Flora of the Canadian Arctic

Southern Arctic
Surface Area - 2,799,230 kilometres square

Location - It covers much of the northern mainland of Canada from Yukon Territory to northern Quebec. It is the largest of the three arctic ecozones, and has the highest species diversity.

Climate - In the summer, it is green with beautiful vegetation. It has long, cold winters and short, cool summers.

Vegetation - Dwarf shrubs decrease in size as latitude increase because the growing season shortens, the soil is less fertile, and moisture diminishes. Dwarf birch and willow are among the common shrub species along with heaths, herbaceous plants and lichens. Along the rivers and streams, scattered clumps of stunted spruce trees grow. Sedges and mosses thrive in the wetlands of the lowland areas .

Figure 1: Area of the Southern Arctic
2. Moss with purple saxifrage 4. Cotton Grass field
1. Labrador Tea 5. Cloudberry
3. Bearberry
Names of Various Types of Plants - Black Spruce, Fragrant Shield Fern, Shrub Birch, Crowberry, Bearberry, Moss Campion, Lichens, Labrador Tea, Blueberry, Mountain Cranberry, Cloudberry, Alpine Club Moss, Net-Veined Willow, Blue-green Willow, Tamarack, Cotton Grass, Least Willow, Sedges
Arctic Cordillera
Northern Arctic
Southern Arctic

photos1,3: Royal Botanical Gardens-Environment Canada http://www.NatureWatch.ca, photo2: http://www.saskschools.ca/~gregory/arctic/index.html, photo4: Ray Rasmussen http:www.raysweb.net, photo5: Brad Heath http://www.NatureWatch.ca
Source: NOAA (AVHRR) Terrestrial Ecozones of Canada, Parks Canada http://parkscanada.pch.gc.ca/natress/inf_pa1/ECO_DES/ECOZONES/zone_00e.htm