A microphone with a very focused, highly directional polar pattern. 

Also known as a line microphone.  Generally has a fairly long tube which helps the microphone reject off-access signals. 

Used almost exclusively in location sound recording though they can be found in some theatre sound applications. 

May come in condensor or dynamic configurations.

"Rycotte" windscreen, "windjammer" fake fur cover, microphone holder (fits inside Rycotte), pistol grip and shotgun microphone (silver - bottom of image).