Our research shows that treatment wetlands are a feasible and effective options for the safe removal of oil sands related contaminants. Our research demonstrates that both PAHs and O2-NAs are efficiently removed by wetland treatment and their removal corresponds with a reduction in OSPW toxicity. We further explored the fate and effects of OSPW contaminants in wetland systems by developing a contaminant fate model that was tested and applied to the Kearl Treatment Wetland – a constructed wetland within the Alberta oil sands region. The model has become a valuable tool to explore the effects of wetland design, operation, environmental conditions, and physicochemical properties on wetland treatment efficiency of organic contaminants. Our model can also be used to assess tradeoffs in wetland design and operation that will allow industry operators to construct feasible wetland systems while meeting site-specific wastewater treatment objectives.