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School of Criminology | Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Simon Fraser University Calendar | Summer 2024

Police Studies


This certificate is primarily directed toward undergraduates and sworn police officers who wish to focus their criminology undergraduate studies on courses that relate to policing.

Units applied toward a certificate may not be applied toward any other Simon Fraser University certificate or diploma, but may be applied toward major program or minor program requirements, or toward a bachelor’s degree under the normal regulations governing those programs.

Program Declaration

Students are eligible to apply for entry to the police studies certificate program if

  • they have been admitted to Simon Fraser University (or are in the process of being admitted); and
  • they have completed and received grades for ALL of the following courses, each with a final grade of C- or better

CRIM 101 - Introduction to Criminology (3)

Topics will include: examination of different terms and concepts commonly used in criminology, such as crime, delinquency, deviance, criminal, victim, rehabilitation and treatment. Criminology as a body of knowledge and as a profession. Position and subject matter of criminology. Relationship between criminology and other academic disciplines. Specificity of criminology. Relationship between theory and practice. History and evolution of criminological thought. Elements of continuity and discontinuity between classical and modern theories of criminality. Levels of explanations in criminology. Practical applications of criminology. The foundations of a modern criminal policy. Breadth-Social Sciences.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
D100 Sessional
May 6 – Aug 2, 2024: Tue, 12:30–2:20 p.m.
D101 May 6 – Aug 2, 2024: Tue, 2:30–3:20 p.m.

D102 May 6 – Aug 2, 2024: Tue, 2:30–3:20 p.m.

D103 May 6 – Aug 2, 2024: Tue, 3:30–4:20 p.m.
D104 May 6 – Aug 2, 2024: Tue, 4:30–5:20 p.m.
D105 May 6 – Aug 2, 2024: Tue, 5:30–6:20 p.m.
CRIM 251 - Introduction to Policing (3)

An examination of the organization and operation of contemporary Canadian policing. Consideration of the history and development of policing in Canada, the role of the police in Canadian society and the police occupation, including recruitment and training. Discussion of police decision making and the exercise of discretion, police powers, and structures of accountability. Managing the police organization. Examination of police-community relations and crime prevention initiatives. Prerequisite: CRIM 131. Students with credit for CRIM 151 may not take this course for further credit.

Serving police officers may apply to have completion of these courses waived.

Admission, Program Declaration, and Continuation

Applicants must meet university undergraduate admission deadlines as shown in this Calendar. Application forms and official documents must be submitted to Student Services. In addition to applying for University admission, students apply in writing to the School of Criminology's advisor for certificate program declaration.

To continue in the program, students must maintain a 2.25 cumulative grade point average (CGPA)*. Students whose CGPA falls below 2.25 cannot enroll in any upper division CRIM courses.

*transfer students who meet the criminology program declaration requirements upon admission to SFU may use their admission CGPA for declaration purposes

Program Requirements

This program consists of six courses (18 units) chosen from the following list. Students may choose to focus their studies by completing courses in several of the following clusters, or they may choose their six from any courses in the list, regardless of the clusters.

Students may also choose any other 300 or 400 division course that is designated as a police studies course. Such courses may be offered by the School of Criminology (e.g. special topics courses), or other departments and faculties such as Department of Indigenous Studies, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Department of Archaeology, School of Computing Science, Department of Psychology.

See the school's advisor for further information.

Note that some of the following courses may have prerequisites.

All courses must be completed at Simon Fraser University.

Minorities and the Criminal Justice System

CRIM 311 - Social Inequalities and the Criminal Justice System (3)

An analysis of the intersections between social inequalities and the criminal justice system through an examination of systematic and structural racism, discrimination, and oppression. Students will critically analyze the experiences of different groups (across race, ethnicity, religion, class, gender, sexual orientation, (dis)ability, health, among others) and their interactions with the criminal justice system and access to justice through an exploration of justice-related policies, legislation, and practices. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 419 - Aboriginal/Indigenous Justice (3)

An in-depth examination of Aboriginal/indigenous conceptions of justice in dealing with crime and other trouble in indigenous communities, and in relations among peoples. Prerequisite: CRIM 101 or FNST 101 or 201 or permission of the instructor. Students with credit for this course as CRIM 416 or 418, or FNST 419, may not take this course for further credit.

CRIM 429 - Indigenous Peoples and International Law (3)

An examination of how relations between indigenous and non-indigenous peoples framed and were framed by the development of international law from the 15th century onward. Prerequisite: CRIM 101 or FNST 101 or 201 or permission of instructor. Students with credit for CRIM 416, or 418 under the title "Indigenous Peoples and International Law" or "Indigenous Peoples and Evolving International Relations", or FNST 429 may not take this course for further credit.

Forensic Studies

CRIM 355 - The Forensic Sciences (3)

Examines the use and interpretation of physical forensic evidence in court. It will critically examine and evaluate the major forensic sciences used in criminal investigations today, as well as look at the crime scene. Subjects examined will include forensic pathology, odontology, biology, DNA evidence, firearms evidence, toxicology chemistry and questioned documents. Techniques will be illustrated with case studies. Prerequisite: 45 units. Breadth-Social Sciences.

CRIM 356 - The Forensic Sciences II (3)

Introduces the methodological principles of analytical procedures and applications relevant to 21st century criminalistics as applied to skeletonized remains. Prerequisite: 45 units.

CRIM 357 - Forensic Anatomy (3)

An introduction to human anatomy and physiology relevant to the biological aspects of human forensics. Examines different body systems including form, function and development in the human adult and child, and discusses post mortem alteration to anatomical structures in the context of forensic anthropology and pathology. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 451 - Advanced Techniques in Forensic Science (3)

Looks at the advanced and sometimes more controversial areas of forensic science used in the criminal justice system today. Most areas are those outside the crime lab and require extensive and in-depth training in a very focused field. Seminars may cover areas such as the use of polygraph, blood spatter pattern analysis, entomology, pathology, odontology, anthropology, genocide investigation, facial approximation, crime scene analysis on land, underwater and mass homicide scenarios. Prerequisite: CRIM 101. Recommended: CRIM 355. Students with credit for CRIM 420 in 01-3, 00-3, 99-3, 98-3 or 97-3 may not take this course for further credit.

CRIM 452 - Skeletal Pathology and Criminalistics (3)

The examination of disease processes which affect and reveal themselves in the human skeleton at the level of surface morphology, radiology and histology and other relevant analytical methodologies relevant to criminalistics and human identification. Prerequisite: CRIM 101. Recommended: CRIM 357. Students who have taken this course as CRIM 417 may not take this course for further credit.

Restorative Justice

CRIM 315 - Restorative Justice (4)

The course will contrast restorative justice with the dominant adversarial/retributive/punitive model of justice through a critical analysis of these two paradigms of justice. Several key principles, assumptions, and concepts necessary for understanding the foundation and practice of restorative justice will be introduced and explored. Prerequisite: 45 units. Breadth-Social Sciences.

CRIM 442 - Restorative Justice Practice: Advanced Topics (3) *

An in-depth examination of the various community-based and institutional practices in promoting restorative processes, based on an examination and comparison of the values, philosophical approaches and outcomes of selected western and non-western models. Practices examined will include a range of restorative justice initiatives, including victim-offender mediation, family-group conferencing, multi-party mediation, and various circle remedies. This examination will include the application of restorative justice in the community, in schools and at all levels of the legal process (pre-arrest to post-incarceration and reintegration). Prerequisite: CRIM 315. Recommended: CRIM 343.

* When offered with a focus of policing


CRIM 380 - Introduction to Cybercrime (3)

Explores legal, technical and social issues in cybercrime. Discusses the nature of cybercrime, with specific examples, and methods of regulation in Canada and worldwide. Addresses origins and extent of cybercrime, responses from the legal system and consideration of the wider effects for society. Prerequisite: CRIM 101. Students with credit for CRIM 318 under this topic (Fall 2009 or Spring 2010) may not take this course for further credit.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
OL01 Richard Frank
CRIM 480 - Computer Forensics and Cybercrime (3)

Advanced exploration of high-tech crime and exploration of the tools and techniques used by cyber-criminals. Examines the techniques used by law enforcement to investigate and prosecute offenders, as well as the probable future development of cybercrime. Prerequisite: CRlM 380. Students who have taken CRIM 416/417/418 under the topic in Spring 2010 may not take this course for further credit.

CRIM 481 - Advanced Issues in Cybercrime (3)

Analysis of complex, emerging and current cyber-security threats. Discusses methods used to identify cybercrime threats and vulnerabilities, as well as the social, economic and legal implications. Insight into creating an effective defensive plan, and an understanding of future security trends and threats which are likely to develop. Prerequisite: CRIM 380. Students who have taken CRIM 416/417/418 under this topic in Spring 2010 may not take this course for further credit.

Crime Analysis and Crime Prevention

CRIM 350 - Techniques of Crime Prevention (3)

Techniques of mobilizing community resources for crime prevention. Organizing, implementing and managing citizen efforts to reduce crime. Recruiting citizen assistance, training requirements, establishing and operating citizen organizations, evaluating results. Organizing programs for reducing criminal opportunity, programs for education, employment and recreation. Operating youth services centres, residential programs, crisis intervention and emergency centres. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 352 - Environmental Criminology: Theory and Practice (3)

Explores the history of the field of environmental criminology and critically examines the theoretical approaches within the field. Special emphasis is placed upon the relationship between crime, fear and the environment, the criminality of place and the decision processes involved in criminal events. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 433 - Communities and Crime (3)

Examines communities and neighborhoods as contexts for thinking about a wide range of criminological issues including crime, fear, victimization, policing, and policy. Theoretical explanations and applied research will be used to explore how and why "community" is important for understanding crime and criminal justice. Prerequisite: CRIM 101. Students with credit for this course as CRIM 418 may not take this course for further credit.

CRIM 460 - Applied Crime Prevention (3)

Introduces the modern techniques of crime prevention. Emphasis will be on: opportunity and environmental criminology theories; situational crime prevention and problem-oriented policing; the concepts of ‘defensible space’, ‘eyes on the street’, and place management; reducing the opportunities for crime; evaluating crime prevention programs and offender adaptations to interventions. Prerequisite: CRIM 101. Students with credit for CRIM 450 may not take this course for further credit.

Special Types of Offenders or Crimes

CRIM 310 - Young Offenders and Criminal Justice: Advanced Topics (3)

Examines some of the more complex contemporary issues relating to young offenders and justice. For any given term, the content of the course will reflect current controversies as well as faculty and student interests. Topics may include social control theory and juvenile justice; an assessment of theories of rehabilitation; the legal philosophy of the young offenders legislation and its impact on juvenile justice; and an evaluation of diversion, deinstitutionalization and de-legalization in Canada and the United States. Prerequisite: CRIM 101 and CRIM 210.

CRIM 316 - Sexual Offenders and Sexual Offences (3)

Provides an overview of current theoretical, clinical, and legal issues related to sexual offenders and sexual offences. For each of these issues, consideration will be given to different approaches and perspectives, and debates characterizing them. The topics to be covered include: explanatory models of sexual offending; developmental risk factors of sexual offending; typologies of sexual offenders; criminal careers of sexual offenders; phallometric assessment; actuarial and clinical risk assessment; treatment programs and their effectiveness, and criminal justice system initiatives. Prerequisite: CRIM 101 and 103. Students with credit for CRIM 417 in Spring or Summer 2005 may not take this course for further credit.

CRIM 317 - Sex, Work, and the Law (3)

Examines the history of commercial sex in Canada, the related laws and their impacts; research on the breadth of the commercial sex industry, sex sellers, sex buyers, and third parties; theories about commercial sex involvement and its role in society; legal approaches to addressing commercial sex in other countries; current legal framework, including jurisprudence, relevant Criminal, Immigration, and municipal law. Prerequisite: CRIM 101. Students with credit for CRIM 313 (Specific Types of Crime) prior to Summer 2007 may not take this course for further credit.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
OL01 Tamara O'Doherty
CRIM 413 - Terrorism (3)

Considers the nature, extent, and basis of terrorism as an official crime throughout the world and its impact upon criminal justice systems. Theoretical explanations in a comparative perspective will be employed to examine the impact of terrorism on various countries and the response of governments to it. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 454 - Criminal Profiling (3)

Provides an overview of the advanced issues relating to the scientific study, development and evaluation of criminal profiling. Outlines the criminological and psychological principles upon which criminal profiling is based, including classification of violent behaviour, behavioural change and consistency. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 459 - Organized Crime (3)

Examines the many forms of organized crime, including theories and models. Explores specific activities involving organized criminals, traditional organized crime, street gangs and motorcycle gangs, and criminal justice responses to organized crime. Prerequisite: CRIM 101. Students with credit for CRIM 416 in Spring 2009 or CRIM 313 in Fall 2009 may not take this course for further credit.

CRIM 464 - Street Gang Patterns and Policies (3)

Introduces the theoretical, empirical, and policy issues surrounding street gangs. The state of the current gang problem in Canada, the sociodemographics and motivations of individuals who join gangs the effect of gang membership on delinquency, the nature of violence and victimization, and the challenges of desistance will be discussed. Concludes with an overview of gang control strategies and the available policies. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

Key Issues in Policing

CRIM 314 - Mental Disorder, Criminality and the Law (3)

Critical examination of the impact of psychiatry and related clinical professions on the criminal justice system. Relationship between institutions of mental health and legal control. The relevance of psychiatric theory and decision-making for the processing of mentally disordered offenders. The role of forensic clinicians in the courts, prisons, mental hospitals and related agencies. Specific issues addressed in this course will include psychiatric assessment, criminal responsibility, fitness to stand trial, prediction of dangerousness, treatment of mentally ill criminals and the penal and therapeutic commitment of the insane. Prerequisite: CRIM 101. Recommended: CRIM 131.

CRIM 351 - Police Accountability and Ethics (3)

Examines police accountability including the expected ethical conduct of police, police powers, police decision-making, the exercise of discretion, and the structure of accountability. Specific emphasis on police codes of ethics, core values of police agencies, the function of internal investigations, and the role of civilian review. Prerequisite: CRIM 101 and 251.

CRIM 410 - Decision-making in Criminal Justice (3)

Examination of the factors which influence decision making in the criminal justice system. The exercise of discretion by criminal justice personnel; the role of organizational policies and priorities in decision making; the involvement of victims and the public. Consideration of decision making at specific stages of the criminal justice process. Prerequisite: CRIM 131.

CRIM 453 - Policing Illegal Drug Markets (3)

Provides an overview of the theoretical, analytical, and ethical issues related to drug law enforcement. Examines the strategies used by the police in responding to the challenges posed by illegal drug markets. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 455 - Advanced Issues in Policing (3)

Covers the major issues surrounding policing in the 21st century. Topics will vary semester to semester and may include policing gangs; police social disorder; sustainable policing; the police in the global community; quality assurance in policing; policing multi-needs populations; and the delivery of police services in remote and rural communities. Focus on police strategies and the effectiveness of specific policies and interventions designed to address these changes. Prerequisite: CRIM 101, 131 and 251.

CRIM 456 - Investigative Psychology in Policing (3)

Advanced issues relating to the empirical and scientific study of investigative psychology in policing. Outlines the main applications of investigative psychology, including police interrogation techniques, confession, false allegation, lie detection, crisis negotiation, risks and threats assessment, and psychological autopsies. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 458 - Community Policing (3)

Examines the theory and models of contemporary community policing in Canada. Explores crime prevention, crime response, problem-oriented policing, the definition of community, and the role and responsibility of the community. Prerequisite: CRIM 251.

Special Topics in Police Studies

CRIM 318 - Special Topics in Criminology (3) *

A critical analysis of specific areas of criminology or criminal justice. The subjects covered will change from term to term depending on the specific interests of faculty, or students and current issues in criminology. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 416 - Current Issues in Criminology and Criminal Justice (3) *

A critical analysis of certain 'hot' issues in criminology and criminal justice. The topics covered change from term to term. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

Section Instructor Day/Time Location
D100 Richard Frank
CRIM 417 - Current Issues in Criminology and Criminal Justice (3) *

A critical analysis of certain 'hot' issues in criminology and criminal justice. The topics covered change from term to term. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

CRIM 418 - Current Issues in Criminology and Criminal Justice (3) *

A critical analysis of certain 'hot' issues in criminology and criminal justice. The topics covered change from term to term. Prerequisite: CRIM 101.

* When offered with a focus of policing

Upper Division Course Access

Students with a minimum 2.25 CGPA are eligible to enroll in upper division criminology courses upon successful completion of 60 units and certificate declaration. Students pursuing the certificate independent of a degree program will be eligible to access these courses without completion of 60 units; in these cases, completion of lower division prerequisite courses may be required.

Graduation Requirements

Students must obtain a minimum grade of C- in all required courses. In addition to normal university grade point average requirements, the School of Criminology requires the following: for graduation, students must obtain a minimum 2.25 CGPA, 2.25 UDGPA, 2.25 criminology course CGPA (calculated on all CRIM courses completed at SFU), and 2.25 criminology course UDGPA (calculated on all upper division CRIM courses completed at SFU).