The soundscape composition is a form of electroacoustic music, developed at Simon Fraser University and elsewhere, characterized by the presence of recognizable environmental sounds and contexts, the purpose being to invoke the listener's associations, memories, and imagination related to the soundscape. It grew naturally out of the pedagogical intent of the World Soundscape Project to foster soundscape awareness. At first, the simple exercise of 'framing' environmental sound by taking it out of context, where often it is ignored, and directing the listener's attention to it in a publication or public presentation, meant that the compositional technique involved was minimal, involving only selection, transparent editing, and unobtrusive cross-fading. This 'neutral' use of the material established one end of the continuum occupied by soundscape compositions, namely those that are the closest to the original environment, or what might be called 'found compositions.' Other works use transformations of environmental sounds and here the full range of analog and digital studio techniques comes into play, with an inevitable increase in the level of abstraction. However, the intent is always to reveal a deeper level of signification inherent within the sound and to invoke the listener's semantic associations without obliterating the sound's recognizability.
Several soundscape compositions may be heard on the Soundscape Vancouver double CD, including Pacific Fanfare, and the CD Islands, which includes Dominion, PendlerdrÝm, La Sera di Benevento, and Island . Other Truax works in this genre are Pacific, Basilica, Temple, Prospero's Voyage, Chalice Well, Aeolian Voices, Earth And Steel, and The Bells of Salzburg, plus those integrating text and soundscape material such as The Blind Man and Song of Songs. All of the works of Hildegard Westerkamp are excellent examples of this approach to composition.
The octophonic (8-channel) format with surround-sound speaker playback has proved particularly effective for soundscape compositions, given the immersive effect it creates. A list of works produced at SFU is available in our octophonic catalogue.
A more detailed account of the history and techniques of soundscape composition at SFU is available as a DVD-ROM.
SOUNDSCAPE COMPOSITION PRINCIPLES
- Listener recognizability of the source material is maintained
- Listener's knowledge of the environmental and psychological context is invoked
- Composer's knowledge of the environmental and psychological context influences the shape of the composition at every level
- The work enhances our understanding of the world and its influence carries over into everyday perceptual habits
RANGE OF APPROACHES
found sound <--------------> abstracted
FIXED PERSPECTIVE: emphasizing the flow of time; or a discrete series of fixed perspectives
Variants: time compression ; narrative ; oral history
Techniques: - layering in stereo ; layering in octophonic- found sound (with or without time compression)
- narrative ; poetry ; oral history
- transitions between fixed perspectives
MOVING PERSPECTIVE: smoothly connected space/time flow; a journey
Variants: simulated motion ; real <-----> imaginary / remembered
Techniques: - classical cross-fade and reverb- parallel circuit cross-fade
- layering part and whole
- layering untransformed and transformed
VARIABLE PERSPECTIVE: discontinuous space/time flowVariants: multiple or embedded perspectives ; abstracted / symbolic
Techniques: - multi-track editing - "schizophonic" embedding- abstracted perspective
B. Truax, "Soundscape, Acoustic Communication & Environmental Sound Composition", Contemporary Music Review, 15(1), 49-65, 1996. [theme issue devoted to the subject]
B. Truax, "The Aesthetics of Computer Music: A Questionable Concept Reconsidered," Organised Sound, 5(3), 119-126, 2000.
B. Truax, "Genres and Techniques of Soundscape Composition as Developed at Simon Fraser University", Organised Sound, 7(1), 5-14, 2002. [theme issue devoted to the subject]
H. Westerkamp, "Linking Soundscape Composition and Acoustic Ecology," Organised Sound, 7(1), 51-56, 2002.
J. L. Drever, "Soundscape Composition: The Convergence of Ethnography and Acousmatic Music," Organised Sound, 7(1), 51-56, 2002.B. Truax, "Sound, Listening and Place: The Aesthetic Dilemma", Organised Sound 17(3), 2012.
B. Truax, "Soundscape Composition as Global Music: Electroacoustic Music as Soundscape", Organised Sound 13(2), 2008.
K. Norman, "Listening Together, Making Place", Organised Sound, 17(3), 257-267, 2012.
B. Truax, "Acoustic Space, Community and Virtual Soundscapes," in The Routledge Companion to Sounding Art, M. Cobussen, V. Meelberg & B. Truax (eds), New York: Routledge, 2017.