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Department of First Nations Studies | Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Simon Fraser University Calendar | Fall 2019

First Nations Studies Research

Certificate

This program explores the history, prehistory, culture, language and contemporary situation of Canadian Aboriginal peoples, and teaches basic research skills about First Nations/Aboriginal issues with emphasis on BC Aboriginal people. Normal completion requires five full time terms. The certificate, which can be completed as a full-time or part time program or as part of a bachelor degree, is especially suited to students who wish to gain proficiency in First Nations/Aboriginal issues, social research skills, and basic cultural resource management skills. Students should plan their admission and program in consultation with the First Nations Studies advisor.

Admission Requirements

Normal University admission requirements apply. Students may be admitted under regular or special categories. Assistance is available at the First Nations Studies' Burnaby office.

Program Declaration

Students seeking admission into a First Nations Studies Academic Program must demonstrate competency in a minimum of three FNST courses at SFU with an average subject grade of C or better. Completion of FNST 101 and FNST 201W prior to declaring a FNST program is recommended.

Students who have successfully completed three or more FNST courses should contact the Department Advisor (fnstmgr@sfu.ca) to review eligibility and program completion timeline.

Program Requirements

Lower and Upper Division Requirements

Requirements include

  • successful completion of at least 30 units, of which a minimum 18 are earned by completing six required courses. In addition, students complete one practicum option (Option 1, 2, or 3). The remaining six units are selected from the specified list of optional courses.
  • minimum grade point average of 2.0 calculated on all courses applied to the certificate. Duplicate courses are counted only once.
  • completion of the certificate normally within five years of program admission.

Students complete all of

FNST 101 - Introduction to First Nations Studies (3)

Introduces the nature and goals of First Nations Studies as an academic discipline that emphasizes cultures and homelands of First Peoples. Breadth-Humanities/Social Sciences.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
C100 Distance Education
D100 Joyce Schneider
Tu 2:30 PM – 5:20 PM
AQ 3005, Burnaby
D200 Mo 12:30 PM – 2:20 PM
We 12:30 PM – 1:20 PM
SWH 9095, Burnaby
SWH 9095, Burnaby
D900 Th 2:30 PM – 5:20 PM
SUR 5320, Surrey
J100 June Scudeler
Mo 5:30 PM – 8:20 PM
HCC 2205, Vancouver
P100 Mo 12:30 PM – 2:20 PM
We 12:30 PM – 1:20 PM
SWH 9095, Burnaby
SWH 9095, Burnaby
FNST 201W - Canadian Aboriginal Peoples' Perspectives on History (3)

An examination of fact and ideology in history and historic events involving contact between Aboriginal and European peoples. The course will also address questions of research methodologies in studying Aboriginal/European relations, such as the evaluation of oral history and written ethnohistoric sources. An additional focus will be on gender as it influences perspectives. Writing/Breadth-Social Sci.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
D100 Maddie Knickerbocker
Fr 2:30 PM – 5:20 PM
SWH 9095, Burnaby
E100 Maddie Knickerbocker
We 5:30 PM – 8:20 PM
HCC 2510, Vancouver
FNST 212 - Indigenous Perceptions of Landscape (3)

Indigenous peoples of North America possess perceptions of landscape rooted in their long history with the land. Using methods and theories designed for anthropology, archaeology, land and resource management planning and geography will bring a multi-disciplinary approach to this study of cultural landscapes. Prerequisite: FNST 101 or 201W.

FNST 301 - Issues in Applied First Nations Studies Research (3)

Involves a survey and examination of method, theory and related topics associated with contemporary First Nations Studies research in applied contexts. Ethical conduct and protocols for working within First Nations communities are reviewed. Prerequisite: FNST 101 or 201W.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
D100 Eldon Yellowhorn
We 2:30 PM – 5:20 PM
SWH 9095, Burnaby

and a total of 18 units from each of the following four categories:

a) one course from

FNST 332 - Ethnobotany of British Columbia First Nations (3)

This course is an introduction to the study of plant knowledge and use by First Nations peoples in British Columbia. It provides students with information about the role of plants in First Nations' cultures including such areas as foods, medicines, technology, ceremony, ecological indicators, and within First Nations' knowledge and classification systems. Special focus may be placed on the ethnobotany of one or more Aboriginal groups or culture areas. Prerequisite: FNST 101. Breadth-Science.

FNST 333 - Ethnozoology of British Columbia First Nations (3)

This course explores the unique relationship that the First Nations peoples of North America have with animals. It examines how they named, classified, used and managed animals and compares this to western science. Prerequisite: Either FNST 101 or 201W and FNST 232. Students with credit for FNST 222 under this topic may not take this course for further credit.

FNST 353W - First Nations Heritage Stewardship (3)

Examines issues that arise when Aboriginal people must balance economic development and cultural integrity. Topics include self-reflexive internalist research, ethics and best practices in representing Indigenous heritage, public laws and land claim agreements affecting heritage, the exhumation and repatriation of human remains and religious freedom and access to sacred sites and objects. Prerequisite: 45 units or permission of the instructor. Students who have taken FNST 322 previously under this topic may not take this course for further credit. Writing.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
D100 Eldon Yellowhorn
Mo 2:30 PM – 5:20 PM
SWH 9095, Burnaby
FNST 433 - Indigenous Environmental Justice and Activism (4)

Examines contemporary writings regarding Indigenous environmental logic and environmental concerns of contemporary times. Studies effects of resource extraction upon Indigenous nations, globalization, genetic modifications, health, intellectual property, spiritual beliefs, culture and society, art and language and compares these with specific Indigenous logic at the time of contact. Prerequisite: 45 units.

b) one course from

ARCH 201 - Reconstructing the Human Past (4)

A survey of methods used by archaeologists to discover and interpret the past. Examples will be drawn from selected sites and cultures around the world. Students who have taken ARCH 101 may not enroll in ARCH 201. Breadth-Social Sciences.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
C100 Distance Education
D100 David Maxwell
Mo 12:30 PM – 2:20 PM
We 12:30 PM – 2:20 PM
BLU 10011, Burnaby
BLU 10011, Burnaby
GEOG 100 - Our World: Introducing Human Geography (3)

A geographical introduction to how humans shape our world, with attention also given to how it shapes us. Themes may include: culture, economic activities, environmental change, globalization, politics, population, resources, and urbanization. Breadth-Social Sciences.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
D100 Jason Young
We 2:30 PM – 5:20 PM
WMC 3520, Burnaby
D200 Jason Young
Tu 2:30 PM – 5:20 PM
,
SA 101 - Introduction to Anthropology (A) (4)

Anthropology asks fundamental questions about how people live and interact in different contexts. Engages with contemporary social life around the world, including the relations among people, ideas, and things. Provides analytical tools to help understand the role of culture and society in our lives. Breadth-Social Sciences.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
D100 Bascom Guffin
Tu 8:30 AM – 10:20 AM
BLU 9660, Burnaby
D101 Tu 12:30 PM – 2:20 PM
WMC 3511, Burnaby
D102 Tu 12:30 PM – 2:20 PM
WMC 3251, Burnaby
D103 Tu 12:30 PM – 2:20 PM
WMC 2533, Burnaby
D104 We 8:30 AM – 10:20 AM
WMC 2501, Burnaby
D105 We 8:30 AM – 10:20 AM
WMC 2531, Burnaby
D106 We 8:30 AM – 10:20 AM
BLU 11901, Burnaby
D107 We 10:30 AM – 12:20 PM
WMC 3511, Burnaby
D108 We 10:30 AM – 12:20 PM
WMC 2533, Burnaby
D900 Bascom Guffin
Th 8:30 AM – 10:20 AM
SUR 5140, Surrey
D901 Th 10:30 AM – 12:20 PM
SUR 5060, Surrey
D902 Th 10:30 AM – 12:20 PM
,
D903 Th 2:30 PM – 4:20 PM
,
D904 Th 4:30 PM – 6:20 PM
,
J100 Jenny Shaw
Tu 5:30 PM – 9:20 PM
HCC 1415, Vancouver

c) and one practicum option

Option 1

One term placement in the SFU Co-operative Education Program in First Nations Studies with a place in an Aboriginal organization. The employment situation must be acceptable to the First Nations Studies research program. First Nations Studies Co-op courses include:

FASS 201 - FASS Co-op Practicum I (3)

First term of work experience in the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Co-operative Education Program. Units for this course do not count towards the units required for an SFU degree. Graded as pass/fail (P/F). Prerequisite: Open only to students accepted to the FASS Co-op Program.

FASS 301 - FASS Co-op Practicum II (3)

Second term of work experience in the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Co-operative Education Program. Units for this course do not count towards the units required for an SFU degree. Graded as pass/fail (P/F). Prerequisite: Open only to students accepted to the FASS Co-op Program.

FASS 302 - FASS Co-op Practicum III (3)

Third term of work experience in the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Co-operative Education Program. Units for this course do not count towards the units required for an SFU degree. Graded as pass/fail (P/F). Prerequisite: Open only to students accepted to the FASS Co-op Program.

FASS 401 - FASS Co-op Practicum IV (3)

Fourth term of work experience in the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Co-operative Education Program. Units for this course do not count towards the units required for an SFU degree. Graded as pass/fail (P/F). Prerequisite: Open only to students accepted to the FASS Co-op Program.

FASS 402 - FASS Co-op Practicum V (3)

Fifth term of work experience in the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Co-operative Education Program. Units for this course do not count towards the units required for an SFU degree. Graded as pass/fail (P/F). May be repeated for additive credit. Prerequisite: Open only to students accepted to the FASS Co-op Program.

Option 2

At least five units of an archaeology field school involving survey and excavation of an lndigenous heritage site, or an Indigenous focused field school in another discipline, subject to approval by the First Nations Studies Department.

Option 3

FNST 442 Directed Readings in First Nations Studies (3) is required, which permits a faculty member to supervise an independent field research project acceptable to the First Nations Studies research certificate.

and the remaining units chosen from the following list:

FNST 110W - International Indigenous Lifewriting (4)

Exploration of Indigenous forms of research and inquiry (ie. genealogies, oral story-telling, autobiographies). Examine and explore life stories of Indigenous authors from around the world. Writing/Breadth-Humanities.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
D100 Élise Couture-Grondin
Mo, We 10:30 AM – 12:20 PM
SWH 9095, Burnaby
FNST 111 - Introduction to Participatory Indigenous Research Methods (3)

Chronologically analyses the use of photography to research Indigenous peoples from the 19th Century anthropological methods to contemporary participatory action methods. Highlights how Indigenous peoples are adapting research methods to benefit and empower their communities. Prerequisite: FNST 101 or 201W.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
D100 Fr 9:30 AM – 12:20 PM
SWH 9095, Burnaby
FNST 186 - Coast Salish Studies (3)

An introduction to Coast Salish nations, lands, and cultures from historical and contemporary perspectives. Study of similarities and diversities between Coast Salish communities, and their connections to their shared homelands on which SFU is located. Students with credit for FNST 222 under this topic may not take this course for further credit.

FNST 222 - Selected Topics in First Nations Studies (3) ††

Topics will vary from term to term depending on faculty availability and student interest where the body of work may not otherwise be covered in-depth in regular courses. Prerequisite: Vary according to topic. Consult course outline on prerequisite(s) of each topic offering.

FNST 232 - Introduction to Ethnoecology in First Nations Studies (3)

Through the interdisciplinary lens of ethnoecology, this course is an exploration of ongoing, hard-earned and reciprocal relationships between people and their environment. This course considers the cultural underpinnings of perception and interaction with landscape and ecologies - as one way to appreciate issues of sustainability and diversity in a global context. Prerequisite: FNST 101 or 201W.

FNST 286 - Indigenous Peoples and British Columbia: An Introduction (3)

Study of Indigenous peoples of BC and effects of historical and political processes on their livelihoods and homelands. Overview of indigeneity and connection to urbanization. Examines linguistic diversity and endangered state of BC First Nations languages; Indigenous ethnography; land rights movement; traditional cultural practices/beliefs; and social, educational and economic disparity. Prerequisite: Recommended: FNST 101. Students who have taken SA 286 previously may not take this course for further credit.

FNST 322 - Special Topics in First Nations Studies (0) ††

Variable units 3, 4, 5. Prerequisite: Will vary according to the topic.

FNST 325 - History of Aboriginal Peoples of North America to 1850 (4)

Examines selected themes in the history of Aboriginal peoples of North America from first contact with Europeans to the mid-nineteenth century. Prerequisite: 45 units including FNST 101 or 201W. Students with credit for HIST 325 may not take this course for further credit.

or HIST 325 - History of Aboriginal Peoples of North America to 1850 (4)

Examines selected themes in the history of Aboriginal peoples of North America from first contact with Europeans to the mid-nineteenth century. Prerequisite: 45 units, including six units of lower division history. Students with credit for FNST 325 may not take this course for further credit.

FNST 326 - History of Aboriginal Peoples of North America Since 1850 (4)

Examines selected themes in the history of Aboriginal peoples of North America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Prerequisite: 45 units including FNST 101 or 201W. Students with credit for HIST 326 may not take this course for further credit.

or HIST 326 - History of Aboriginal Peoples of North America Since 1850 (4)

Examines selected themes in the history of Aboriginal peoples of North America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Prerequisite: 45 units, including six units of lower division history. Students with credit for FNST 326 may not take this course for further credit.

FNST 327 - Aboriginal Women in Canada (4)

Themes and issues relating to the historical and contemporary experiences of Aboriginal women in Canada: Indigenous theories of gender; evolution and political function of stereotypes of Indigenous women in Canada; history of Canadian legislation regulating indigenous identity; relevance of feminist analysis; and history of activism. Prerequisite: 45 units. Students who have taken FNST 322 under this topic may not take this course for further credit. FNST 327 and GSWS 327 (or WS 327) are identical and students may not take both courses for credit.

or GSWS 327 - Aboriginal Women in Canada (4)

Themes and issues relating to the historical and contemporary experiences of aboriginal women in Canada: Indigenous theories of gender; evolution and political function of stereotypes of Indigenous women in Canada; history of Canadian legislation regulating Indigenous identity; relevance of feminist analysis; and history of activism. Prerequisite: 45 units. Students who have taken FNST 322 under this topic may not take this course for further credit. FNST 327 and GSWS 327 (or WS 327) are identical and students may not take both courses for credit.

FNST 329 - Sexuality and Gender: Indigenous Perspectives (3)

Examines written works on sexuality and gender including the history of representations of the sexualized savage; the discussion of Indigenous concepts of gender, including discussions of two-spirit versus gay identity; homophobia and sexual violence as tools of colonization; the emancipatory potential of erotica. Prerequisite: 45 units. Students with credit for FNST 322 may not take this course for further credit.

FNST 332 - Ethnobotany of British Columbia First Nations (3) **

This course is an introduction to the study of plant knowledge and use by First Nations peoples in British Columbia. It provides students with information about the role of plants in First Nations' cultures including such areas as foods, medicines, technology, ceremony, ecological indicators, and within First Nations' knowledge and classification systems. Special focus may be placed on the ethnobotany of one or more Aboriginal groups or culture areas. Prerequisite: FNST 101. Breadth-Science.

FNST 333 - Ethnozoology of British Columbia First Nations (3) **

This course explores the unique relationship that the First Nations peoples of North America have with animals. It examines how they named, classified, used and managed animals and compares this to western science. Prerequisite: Either FNST 101 or 201W and FNST 232. Students with credit for FNST 222 under this topic may not take this course for further credit.

FNST 353W - First Nations Heritage Stewardship (3) **

Examines issues that arise when Aboriginal people must balance economic development and cultural integrity. Topics include self-reflexive internalist research, ethics and best practices in representing Indigenous heritage, public laws and land claim agreements affecting heritage, the exhumation and repatriation of human remains and religious freedom and access to sacred sites and objects. Prerequisite: 45 units or permission of the instructor. Students who have taken FNST 322 previously under this topic may not take this course for further credit. Writing.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
D100 Eldon Yellowhorn
Mo 2:30 PM – 5:20 PM
SWH 9095, Burnaby
FNST 360 - Popular Writing by Indigenous Authors (4)

Examines works of popular fiction by Indigenous authors and their use of specific genres (e.g. the mystery novel, vampire thriller, sci fi, comic book). Prerequisite: 45 units. Students with credit for ENGL 360, or FNST 322 under this topic, may not take this course for further credit.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
D100 June Scudeler
Th 12:30 PM – 2:20 PM
SWH 9095, Burnaby
D101 Th 2:30 PM – 4:20 PM
SWH 9095, Burnaby
or ENGL 360 - Popular Writing by Indigenous Authors (4)

Examines works of popular fiction by Indigenous authors, and their use of specific genres (e.g. the mystery novel, vampire thriller, sci fi, comic book). Prerequisite: Two 100 division English courses, and two 200 division English courses. Students who have taken FNST 322 under this topic, or FNST 360 may not take this course for further credit.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
D100 June Scudeler
Th 12:30 PM – 2:20 PM
SWH 9095, Burnaby
D101 Th 2:30 PM – 4:20 PM
SWH 9095, Burnaby
FNST 363 - Indigenous Poetry, Poetics, Printmaking (4)

Examines various art forms and aesthetic expressions of select Indigenous peoples of the Americas including Aboriginal poetry and poetic forms. A research and creation studio course. Prerequisite: 45 units and permission of instructor; no previous artistic training and/or experience are required. Students with credit for FNST 322 under the topic 'Poetics/Poetry: Bookmaking' or 'Indigenous Expressive Arts' may not take this course for further credit.

FNST 376 - Indigenous Weaving Technologies: Community of Beings (4)

Studio seminar with intensive practice through significant weaving projects. Uses diverse techniques (tool making and loom building) and materials such as grasses, tree withes, wool, twine and synthetics to reflect upon ecosystem relevance, sustainability, and cosmology in specific First Nations and Indigenous communities. A minimum of 12 additional hours per week for project work is required. Prerequisite: 45 units including one FNST course and permission of instructor.

FNST 383 - Indigenous Technology: Art and Sustainability (4)

Examines various art forms and aesthetic expressions of select Indigenous peoples of the Americas. Reviews techniques and protocols for the gathering and preparation of materials and the use of ethnographic materials, and provides learning through hands-on practice. Prerequisite: 45 units and permission of instructor; no previous artistic training and/or experience is required. Students with credit for FNST 322 under the topic 'Indigenous Expressive Arts' with a focus in crafts may not take this course for further credit.

FNST 401 - Aboriginal Peoples and Public Policy (3)

An examination of First Nations and Aboriginal peoples' perspectives on political, social and legal issues involving their rights as first citizens of Canada and North America, and the practical and political relations with various levels of government. Issues examined include: Aboriginal rights and title questions, self government models and concepts, constitutional matters, the impact of federal government policies, including their impact on women's lives, and Aboriginal community and First Nations politics. Prerequisite: FNST 101 and 201W. Recommended: POL 221.

Section Day/Time Location
C100 Distance Education
FNST 402W - The Discourse of Aboriginal Peoples (3)

Style and content of Aboriginal people's discourse about their culture, world view, history and matters affecting their lives. Includes the analysis of selections from Aboriginal oral literature, autobiography, expository writing, modern poetry and fiction. Prerequisite: 60 units and one of FNST 101 or FNST 201W. Students with credit for FNST 402 may not take this course for further credit. Writing.

FNST 403 - Indigenous Knowledge in the Modern World (3)

This course explores the subject of traditional Indigenous knowledge and its contemporary implications for First Nations programs in such areas as economic development, ecotourism, spiritualism, language retention, biodiversity, ethnoscience, environmentalism, and heritage conservation. First Nations perspectives on patents, copyrights, and other creative products from traditional culture will also be examined through lecture, guest speakers and seminar presentation. Prerequisite: FNST 101 or FNST 201W.

FNST 419 - Aboriginal/Indigenous Justice (3)

An in-depth examination of Aboriginal/Indigenous conceptions of justice in dealing with crime and other trouble in Indigenous communities, and in relations among peoples. Prerequisite: FNST 101 or 201W, or CRIM 101, or permission of the instructor. Students with credit for CRIM 416, 418, or 419 may not take this course for further credit.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
D100 Tu 2:30 PM – 5:20 PM
SWH 9095, Burnaby
or CRIM 419 - Aboriginal/Indigenous Justice (3)

An in-depth examination of Aboriginal/indigenous conceptions of justice in dealing with crime and other trouble in indigenous communities, and in relations among peoples. Prerequisite: CRIM 101 or FNST 101 or 201 or permission of the instructor. Students with credit for this course as CRIM 416 or 418, or FNST 419, may not take this course for further credit.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
D100 Ted Palys
Tu 2:30 PM – 5:20 PM
SWH 9095, Burnaby
FNST 429 - Indigenous Peoples and International Law (3)

An examination of how relations between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples framed and were framed by the development of international law from the 15th century onward. Prerequisite: FNST 101 or 201W, or CRIM 101, or permission of instructor. Students with credit for CRIM 429, or under CRIM 416 or 418 under the title "Indigenous Peoples and International Law" or "Indigenous Peoples and Evolving International Relations" may not take this course for further credit.

or CRIM 429 - Indigenous Peoples and International Law (3)

An examination of how relations between indigenous and non-indigenous peoples framed and were framed by the development of international law from the 15th century onward. Prerequisite: CRIM 101 or FNST 101 or 201 or permission of instructor. Students with credit for CRIM 416, or 418 under the title "Indigenous Peoples and International Law" or "Indigenous Peoples and Evolving International Relations", or FNST 429 may not take this course for further credit.

FNST 433 - Indigenous Environmental Justice and Activism (4) **

Examines contemporary writings regarding Indigenous environmental logic and environmental concerns of contemporary times. Studies effects of resource extraction upon Indigenous nations, globalization, genetic modifications, health, intellectual property, spiritual beliefs, culture and society, art and language and compares these with specific Indigenous logic at the time of contact. Prerequisite: 45 units.

FNST 442 - Directed Readings in First Nations Studies (3)

Directed readings for upper level students in First Nations Studies who wish to study selected topics in depth. Variable units 2, 3, 4, 5. May be repeated once when topic is different. Prerequisite: Fifteen units in First Nations Studies. Co-requisite: permission of an instructor and department.

FNST 443W - Aboriginal Peoples, History and the Law (4)

Traces the development of legal doctrine pertaining to Aboriginal peoples in Canada and the United States, including its shared roots in British colonial law and policy. Prerequisite: 45 units including FNST 101, 201W and one other FNST course; or permission of the instructor. Students with credit for HIST 443, or HIST 485 or 486 under this topic may not take this course for further credit. Writing.

or HIST 443W - Aboriginal Peoples, History and the Law (4)

Traces the development of legal doctrine pertaining to Aboriginal peoples in Canada and the United States, including its shared roots in British colonial law and policy. Prerequisite: 45 units including nine units of lower division history. Students with credit for FNST 443, or HIST 485 or 486 under this topic may not take this course for further credit. Writing.

FNST 447 - Directed Studies in First Nations Studies (3)

Directed study for upper level students in a topic chosen in consultation with a supervisor. Explore First Nations topics through research. Variable units: 2, 3, 4, 5. This course may be repeated for credit when topic is different. Prerequisite: Fifteen units of FNST courses; permission of an instructor and department approval. Co-requisite: varies depending on topic.

FNST 462 - Indigenous Oral Testimony: Theory, Practice, Purpose, Community (4)

Examines protocol, theory, responsibility, issues of domain (including inherent rights) involving traditional oral testimony, storytelling, oral narrative in an Aboriginal/Nation-centric canon. Compares Aboriginal canon 'oral record' to Aboriginal individual first-person accounts. Prerequisite: 60 units including FNST 101 or FNST 201W and permission of the instructor.

Other courses that have significant First Nations/Aboriginal content maybe counted towards this certificate with First Nations Studies approval.

Note: Some Burnaby or Vancouver campus courses maybe used toward the certificate with department approval. A three course maximum (10 units) of comparable content and level from an approved college or university may be transferred, subject to University regulations and department approval. Units applied to this certificate may also apply to a major, a joint major or minor or bachelor's degree under normal program regulations, but may not be applied to another Simon Fraser University certificate or diploma.

** when not used in the preceding group a) requirement.

† only one of the two courses may be used and may count toward the certificate

†† may be completed more than once when offered as a different topic