcanic deposits, extraterrestrial volcanism and the effects of eruptions on the environment. Prerequisite: EASC 207. Co/Prerequisite: EASC 301. All with a grade of C- or better.

EASC 491 - Directed Readings (1)

A course in which reading and research, and/or field work will be supervised by a faculty member. Prerequisite: 75 units including 30 units in earth science courses and permission of the department.

EASC 492 - Directed Readings (2)

A course in which reading and research, and/or field work will be supervised by a faculty member. Prerequisite: 75 units including 30 units in earth sciences courses and permission of the department.

EASC 493 - Directed Readings (3)

A course in which reading and research, and/or field work will be supervised by a faculty member. Prerequisite: 75 units including 30 units in earth sciences courses and permission of the department.

EASC 499 - Honours Thesis (6)

Will include experimental and/or theoretical research in Earth Sciences or a related discipline, and the preparation of a thesis (research report). Selection of a research topic and preparation of the thesis will be done in consultation with a faculty member in Earth Sciences. A research seminar will be delivered at the end of the semester. Prerequisite: 105 units, admittance to the honours program and consent of a thesis supervisor.

EASC 600 - Introduction to Graduate Studies

A required course designed to acquaint new graduate students with the research strengths of the program, research facilities in the University, and its vicinity. Procedures and policies relating to preparation, conduct and presentation of thesis research will be discussed. Graded satisfactory/unsatisfactory.

EASC 601 - Advanced Groundwater Geochemistry (3)

Advanced topics in understanding water-rock interactions and the geochemistry of groundwater during processes such as weathering and recharge, acid mine drainage, diagenesis and hydrothermal ore deposit formation. The course focuses on the physical and chemical principles that govern the geochemistry of groundwater with emphasis on water sample collection and analysis, chemical thermodynamics, gas-water-rock interactions and geochemical modeling. Prerequisite: Undergraduate course in hydrogeology recommended (or permission of instructor).

EASC 602 - Environmental Isotopes (3)

This course reviews the principles of isotope geochemistry and examines case studies on the application of isotopes to hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry. Problems in groundwater quality/resource evaluation including the origin of recharge, identifying and quantifying evaporation and water balance, ground water/surface water interactions and groundwater mixing will be addressed. Isotope methods in groundwater age dating will be discussed as well as the use of environmental isotopes in understanding water-rock interactions and groundwater flow paths. Prerequisite: Undergraduate courses in hydrogeology and ground water geochemistry recommended (or permission of instructor).

EASC 603 - Field Techniques in Hydrogeology (3)

This course is intended to complement the theoretical aspects of physical hydrogeology and aqueous geochemistry covered at an undergraduate (or early MSc) level by providing students with hands-on experience using hydrogeological equipment (data loggers, pumps, chemical sampling equipment), implementing sampling and testing protocols, and observing state-of-the-art monitoring and geophysical tools. The course entails preparatory research and data interpretation on the hydrogeology of the Fraser delta (including surficial geology, regional geochemistry and geophysical characteristics), a week at a hydrogeology field site on the Fraser River delta (early May), the extensive analysis and interpretation of data gathered during the field session complemented with regional data acquired during preliminary investigations, the development of a large-scale simulation model of the groundwater flow system at the site, and the completion of a comprehensive hydrogeological report. The course normally runs for about three weeks following spring session final examinations. Note: This course has limited enrollment. Prerequisite: Undergraduate courses in physical and chemical hydrogeology (or equivalent) and consent of the department.

EASC 604 - Deformation Mechanisms and Continental Tectonics (3)

This course will focus on increasing the level of understanding of the mechanisms by which rocks deform and the effect of environmental variables (effective pressure, temperature, strain rale, chemical environment, etc.) on these deformation mechanisms. Lectures will cover flow concepts applied to ductile deformation, grain-scale to crustal-scale strain partitioning, and models of exhumation of metamorphic rocks. The link between far-field effects such as lithosphere rheology, climate and erosion, and orogenic style will also be discussed. There will also be a 2-day field trip associated with this class. Prerequisite: Undergraduate level courses in structural geology and global tectonics, equivalent to EASC 204 and 309 (or permission of the instructor).

EASC 605 - Advanced Glaciology (3)

An advanced introduction to theoretical glaciology within a continuum mechanical framework. The course focuses on fundamentals of glacier and ice-sheet flow and the key surface and subsurface processes that drive them, Course content includes a brief review of tensor analysis and continuum mechanics, glacier mass and energy balance, the material properties and rheology of ice, the basic equations of glacier deformation, ice-sheet and shelf flow, basal processes, glacier hydrology, and unstable modes of flow. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

EASC 606 - Advanced Field Methods in Earth Sciences (3)

Focuses mainly on the field description, measurement and interpretation of geological, geochemical and geophysical features, and may concentrate on certain aspects of bedrock or surficial geology. Includes methods of data acquisition, display and modeling. Field exercises may be augmented by directed readings and laboratory studies. Course costs depend on the location and duration of field work and the nature of related investigations. Prerequisite: Permission of the Instructor.

EASC 607 - Exploration Seismology (3)

Application of seismic methods of the delineation of hydrocarbon deposits and crustal structure. Travel time expressions for a layered Earth; Zoeppritz' equations; 2-D and 3-D seismic surveying methods; reflection data processing, including deconvolution and migration; amplitude versus offset methods and direct hydrocarbon detection; seismic wave propagation in Earth's crust; refraction inversion; principles of seismic interpretation. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

EASC 608 - Advanced Metamorphic Petrology (3)

Field relations, nature and origin of metamorphic and metsomatic rocks, graphical treatment and interpretation of mineral assemblages and heat-flow regimes in the framework of global tectonics, with special emphasis on derivation of pressure-temperature-fluid conditions ranging from low-grade rocks through granulites to partial melts. Laboratory: petrographic techniques applied to the study of rock suites. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

EASC 609 - Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Remote Sensing Applications (3)

Principles of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Remote Sensing and its Applications. An overview of the basic theory is presented to understand the capabilities and limitations of complex SAR data and their key land and marine applications. Learning outcomes for the course include proficiency with applications of interferometric SAR (InSAR) to Geosciences, including generation of topographic maps as well as advanced time series analysis for measuring ground surface motion associated with seismic displacement, compaction related subsidence volcanic inflate and landslides. Prerequisite: Recommended: undergraduate courses in advanced mathematics, remote sensing, geophysics, natural hazards (or permission of instructor).

EASC 610 - Petroleum Geology (3)

An introduction to the practical application of geological and geophysical concepts in the petroleum industry. The course will focus on the use of facies models, porosity and permeability, geophysical logs, drillstem tests, drilling, and production strategies in petroleum exploration and exploitation. Particular emphasis is placed on the geologist's role in the industry, both in discovering new hydrocarbons, and in improving recovery (through waterflooding and carbon-dioxide flooding) from existing hydrocarbon reservoirs. Prerequisite: Knowledge and/or experience in sedimentary geology, stratigraphy, and facies models.

EASC 611 - Sedimentology (3)

An advanced treatment of topics which may include processes of sedimentation, facies model concepts, applications of ichnology, and depositional environments with an emphasis on siliciclastic successions. Course content will be tailored to student interest, but generally will include both non-marine and marine processes of sedimentation and resultant depositional systems. The development of effective field criteria for the interpretation of the sedimentary record will be emphasized.

EASC 612 - Stratigraphy (3)

Stratigraphic concepts of lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and genetic stratigraphy. The course concentrates on genetic stratigraphy, with emphasis on allostratigraphy, genetic stratigraphic sequences and sequence stratigraphy. Students will critically assess each paradigm and its applicability to both the subdivision and the interpretation of the sedimentary record. Relative sea level changes and their effects on deposition will be discussed in relation to the preserved sedimentary record. Students will examine the utility of facies analysis in the various genetic stratigraphic frameworks and the viability of reconstructing the depositional history of sedimentary successions.

EASC 613 - Groundwater Modelling (3)

An introduction to groundwater modelling providing the relevant theory and practical experience to develop and test conceptual models, to recognize data requirements, and to identify the limitations of numerical models. State-of-the-art groundwater modelling software will be used. An emphasis is placed on modelling flow in the saturated zone, but unsaturated zone hydrology, solute transport, and density dependent flow are also covered.

EASC 615 - Applied Geophysics (3)

Instrumentation, application and limitations of electrical, seismic, radar and gravity methods in the exploration for mineral resources and in engineering applications.

EASC 617 - Quaternary Geology (3)

Environments of glacial and proglacial deposits. Quaternary stratigraphy and dating methods with emphasis on the Cordillera. The course includes several 1-day trips and at least one 3-day trip.

EASC 619 - Environmental Geoscience (3)

An examination of the concepts, methods and techniques used in advanced case studies of environmental geology, in fields including forestry, environmental geochemistry, earthquake and volcanic hazard, and urban planning.

EASC 620 - Volcanology (3)

Physical, chemical and tectonic aspects of volcanology examined with emphasis on processes of magma generation and evolution, styles of eruption, environments of deposition, and interpretation of volcanic facies. Includes two to three weekend field trips. Prerequisite: Undergraduate course in petrology and structural geology.

EASC 621 - Tectonics and Magmatism Convergent Plate Margins (3)

Geological processes at convergent plate margins are considered in the context of plate tectonic principles. Topics to be addressed include: driving forces of tectonic plates, mantle convection, geometry of subducted slabs, ridge-trench intersections, generation of volcanic arcs, causes of anomalous magmatism, accretion of terranes, and transpression of orogenic float. Prerequisite: Undergraduate structural geology and petrology courses.

EASC 622 - Principles of Ichnology (3)

The conceptual framework of ichnology with particular emphasis on the ethological (behavioral) classification of biogenic structures, as well as its applications to the ichnofacies concept and paleoenvironmental interpretation of the sedimentary record. Environmental stresses and organism responses will be integrated with conventional sedimentology to highlight the complex inter-relationships between infauna and the environments they inhabit. The genetic stratigraphic applications of ichnology will also be addressed. Prerequisite: Advanced undergraduate sedimentology course.

EASC 623 - Groundwater Resource Evaluation (3)

In addition to examining groundwater resources (exploration, evaluation and management), this course expands upon the theory and use of aquifer tests and their respective methods of analysis for evaluating groundwater resources. Advanced methodologies for partially penetrating wells, leaky aquifers, anisotropic aquifers, double porosity type and fractured aquifers will be included. Computer applications will be emphasized. Prerequisite: Undergraduate course in groundwater.

EASC 624 - Geology of the Canadian Cordillera (3)

The stratigraphy, structure and historical geology of the Canadian Cordillera, examined from a plate tectonic perspective. Models of development of the various terranes and related entities, and their amalgamation to form the present Cordillera, will be examined in detail. There will also be a 4-day field trip associated with this class. Prerequisite: An undergraduate background that includes courses at any level in structural geology, plate tectonics, geochemistry, geophysics, petrology (sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous), plus permission from the instructor.

EASC 625 - Issues in Canadian Cordillera Geology and Tectonics (3)

A reading and seminar course on topics related to the development and ongoing evolution of the Canadian Cordillera. Topics will be based on both graduate student areas of interest and on current 'hot topics' concerning this orogenic belt. One or more field trips might be conducted if there is sufficient interest and such trips would compliment the topics of discussion. Prerequisite: An undergraduate background that preferably includes courses at any level in structural geology, plate tectonics, geochemistry, geophysics, petrology (sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous). This background will be assessed by the instructor, whose specific permission must be obtained before enrollment.

EASC 626 - Applied Geochronology (3)

A review of the principles of geochronology and their application to geological problems will be offered. The course will cover a range of geochronological systems that can provide geological age constraints for a broad spectrum of geological investigations. An overview will be provided covering the techniques (conventional and state-of-the-art) currently available for undertaking geochronological analyses. Case studies that have applied the geochronological systems and analytical techniques will be covered. Prerequisite: Recommended: undergraduate courses in geochemistry and introductory chemistry (or permission of instructor).

EASC 628 - Advanced Mineral Deposits (3)

A graduate-level overview of the role tectonics and fluid-rock interaction play in the genesis and spatial distribution of ore deposits. Basic skills used to aid the understanding of, and exploration for, ore deposits will be reviewed, including aspects of geophysics, geochemistry, petrography, and field methods. The focus of the course will be tailored to the technical background of the students, and the concepts and skills most relevant to their research interests and needs. Prerequisite: Undergraduate geology degree or permission of the instructor. Students with credit for EASC 401 may not take this course for further credit.

EASC 630 - Groundwater Contamination and Transport (3)

An introduction to contaminant hydrogeology and mass transport processes in groundwater regimes. Topics include: natural groundwater quality: sources of contamination, for example, from mine waste, agriculture, saltwater intrusion, and industrial activities; and the processes and principles governing mass transport, including advection, dispersion and diffusion. The course also explores methodologies for site investigation as well as various remediation methods. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Undergraduate physical hydrogeology and aqueous geochemistry courses required. Students with credit for EASC 410 may not take this course for further credit.

EASC 635 - Water, Environment and Climate Change (3)

Applies and integrates concepts from hydrological science to assess the various impacts to water cycles over a range of scales, considering both climate and other environmental stressors. Secondary impacts of climate change on water resources (including water for humans and aquatic ecosystems) are explored, focusing on current issues to generate ideas for potential mitigative and adaptive solutions. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Undergraduate physical hydrogeology and aqueous geochemistry courses required. Students with credit for EASC 405 may not take this course for further credit.

EASC 703 - Special Topics in Earth Sciences III (3)

EASC 704 - Special Topics (3)

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

EASC 705 - Special Topics (3)

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

EASC 706 - Special Topics (3)

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

EASC 707 - Special Topics (3)

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

EASC 708 - Special Topics (3)

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

EASC 709 - Directed Readings (1)

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

EASC 710 - Directed Readings (2)

Prerequisite: Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

EASC 711 - Directed Readings (3)

Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

EASC 810 - MSc Thesis Proposal

Candidates must make an oral presentation of the written research proposal to an open audience including the supervisory committee, followed by a closed discussion between the student and committee. This allows the committee to assess the suitability of the project and the ability of the student to undertake the proposed research. The proposal presentation usually takes place prior to the end of the second term of enrollment. Graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis. Prerequisite: Enrollment in MSc program.

EASC 898 - MSc Thesis (18)

Prerequisite: Enrollment in MSc program.

EASC 901 - PhD Research Seminar (1)

Graded satisfactory/unsatisfactory. Prerequisite: Enrollment in PhD program.

EASC 910 - PhD Candidacy Examination

Candidates must pass an oral examination to demonstrate their ability to carry out the proposed thesis research. The examination comprises an oral presentation of the proposed research to an open audience, followed by a closed oral examination by the examining committee. The examination is usually taken prior to the end of the fourth term of enrollment, or within one term after transferring from the MSc program. It may not be taken more than twice. Graded on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis. Prerequisite: Enrollment in PhD program.

EASC 998 - PhD Thesis (18)

Prerequisite: Enrollment in PhD Program.