Simon Fraser University

Recent Publications


Makanga, P. T., N. Schuurman, and E. C. Randall. 2015. Community Perceptions of Risk Factors for Interpersonal Violence in Townships in Cape Town, South Africa: A Focus Group Study. Global Public Health .  [PDF]


Zargaran, E., L. Adolph, N. Schuurman, L. Roux, D. Ramsey, R. Simons, T. Razek, D. Deckelbaum, R. Spence, A. J. Nicol, P. Navsaria, J. C. Puyana, N. Parry, L. Moore, H. Champion, M. Joshipura, and S. M. Hameed. 2015. A Global Agenda For Electronic Injury Surveillance Consensus statement from the Trauma Association of Canada, the Trauma Society of South Africa, and the Pan-American Trauma Society. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery.  [PDF]


Amram, O., Schuurman, N., Yanchar, N., Pike, I., Friger, M., & Griesdale, D. 2015. Use of geographic information systems to assess the error associated with the use of place of residence in injury research. Injury Epidemiology.  [PDF]


Lawson, F., Schuurman, N., Amram, O., & Nathens, A. B. 2015. A geospatial analysis of the relationship between neighbourhood socio-economic status and adult severe injury in Greater Vancouver. Injury Prevention. doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2014-041437.  [PDF]


Schuurman, N. What is alt.gis? The Canadian Geographer, 59(1), 1-2. doi:10.1111/cag.12163.  [PDF]


Schuurman, N. Critical GIScience. In M.-P. Kwan (Ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment, and Technology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 


Schuurman, N., Amram, O., Crooks, V. A., Johnston, R., & Williams, A. 2015. A comparative analysis of potential spatio-temporal access to palliative care services in two Canadian provinces. BMC Health Services Research. doi:DOI 10.1186/s12913-015-0909-x.  [PDF]


Schuurman, N., Cinnamon, J., Walker, B. B., Fawcett, V., Nicol, A., Hameed, S. M., & Matzopoulos, R. 2015. Intentional injury and violence in Cape Town, South Africa: An epidemiological analysis of trauma admissions data. Global Health Action. 


Walker, B. B. & Schuurman, N. 2015. The Pen or the Sword: A Situated Spatial Analysis of Graffiti and Violent Injury in Vancouver, British Columbia. The Professional Geographer, 67(4), 608-619. doi:10.1080/00330124.2014.970843. 


Walker, B. B., Schuurman, N., Auluck, A., Lear, S. A., & Rosin, M. 2015. Suburbanisation of oral cavity cancers: evidence from a geographically-explicit observational study of incidence trends in British Columbia, Canada, 1981–2010. BMC Public Health, 15(758). doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2111-9.  [PDF]


Brubacher, J.R., Chan, H., Brasher, P., Erdelyi, S., Desapriya, E., Asbridge, M., Purssel,l R., Macdonald, S., Schuurman, N., Pike, I. 2014. Reduction in fatalities, ambulance calls and hospital admissions for road trauma following new traffic laws. American Journal of Public Health. 104 (10): e89-e97. [PDF]


Walker, B.B., Taylor-Noonan, C., Tabbernor A., McKinnon, T.B., Bal, H., Bradley, D., Schuurman, N., Clague, J.J. 2014. A multi-criteria evaluation model of earthquake vulnerability in Victoria, British Columbia. Natural Hazards. 74: 1209–1222. [PDF]


Ricker, B., N. Schuurman, and F. C. Kessler. 2014. Implications of smartphone usage on privacy and spatial cognition: academic literature and public perceptions. GeoJournal. DOI: 10.1007/s10708-014-9568-4. [PDF]


Nicol, A., Knowlton, L.M., Schuurman, N., Matzopoulos, R., Zargaran, E, Cinnamon, J., Fawcett, V., Taulu, T., Hameed,S.M. 2014. Trauma Surveillance in Cape Town, South Africa: An Analysis of 9236 Consecutive Trauma Center Admissions. Journal of American Medical Association Surgery. 149(6): 549-556. [PDF]


Auluck A, Walker B.B., Hislop G, Lear S.A, Schuurman N., Rosin M. Population-based incidence
trends of oropharyngeal and oral cavity cancers by sex among the poorest and underprivileged populations. BMC Cancer. 2014. 14(316).


Walker, B.B., Schuurman, N., Hameed, S.M. 2014. A GIS-based spatiotemporal analysis of violent trauma hotspots in Vancouver, Canada: identification, contextualisation and intervention. BMJ Open. 4:e003642. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003642. [PDF]


Zargaran, E., Schuurman, N., Nicol, A. J., Matzopoulos, R., Cinnamon, J., Taulu, T., Ricker, B., Brown, D. R., Navsaria, P., and Hameed, S. M. 2014. The Electronic Trauma Health Record: Design and Usability of a Novel Tablet-Based Tool for Trauma Care and Injury Surveillance in Low Resource Settings. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 218 (1): 41-50. [PDF]


Lear, A. S., Gasevic, D. and Schuurman, N. 2013. Association of supermarket characteristics with the body mass index of their shoppers. Nutrition Journal 12 (117). [PDF]


Lawson, F., Schuurman, N. and Nathens, A. 2013. Evaluating potential spatial access to trauma center care by severely injured patients. Health and Place 19 (131-137). [PDF]


Schuurman, N. 2013. Tweet Me Your Talk: Geographical Learning and Knowledge Production 2.0. The Professional Geographer. .65(3): 369–377. [PDF]


Schuurman, N., Amram, O., Saeedi, J., Rieckmann, P., Yee, I., and Tremlett, H. 2013. A proposed methodology to estimate the cumulative life-time UVB exposure using Geographic Information Systems: an application to multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. 2: 29-35. [PDF]


Cinnamon, J., and Schuurman, N. 2012. Confronting the data-divide in a time of spatial turns and volunteered geographic information. GeoJournal. DOI 10.1007/s10708-012-9458-6.


Amram, O., Schuurman, N. Hedley, N., and Hameed. S.M. 2012. A web-based model to support patient-to-hospital allocation in mass casualty incidents. Journal of Trauma. 72(5): 1323-1328.


Crooks, V.C. Schuurman, N. 2012. Interpreting the results of a modified gravity model: examining access to primary health care physicians in five Canadian provinces and territories. BMC Health Services Research (in press).


Bell, N., Schuurman, N. and Hameed, S.M. 2012. Does direct transport to provincial burn centres improve outcomes? A spatial epidemiology of severe burn injury in British Columbia, 2001–2006. Canadian Journal of Surgery. 55(2): 110-116.


Oliver, L., Schuurman, N. Hall, A. and Hayes, M. 2012. Assessing the influence of the built environment on physical activity for utility and recreation in suburban Metro Vancouver. BMC Public Health. 11:959.


Published Refereed Papers


Schuurman, N., Cinnamon, J., Matzopolous, R., Fawcett, V. and Hameed, S.M. 2011. Collecting injury surveillance data in low- and middle-income countries: The Cape Town Trauma Registry pilot. Global Public Health. 6(8):874-889. [PDF]


Cinnamon, J., Schuurman, N. and Hameed, S.M. 2011. Pedestrian Injury and Human Behaviour: Observing Road-Rule Violations at High-Incident Intersections. PLOS One 6(6). [PDF]


Amram, O., Schuurman, N.  Hedley, N., and Hameed.S.M. 2011. Mass casualty modelling: a spatial tool to support triage decision making. International Journal of Health Geographics 10(40). [PDF]


Bell, N., Schuurman, N.  Hameed, S.M. and Caron, N. 2011. Are we homogenising risk factors for public health surveillance? Variability in severe injuries on First Nations reserves in British Columbia, 2001-5.  Injury Prevention: DOI: 10.1136/ip.2010.030866. [PDF]

Schuurman, N. and Randall, E. . 2011. A spatial decision support tool for estimating population catchments to aid rural and remote health service allocation planning."Health Informatics Journal 17(4) 277–293. [PDF]


Crooks, V. A., Schuurman, N. Cinnamon, J., Castelden, H. and Johnston, R. 2011. Refining a Location Analysis Model Using a Mixed Methods Approach: Community Readiness as a Key Factor in Siting Rural Palliative Care Services. Journal of Mixed Methods Research 5(1): 77-95. [PDF]


Crooks, V., A., Castleden, H., Hanlon, N., and Schuurman, N. 2011. “Heated political dynamics exist…”: Examining the politics of palliative care in rural British Columbia, Canada. Palliative Medicine 25: 26-35. [PDF]


Hameed, S. M., Schuurman N, Tarek R., D. Boone, R. Van Heest, T. Taulu, N. Lakha, D.C. Evans, D.R.G. Brown, A.W. Kirkpatrick, H.T. Stelfox, D. Dyer, M. Stephens, A. Nathens, T. Charyk-Stewart, S. Rizoli, L. Tremblay, F. Brenneman, N. Ahmed, E. Galbraith, N. Parry, M. Girotti, G. Pagliarello, N. Tze, K. Khwaja, N. Yanchar, J.M. Tallon, A. Trenholm, C. Tegart, O. Amran, M Berube, U. Hameed, and R.K. Simons. 2010. Access to Trauma Systems in Canada. Journal of Trauma 69(6):1350-1361. [PDF]


Hameed, S. M., N. Bell and Schuurman, N. 2010. Analyzing the effects of place on injury: Does the choice of geographic scale and zone matter? Open Medicine 4(4). [PDF]


Schuurman, N., Cinnamon, J., Matzopolous, R., Fawcett, V. and Hameed, S.M. 2010. Collecting injury surveillance data in low- and middle-income countries: The Cape Town Trauma Registry pilot. Global Public Health. DOI: 10.1080/17441692.2010.516268. [PDF]


Gomez, D., Berube, M., Xiong, W., Ahmed, N., Haas, B., Schuurman, N. and Nathens, A. B. 2010. Identifying targets for potential interventions to reduce rural trauma deaths: a population-based analysis. Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care 69(3): 633-639. [PDF]


Schuurman, N., Crooks, V.A., and Amram, O. 2010. A protocol for determining differences in consistency and depth of palliative care service provision across community sites. Health and Social Care in the Community 18(5): 537-548. [PDF]


Castleden, H., Crooks, V.A., Hanlon, N. and Schuurman, N. 2010. Declared Extinct: Perceptions of Aboriginal palliative care in British Columbia’s West Kootenay-Boundary region. Health and Social Care in the Community 18(5): 483-491. [PDF]


Simons, R., Brasher, P., Taulu, T., Lakha, N., Molnar, N., Caron, N., Schuurman, N., Tegart, C. Evans, D. and Hameed, S.M. 2010. A population based analysis of injury-related deaths and access to trauma care in rural-remote NW British Columbia. Journal of Trauma 69: 11-19. [PDF]


Cinnamon, J. and Schuurman, N. 2010. Injury surveillance in low-resource settings using Geospatial and Social Web technologies. International Journal of Health Geographics: 9(1). [PDF]


Lord, S., E., Hameed, S. M., Schuurman, N., Bell, N., J., & Simons, R. 2010. Vulnerability of pedestrian trauma: Societal, geographic, and environmental factors. British Columbia Medical Journal: 52(3), 136-143. [PDF]


Bell, N., and Schuurman, N. 2010. GIS and Injury Prevention and Control: History, Challenges, and Opportunities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7: 1002-1017. [PDF]


Bauder, H., Belina, B., Butz, D., Ze'ev, G., Lagendijk, A., Mudu, P., Anssi, P., Schuurman, N. and Wilson, D. 2010. Critical Practice of Grant Application and Administration: An Intervention. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies, 9(1), 102-112. [PDF]


Schuurman, N., Berube, M. and Crooks, V.A. 2010. Measuring potential spatial access to primary health care using a modified gravity model. The Canadian Geographer: 54(1): 24-45. [PDF]


Castleden H., Crooks V. A., Schuurman N., Hanlon N. 2010. 'It's not necessarily the distance on the map…': Using place as an analytic tool to elucidate geographic issues central to rural palliative care. Health and Place 16(2): 284-290. [PDF]


Schuurman, N. 2009. Viewpoint: Work, life, and creativity amongst academic geographers in 2008. Progress in Human Geography 33(3): 307-312. [PDF]


Schuurman, N. 2009. Spatial Ontologies. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography.  Edited by R. Kitchen and N. Thrift. London: Elsevier: 377-383. [PDF]


Schuurman, N. 2009. Critical GIScience. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography. Editied by R. Kitchen and N. Thrift. Oxford: Elsevier: 363-368. [PDF]

Crooks, V.A., Castleden, H.,  Schuurman, N. and Hanlon, N. 2009. Visioning for Secondary Palliative Care Service Hubs in Rural Communities: a qualitative case study from British Columbia’s interior. BMC Palliative Care. 8(15): 1-11. doi:10.1186/1472-684X-8-15. [PDF]


Bell, N., Schuurman, N. and Hameed, S.N. 2009. A small-area population analysis of socioeconomic status and prevalence of severe burn / fire-related injury in British Columbia, Canada. Burns. 35(8): 133-1141. 10.1016/j.burns.2009.04.028). [PDF]


Schuurman, N. and Goodchild, M.F. 2009. An Interview With Michael Goodchild: GIScience and Social Reordering in the New Millennium Fernie, British Columbia, Canada, February 16, 2008. The Information Society 25(5): 360-3. [PDF]


Ekbia H. R., Schuurman N. 2009. Introduction to the Special Issue on Geographies of Information Society. The Information Society 25(5):289-90. [PDF]


Schuurman, N. and Goodchild, M. 2009. The new Brave New World: geography, GIS, and the emergence of ubiquitous mapping and data. An interview with Michael Goodchild. Environment and Planning D 27: 571-580. [PDF]


Giesbrect, M., Crooks, V.A., Schuurman, N., and Williams, A. 2009. Spatially Informed Knowledge Translation: Informing Potential Users of Canada’s Compassionate Care Benefit. Social Science and Medicine. 69 (411-419). [PDF]


Cinnamon, J., Schuurman, N., Crooks, V.A. 2009. Assessing the suitability of host communities for secondary palliative care hubs: A location analysis model. Health and Place 15: 792-800. [PDF]


Schuurman, N., Cinnamon, J., Crooks, V.A and Hameed, S.M. 2009. Pedestrian Injury and the Built Environment: an environmental scan of hotspots. BMC Public Health 9:233. [PDF]


Schuurman, N. 2009. Critical GIScience in Canada in the New Millennium. The Canadian Geographer 53(2): 139-144. [PDF]

Grzybowski, S., Kornelsen, J. and Schuurman, N. 2009. Planning the optimal level of local maternity service for small rural communities: A systems study in British Columbia. Health Policy. DOI: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2009.03.007. [PDF]

Schuurman, N. 2009. Is the Rubric ‘‘Critical GIScience’’ Effective? An Argument for Theoretical GIScience. Cartographica 44(1): 10-11. [PDF]

Schuurman, N., Bell, N., LeHeureux, R. and Hameed, S.M. 2009. Modelling optimal location for pre-hospital helicopter emergency medical services. BMC Emergency Medicine. 9(6). [PDF]

Schuurman, N. Peters, P. and Oliver, L. 2009. Are Obesity and Moderate Physical Activity Clustered in Relation to Residential Density? A Spatial Analysis Across Eight Neighborhoods. Obesity [DOI: 10.1038/oby.2009.119] [PDF]

Schuurman, N., and Balka, E. 2009. ontological context for data use and integration. Computer Supported Cooperative Work. 18: 83-108. [PDF]

Bell, N., Schuurman, N. and Hameed, M. 2009. A multilevel analysis of the socio- spatial pattern of assault injuries in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 100(1): 73-77. [PDF]

Bell, N., Schuurman, N., and Hameed, S.M. 2008. Are injuries spatially related? Join-count spatial autocorrelation for small-area injury analysis. Injury Prevention. 14(6): 346-353.

Schuurman, N. 2008. Database Ethnographies. Using social science methodologies to enhance data analysis and interpretation. Geography Compass. 2(5): 1529-1548.

Dumedah, G., and Schuurman, N. 2008. Minimizing the effects of inaccurate sediment description in borehole data using rough sets and transition probability. Journal of Geographical Systems. DOI 10.1007/s10109-008-0066-4.

Schuurman, N., Bell, N., Hameed, S.M., and Simons, R. 2008. The spatial epidemiology of trauma: the potential of GIS to organize data and reveal patterns of injury and services. Canadian Journal of Surgery. 51(5): 389-395

Schuurman, N. Leight, M. and Berube, M. 2008. A web-based graphical user interface for evidence-based decision making for health care allocations in rural areas. International Journal of Health Geographics. 7:49.

Schuurman, N., Bell, N., Hameed, S.M., and Simons, R. 2008. A model for identifying and ranking need for trauma service in non-metropolitan regions based on injury risk and access to services. Journal of Trauma. 65:54-62.

Cinnamon, J., Schuurman, N., and Valorie Crooks. 2008. A method to determine spatial access to specialized palliative care services using GIS. Health Services Research. 8: 1-11.

Schuurman, N., Deshpande, A., and Allen, D.M. 2008. Data Integration across Borders:
A Case Study of the Abbotsford-Sumas Aquifer (British Columbia/ Washington State). Journal of American Water Resources Association. 4: 921-934.

Dumedah, G., Schuurman, N. and Yang, W. 2008. Minimizing effects of scale distortion for spatially grouped census data using rough sets. Journal of Geographical Systems, 10: 47-69.

Schuurman, N. and Leszczynski, A. 2008. A method to map heterogeneity between near but non-equivalent semantic attributes in multiple health data registries. Health Informatics Journal, 14: 39 – 57.

Schuurman, N., and Leszczynski, A. 2008. Ontologies and the reorganization of biological databases in the age of bioinformatics. Bioinformatics and Biology Insights.

Bell, N., Schuurman, N., Hayes, M., Oliver, L. 2007. Constructing place-specific measures of deprivation using local knowledge: Evaluating population health in Vancouver, British Columbia. The Canadian Geographer 51(4): 444-461. [PDF]

Oliver, L.N., Schuurman, N., and Hall, A.W. 2007. Comparing circular and network buffers to examine the influence of land use on walking for leisure and errands. International Journal of Health Geographics 6:41. [PDF]

Allen, D.M., Schuurman, N., Khare, A., and Scibek, J. 2007. Data integration and standardization in cross-border hydrogeological studies: a novel approach to hydrostratigraphic model development. Environmental Geology. DOI: 10.1007/s00254-007-0753-3 [PDF]

Allen, D. M., Schuurman, N., and Zhang, Q. 2007 Using fuzzy logic for modeling aquifer architecture. Journal of Geographical Systems 9(3): 289-310. [PDF]

Bell, N., Schuurman, N., and Hayes, M. 2007. Using GIS-based methods of Multicriteria Analysis to construct survey-based deprivation indices. International Journal of Health Geographics 6: 17. [PDF]

Schuurman, N., Bell, N., Dunn, J., and Oliver, L. 2007. Deprivation Indices, Population Health and Geography: An Evaluation of the Spatial Effectiveness of Indices at Multiple Scales. Journal of Urban Health 84(4): 591-603. [PDF]

Schuurman, N., Fiedler, R., Grzybowski, S., and Grund, D. 2006. Defining rational hospital catchments for non-urban areas based on travel-time. International Journal of Health Geographics 5(43): 1-11.

Schuurman, N. and Leszczynski, A. 2006. Ontology Based Metadata. Transactions in GIS 10(5): 709-726.

Fiedler, R., Schuurman, N., and Hyndman, J. 2006. Hidden homelessness: An indicator-based approach for examining the geographies of recent immigrants at-risk of homelessness in Greater Vancouver. Cities 23(3): 205-216. [PDF]

Schuurman, N. 2006. Formalization matters: critical GIScience and ontology research. The Annals of the Association of American Geographers 96(4): 726-739.

Fiedler, R., Schuurman, N., and Hyndman, J. 2006. Improving Census-based Socioeconomic GIS for Public Policy: Recent Immigrants and Spatially Concentrated Poverty, Deprivation and Housing Need in Greater Vancouver. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies 4(1): 1-10. [PDF]

Hyndman, J., Schuurman, N., and Fiedler, R. 2006. Size Matters: the attractiveness of medium-sized cities to new immigrants. Journal of International Migration and Integration 7(1): 1-10. [PDF]

Schuurman, N., Grund, D., Hayes, M., and Dragecevic, S. 2006. Enabling spatial analysis across Canadian time and space: a conflation protocol for census geometry. The Canadian Geographer 50(1): 74-84. [PDF]

Schuurman, N. 2005. Social perspectives on semantic interoperability: constraints to geographical knowledge from a database perspective. Cartographica 40(4): 47-61. [PDF]

Dragicevic, S., Schuurman, N., and Fitzgerald, M. 2004. The Utility of Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis in the Study of Tuberculosis Incidences in an Urban Canadian Population. Cartographica 39(2): 29-40. [PDF]

Schuurman, N. 2002. Flexible Standardization: Making Interoperability Accessible to Agencies with Limited Resources. Cartography and Geographic Information Science 29(4): 343-353. [PDF]

Schuurman, N. 2002. Reconciling Social Constructivism and Realism in GIS. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies 1(1): 75-90. [PDF]

Schuurman, N. 2002. Women and technology in geography: a cyborg manifesto for GIS. The Canadian Geographer 46(3): 258-265. [PDF]

Schuurman, N., and Pratt, G. 2002. Care of the subject: feminism and critiques of GIS. Gender, Place and Culture 9(3): 291-299. [PDF]

Schuurman, N. 2000. Trouble in the Heartland: GIS and its critics in the 1990s. Progress in Human Geography 24(4): 569-590. [PDF]

Schuurman, N. 2000. Constructing and Deconstructing the Railway through Reserves in British Columbia. Native Studies Review 13(1): 19-39. [PDF]

Schuurman, N. 1999. Speaking With the Enemy? An Interview With Michael Goodchild. Environment and Planning: D Society and Space 17(1): 1-15. [PDF]

Schuurman, N. 1998. Contesting Patriarchies: Nlha7pamux and Stl'atl'imx women and colonialism in nineteenth-century British Columbia. Gender, Place and Culture 5(2): 141-158. [PDF]



Published Refereed Books and Monographs

Schuurman, N. 2004. GIS: A Short Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell. [pdf]

Schuurman, N. 1999. Critical GIS: theorizing an emerging discipline. Cartographica 36 (4) (2001 publication date) : 1-108.



Refereed Book Chapters

Schuurman, N. 2009. Metadata as a means of imbuing GIS with qualitative information. Qualitative GIScience. Edited by Sarah Elwood and Meghan Cope. [in press]

Schuurman, N. 2009. The effects of population density, physical distance and socio-economic vulnerability on access to primary care services in rural areas. Primary Health Care: People, Practice, Place. Edited by Valorie Crooks and Gavin Andrews. Ashgate Publishing: 57-74.

Schuurman, N., Leszczynski, A., Fiedler, Robert., Grund, D., and Bell, N. 2006. Building an integrated cadastral fabric for higher resolution socioeconomic spatial data analysis. In Progress in Spatial Data Handling eds. A. Riedl, W. Kainz and G. Elmes. Berlin: Springer: 897-920. [pdf]

Ahlqvist, O., Bibby, P., Duckham, M., Fisher, P., Harvey, F., and Schuurman, N. 2005. Not Just Object: Reconstructing Objects. In Re-presenting GIS eds. P. Fisher and D. Unwin. London: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: 17-25. [pdf]

Schuurman, N. 2005. Social Dimensions of Object Definition. In Re-presenting GIS eds. P. Fisher and D. Unwin. London: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: 27-41. [pdf]

Dictionary and Encyclopedia Definitions

Schuurman, N. 2015. Critical GIScience. In International Encyclopedia of Geography, edited by D. Richardson. Wiley. Forthcoming.

Schuurman, N. 2009. Spatial Ontologies. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography. London: Elsevier.

Schuurman, N. 2009. Critical GIScience. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography. London: Elsevier.

Schuurman, N. 2009. Visualization. Dictionary of Human Geography. London: Blackwell: 802-803.

Schuurman, N. 2009. Geographic Information Science. Dictionary of Human Geography. London: Blackwell. 279-281.

Schuurman, N. 2009. Geographic Information Systems. Dictionary of Human Geography. London: Blackwell: 277-279.

Schuurman, N. 2009. Analogue. Dictionary of Human Geography. London: Blackwell: 26.

Schuurman, N. 2009. Artificial Intelligence. Dictionary of Human Geography. London: Blackwell: 37.

Schuurman, N. 2008. Spatial Ontologies. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography. London: Elsevier.

Schuurman, N. 2008. Critical GIScience. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography. London: Elsevier.

Schuurman, N. 2008. Geovisualization. Dictionary of Human Geography. London: Blackwell.

Schuurman, N. 2008. Geographic Information Science. Dictionary of Human Geography. London: Blackwell.

Schuurman, N. 2008. Geographic Information Systems. Dictionary of Human Geography. London: Blackwell.

Schuurman, N. 2008. Analogue. Dictionary of Human Geography. London: Blackwell.

Schuurman, N. 2008. Artificial Intelligence. Dictionary of Human Geography. London: Blackwell.