GLOSSARY OF LITHIC TERMSmore -->
Abrading: The process of modifying a stone through friction created by rubbing or scraping.
Adze: A cutting tool, similar to an axe, where a bevelled stone blade is attached at a right angle to the (typically wooden/bone) handle, usually used to work or plane wood.
Axe: A chopping or cutting tool where a stone blade is attached to a (typically wooden/bone) handle with edge parallel to the handle.
Bevelled edge: An edge that is slanted.
Biface: A flaked stone tool that has been modified or retouched on both sides.
Blade: A cutting tool made from a flake that’s length is at least twice its width, with parallel edges.
Chisel: A hand tool that has a bevelled cutting edge on one end, and is used for cutting or carving. A hammer may be used in conjunction with this tool.
Cobble tool: A type of large core, with a spall removed, that is used as a chopping/cutting tool.
Cores: A stone that functions as the primary source for flaked pieces.
Cortex: Weathered surface on the outer layer of a rock.
Debitage: Any piece of stone that is detached from a core or tool during manufacture.
Flake: A fragment of stone that has been detached from a core or tool.
Flake scars: The mark that is left when a flake has been detached from a stone tool or core.
Knife: A type of blade where the working edge is curved or serrated.
Mt. Edziza: A volcano in northwestern British Columbia that is the main source for obsidian (volcanic glass) in the region.
Multidirectional core: A type of core where flakes are removed from multiple directions and with different striking platforms.
Notches: Indentations on a stone tool that allows the lithic to be more easily attached to a shaft or handle (ie. Hafting).
Pecking: The process of shaping a stone tool by using a rock or hammer to pound the stone, creating small indentations.
Points: A type of flaked stone tool that has a pointed edge and is typically used for stabbing or piercing.
Retouch: The process where a stone tool’s edge is intentionally modified.
Scottsbluff point: A type of biface point that has a distribution across the US and West-Central Canada and is associated with the late Paleolithic and early Archaic periods.
Scraper: A flake that has been retouched along one or more edges, typically used for scraping purposes. If a stone tool is called an end scraper, this means that the distal end has been retouched, whereas if it’s called a side scraper, one of the flakes sides have been retouched.
Uniface: A flaked stone tool that has been modified or retouched on only one side.
Usewear: The process where a stone tool is modified by its use.
Wedge: A stone tool that has one thick edge and one tapering edge that is used to split or secure object(s).
Weight: A lithic tool used to keep other objects in their place by weighing them down, such as fishing weights, or, in the case of the weight in the collection, a canoe anchor.
Working edge: The edge that is used for the tools designated purpose (ex. cutting, scraping, etc.)