Location Recording Microphones (Dialogue)   

The primary function of location recording is to capture synchronous dialogue. 
Even if the location is too noisy for the recorded dialogue to be usable, it still will be recorded for use as a guide track for ADR
Of the many different types of microphones used in location recording the following are used most often: 
The shotgun or hyper-directional microphone is usually placed on the end of a hand held boom or fish pole which permits the boom operator to direct the microphone towards the speakers mouth.  The lavalier is a small microphone worn by the subject (clipped to an article of clothing in the chest area). When connected to a radio transmitter worn by the subject, this is called a wireless system. 
The directional or cardiod pattern mic is used when a less directional mic is required: covering a doorway as actors walk through, etc.  The boundary or PZM mic is a small, flat transducer, is ideal for mounting on the interior surface of an enclosed space (like a car windshield) or similar situations where a conventional mic would be cumbersome. In outdoor situations consideration must be taken to wind noise. 
All of the mics used must have windscreens. Due to its sensitivity to pressure differences, a shotgun should have a windscreen indoors as well because moving the mic quickly on the end of a boom can create a "swish" noise. 

In addition to foam covers, windscreens may be basket type - essentially a cylinder with closed ends - often called a Rycotte. In heavier winds the basket-type windcreen will be covered with a "dead cat" or fake fur sleeve, sometimes called a Windjammer