Image of Orthogonalys


Why not Trigonalyidae?

Please refer to the revision in Systematic Entomology (1998, 23:35-76) and the dissertation.

More Trigonalid papers can be found here. Also, I found old keys to some species and genera. Here are some more pictures of Trigonalidae (including eggs in a Douglas Fir leaf).

I made an Index to the Systematic Entomology paper.



figures ( well, not in progress...


Revision (First Part). Orthogonalyinae and Nomadini.

Revision (Second Part). Trigonalyini and unplaced genera (Mimelogonalos and Pseudogonalos).


Database - or this Database (better formatting). (Species and specimen list). Write me for more information.

Recent Publications:

Vaananen S, Paukkunen J, Soon V, Budrys E. 2018. Occurrence and biology of Pseudogonalos hahnii (Spinola, 1840) (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) in Fennoscandia and the Baltic states. Download.

Tan JL, van Achterberg C, Tan QQ, Zhao LP. 2017. New species of Trigonalyidae (Hymenoptera) from NW China. ZooKeys 698: 17-58 (18 Sep 2017)
Four new species of Trigonalyidae are described and illustrated from Qinling Mts (Shaanxi, NW China): Bareogonalos xibeidai Tan & van Achterberg, sp. n., Jezonogonalos mandibularis sp. n., J. shaanxiensis sp. n., and Taeniogonalos paraclypeata sp. n. Orthogonalys hirasana Teranishi, 1929, is re-instated and reported from China. The female of Taeniogonalos alticola (Tsuneki, 1991) is described for the first time. In total, 18 species are known from Shaanxi province, 20 species for NW China, and eight described species are newly recorded for Shaanxi: Jezonogonalos luteata Chen et al., 2014, Orthogonalys hirasana Teranishi, 1929, O. elongata Teranishi, 1929, Pseudogonalos hahnii (Spinola, 1840), Taeniogonalos alticola (Tsuneki, 1991), T. formosana (Bischoff, 1913), T. taihorina (Bischoff, 1914), and Teranishia glabrata Chen et al., 2014. Poecilogonalos maga Teranishi, 1929, syn. n. and Taiwanogonalos claripennis Tsuneki, 1991, syn. n. are new synonyms of Taeniogonalos taihorina (Bischoff, 1914) and Taiwanogonalos alishana Tsuneki, 1991, syn. n. of Taeniogonalos alticola (Tsuneki, 1991). Revised keys to species of the genera Bareogonalos, Jezonogonalos, and Orthogonalys are included.
Watanabe K, Yamane Sk. 2017. Tsunekibachi 30 1-26. 日本産カギバラバチ科についてのメモ Notes on the Japanese Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera). With keys (Japanese) and pictures including holotype of Orthogonalys fukuiensis.
Griebenow, Zach. 2016 News of a Trigonalid The Daily Entomologist (Blog).
Two Lycogaster pullata reared from potter wasp nests (?Eumenes sp.).
Smith, DR. Tripotin, P. 2015. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 44(37):1-18. Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera) of Thailand, other southeastern Asian records, and a new Trigonalys from India
Seven species of Trigonalidae are recorded from Tailand, Lycogaster flavonigrata Chen, Achterberg, He & Xu, L. rufventris (Magretti), Taeniogonalos fasciata (Strand), T. gestroi (Schulz), T. sauteri Bischoff, T. tricolor Chen, and an unidentified species. Four species, L. favonigrata, T. cordada Chen, Achterberg, He & Xu, T. sauteri, and T. tricolor are newly recorded from Laos. Diagnoses, illustrations, and distribution records are given for the Thailand species. Trigonalys India Smith, sp. n., is described from southern India for specimens previously misidentified as T. rufiventris
Chen, H.-y., C. van Achterberg, J.-h. He, and Z.-f. Xu. 2014. A revision of the Chinese Trigonalyidae (Hymenoptera, Trigonalyoidea). ZooKeys 385: 1-207.
Chinese Trigonalidae are revised, keyed and fully illustrated. Eight genera (Bakeronymus Rohwer, 1922, Bareogonalos Schulz, 1907, Jezonogonalos Tsuneki, 1991, re-instated, Lycogaster Shuckard, 1841, Orthogonalys Schulz, 1905, Pseudogonalos Schulz, 1906, Taeniogonalos Schulz, 1906 and Teranishia Tsuneki, 1991) are recorded from China. The genus Ischnogonalos Schulz, 1907, is synonymized with Taeniogonalos Schulz, 1906. Forty valid species are recognized, 20 are new for science.
Yamane S (2014) New taxa of the genus Bareogonalos from Asia with further information on the tribe Nomadinini (Hymenoptera, Trigonalidae). Halteres 5: 17–31.
Santos, EF, & FB Noll. 2013. Biological Notes on the Parasitism of Apoica flavissima Van der Vecht (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) by Seminota marginata (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae): Are Social Paper Wasps Primary or Secondary Hosts of Trigonalidae? Sociobiology 60: 123-124 (2013) secundary
Smith DR, Janzen DH, Hallwachs W, Smith AM. 2012. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera, Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 29 (2012) : 119-144.
Available online: doi: 10.3897/jhr.29.3233

Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasitoids of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaster apicipennis (Cameron), Taeniogonalos woodorum Smith, sp. n., Taeniogonalos fasciatipennis (Cameron), Trigonalys championi Cameron, and Trigonalys maculifrons Sharp. Morphological and DNA barcoding data support species separation of these generalist hyperparasitoids. Taeniogonalos gundlachii (Cresson) is not a widespread, color-variable species as previously treated and is probably confined to eastern North America. The species previously considered as T. gundlachii in Costa Rica is regarded as Taeniogonalos fasciatipennis, a species found only in ACG dry forest. Taeniogonalos woodorum is a similar species but found only in the ACG rain forest. Habitat and host records are given for these five species of trigonalids.

My Comment: Sounds like T. costalis is a valid species for North America, distinct from the Cuban T. gundlachii. If so (and I believe it is based on this paper), I created a mess when I synonymised them!

Li T, Sheng M-L, Sun S-P, Luo Y-Q. 2012. Parasitoids of the sawfly, Arge pullata, in the Shennongjia National Nature Reserve. Journal of Insect Science 12:97. Available online:

Taeniogonalos maga (Teranishi) are hyperparasitoids reared from the Tachinid fly Vibrissina turrita (Meigen) (Diptera: Tachinidae) parasitizing the argid sawfly, Arge pullata (Zaddach).

Santos BF, Aguiar AP, Tedesco AM. 2012. Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera) from cacao agroforestry systems in northeastern Brazil, with two new species of Trigonalys Westwood. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 25: 19-34.
DOI: 10.3897/JHR.25.1810 PDF

Abstract: A survey of Trigonalidae from cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, northeastern Brazil, is conducted. A total of 65 specimens were studied, and three species are recognized. Trigonalys melanoleuca Westwood is diagnosed and illustrated. Two new species are described and illustrated. Trigonalys erythrocephala sp. n. has most of head reddish brown; metasomal armature in sternum III conspicuous, Y-shaped; supra-antennal elevation conspicuous; hind coxa with sharp lateral angles, its dorso-mesal portion strigate; legs entirely dark brown; and fore wing lightly infuscate, darker towards anterior margin. Trigonalys gotica sp. n. with body blackish or dark brown and with pale yellow marks; mesopleuron with an oblique mark; female armature absent; frons and vertex punctate-areolate; supra-antennal elevation subtle; propodeal foramen V-shaped; and fore wing vein M arising distinctly basad to 1cu-a.
Comment: Clausen studied Trigonalidae from tea plantations in India.
Smith, DR. Tripotin, P. 2012. Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera) of Madagascar. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 24: 1-25. DOI: 10.3897/JHR.24.1811
Seven species of the primarily hyperparasitoid family Trigonalidae are reported from Madagascar: Orthogonalys brevis Smith & Tripotin, sp. n., Orthogonalys gigantea Benoit, 1951; Orthogonalys hova Bischoff, 1933; Orthogonalys maculata Bischoff, 1933; Orthogonalys parahova Smith & Tripotin, sp. n., Orthogonalys seyrigi Bischoff, 1933; and Trigonalys natalensis Kriechbaumer, 1894. Diagnoses and a key to species are given.
Schnee, H. 2011. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Biologie von Pseudogonalos hahnii (Spinola) (Hymenoptera, Trigonalidae und Ichneumonidae). Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte 55: 27-32
Reared from Erigorgus procerus (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae) parasitizing Polia nebulosa (Hufnagel) (Noctuidae) feeding on Rubus leaves. Also reared from Xestia triangulum (Noctuidae) / Erigorgus melanops and Heteropelma amictum (Ichneumonidae) / Callimorpha dominula (Arctiidae). Ten months can pass from ingestion of eggs to emergence of adult P. hahnii (middle June to middle August).

Vilhelmsen L, Istvan M, and Krogmann L. 2010. Beyond the wasp-waist: structural diversity and phylogenetic significance of the mesosoma in apocritan wasps (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 159, 22-194. With 70 figures.

"The monophyly of Trigonaloidea is strongly supported, putative autapomorphies being: (1) having a row of small foveolae impressed posteriorly on the mesoscutellum (character 80 : 1); (2) presence of a supramesopleural sclerite (character 101 : 1); (3) presence of an oblique mesopleural ridge (character 114 : 1); (4 + 5) absence of the anterior paracoxal sulcus and presence of the posterior paracoxal sulcus ventrally on the metapleuron (characters 156 : 0; 157 : 1); (6) presence of tarsal plantulae (character 177 : 1; this is a reversal); (7) presence of a cuticular flap lateral to the propodeal spiracle (character 190 : 1)." (A beautiful morphological study)

N. Samin, N. Bagriacik, M. Shojai. Trigonalyidae (Hymenoptera) Is Newly Recorded Family From Iran. Far Eastern Entomologist. 2010. N 219: 9-10. PDF
Summary: Pseudogonalos hahnii (Spinola, 1840) and Taeniogonalos fasciata (Strand, 1913) are newly recorded from Iran.
Murphy, S. M.; Lill, J. T.; and Smith, D. R. (2009). A scattershot approach to host location: uncovering the unique life history of the trigonalid hyperparasitoid Orthogonalys pulchella (Cresson). American Entomologist, 55: 82-87
Tachinidae (Uramya pristis) / Limacodidae: Isa textula, Isochaetes beutenmuelleri, Noctuidae: Acronicta increta. Megalopygidae: Megalopyge crispata.
Smith, DR; Stocks, IC. 2005. A new trigonalid wasp (Hymenoptera : Trigonalidae) from eastern north America. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 107: 530-535
Orthogonalys bella, n. sp., is described from Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee. It is the second species of Orthogonalys Schulz and the fifth species of Nearctic Trigonalidae.

Poinar G Fossil Trigonalidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera) in Baltic amber PROCEEDINGS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON 107 (1): 55-63 JAN 2005
A fossil trigonalid (Trigonalidae: Hymenoptera), Eotrigonalis balticus Poinar, n. gen., n. sp., and a fossil vespid, Palaeovespa socialis Poinar. n. sp., are described from Eocene Baltic amber. Eotrigonalis balticus is a large. robust. heavily armored species, which could have parasitized members of the Vespidae. It can be separated from ail other members of the family by the presence of large scutellar horns. Palaeovespa socialis has the diagnostic characters of members of the subfamily Vespinae and was probably eusocial. It differs from extant vespines by the shape of the clypeus, the presence of interparapsidal furrows and venational characters.

V. Perrichot, A. Nel and D. Neraudeau (2004). A New, Enigmatic, Evaniomorphan Wasp In The Albian Amber Of France (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 2: 159-162 doi: 10.1017/S1477201904001245 online
Guyotemaimetsha enigmatica, a new genus and species of evaniomorphan wasp, is described from the French Albian amber. Its phylogenetic affinities are discussed. It has strong similarities with the genera Maimetsha and Cretogonalys, which are attributed to the Maimetshidae and Trigonalidae, respectively. The exact relationships of these Cretaceous taxa remain enigmatic.

You can find Genera Insectorum online at
Schulz, W.A. (1907a) Hymenoptera, Fam. Trigonaloidae. In P. Wytsman (Eds.), Genera Insectorum. 61, 24. Or directly.

Nel A., Perrichot V., Néraudeau D. The oldest trigonalid wasp in the Late Albian amber of Charente-Maritime (SW France) (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae). Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae 96 (2003):503-508. [Describes Albiogonalys elongatus.]

New host Record for Pseudogonalos hahnii (an Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae), published in XII. International Symposium for the Entomofaunistics in Middle Europe held in Kiev in 1988: H. Schnee (1991): Zur Kenntnis der Phaenologie und der Wirtspektren einiger palaearktischer Anomaloninae... Vortraege XII.SIEEC Kiev: 80-85. (ISBN 5-12-003316-4).

Lelej, A.S. 1995. [Fam. Trigonalidae - Trigonalid wasps]. In: Kupianskaya A.N., Lelej, A.S., Storozheva, N.A. (eds) [Keys to the insects of Russian Far East]. IV(2): 8-14. (In Russian). [Download]
Lelej, A.S. 2003. A review of the Family Trigonalyidae (Hymenoptera) of the Palaeartctic Region. Far Eastern Entomologist 130:1-7.
Bennett, D.J. & Lelej, A.S. 2003. To the knowledge of trigonalyid wasps (Hymenoptera) of the Sakhalin. Far Eastern Entomologist 130:8. [2003 papers]

Harrington, W.H. (1896) A Canadian Trigonalys. Canadian Entomologist, 28, 108.

Taylor, G.W. (1898) Note on Trigonalys canadensis, Hargtn. Canadian Entomologist, 30, 14-5. Harrington, W.H. (1898) Addendum by W.H. Harrington, F.R.S.C., Ottawa. Canadian Entomologist, 30, 15-16.

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