NIH2: Tobacco Control, Public Policy and Global Health (2006-2011)
This project was funded by the National Institutes of Health, and based at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), University of London. Its aim was to systematically analyse previously confidential tobacco industry documents to provide new understandings of the strategies and activities of transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) in emerging national and regional markets.

Project objectives were:
i) to analyse:

  • strategies adopted by TTCs to influence (a) policy development in key international organizations (e.g. World Bank, IMF); and (b) WTO agreements;
  • describe and analyse the role of regional trading blocs in expansion strategies of TTCs (e.g. NAFTA, ASEAN, EU);
  • TTC strategies of corporate restructuring, mergers and acquisitions in order to facilitate global expansion;
  • TTC strategies to inhibit effective tobacco control interventions, particularly the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; promote adoption of voluntary measures; encourage interventions in the policy process by local operating companies and subsidiaries;    

ii) to make recommendations on more effective tobacco control strategies and policies that address regional and global challenges.

iii) to locate, index and disseminate tobacco industry documents, relevant to the aims of this project from the Guildford and Minnesota depositories, to other researchers and the public.

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 2012 - 2013
  1. Fooks, G, Gilmore A, Collin J, Holden, C, Lee, K (2013). The Limits of Corporate Social Responsibility: Techniques of Neutralization, Stakeholder Management and Political CSR. Journal of Business Ethics 112(2):283-367.
  2. Lee K (2013). Key factors in negotiations for health. In T Novotny, I Kickbusch (eds). Twenty First Century Health Diplomacy.  World Scientific Publishers/US Centers for Disease Control; 255–278.
  3. Grüning T, Weishaar H, Collin J, Gilmore AB (2012). Tobacco industry attempts to influence and use the German government to undermine the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Tobacco Control 21(1):30-38.
  4. MacKenzie R, Collin J (2012). Trade policy, not morals or health policy: the US Trade Representative, tobacco companies and market liberalization in Thailand. Global Social Policy 12(2):149-172.
Book chapter
Lee K, Lister G. (2013). The process and practice of negotiation. In: I Kickbush, G Lister, M Told, N Drager (eds).
           Global Health Diplomacy: Concepts, Issues, Actors, Instruments, Fora and Cases.  New York: Springer.
  1. Fooks GJ, Gilmore AB, Smith KE, Collin J, Holden C, Lee K (2011). Corporate Social Responsibility and Access to Policy Élites: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents. PLoS Med 8(8): e1001076.
  2. Gilmore A, Fooks G, McKee M (2011).  A review of the impacts of tobacco industry privatisation: implications for policy. Global Public Health 6(6):621-42.
  3. Stanton C, Chu A, Collin J, Glantz S (2011).  Promoting tobacco through the international language of dance music: British American Tobacco and the Ministry of Sound. European Journal of Public Health 21(1):21-8. 
  4. Petticrew M, Lee K (2011).  The “Father of Stress” meets “Big Tobacco”: Hans Selye and the Tobacco Industry. American Journal of Public Health 101(3):411-8

Book chapters

  1. Kamradt-Scott A, Holden C, Lee K (2011). The shifting landscape of public health: from international to global health. In: Parker R, Sommer M eds.  Routledge International Handbook on Global Public Health. New York: Routledge; 31-37.
  2. Lee K, Yach D and Kamradt-Scott A (2011). Globalization and Health. In: M Merson, R Black, A Mills  (eds).  Global Public Health:  Diseases, Programs, Systems and Policies, 3rd edition, New York:  Jones & Bartlett.
  3. MacKenzie R. The Framework Convention Alliance. In: THale and D Held (eds). Handbook of Transnational Governance. New Institutions and Innovations. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  1. Collin J (2010). Global health, equity and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Global Health Promotion 1757-9759; Supp (1):01-03.
  2. Feldbaum H, Lee K, Michaud J (2010), “Global health and foreign policy. Epidemiologic Reviews 32;(1):82–92.
  3. Lee K (2010).  How do we move forward on the social determinants of health: The global governance challenges. Critical Public Health 20(1):5-14.
  4. Gilmore A, Sweanor D, Branston R (2010).  The case for OFSMOKE: how tobacco price regulation is needed to promote the health of markets, government revenue and the public. Tobacco Control 19:423-430.
  5. Holden C, Lee K, Gilmore A, Fooks G and Wander N (2010). ‘Trade Policy, Health and Corporate Influence: British American Tobacco and China’s Accession to the World Trade Organization’.  International Journal of Health Services 40(3):421-41.
  6. Lee K (2010). Civil society and intergovernmental organisations:  The functions of global health governance. Global Health Governance 3(2).
  7. Lee K, Chagas L, Novotny T (2010). Brazil and the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Global health diplomacy as soft power. PLoS Medicine 7(4): e1000232. 
  8. Lock K, Adams E, Pilkington P, Duckett K, Gilmore A, Marston C (2010). Evaluating social and behavioural impacts of English smokefree legislation in different ethnic and age groups: implications for reducing smoking-related health inequalities. Tobacco Control 19(5):391-7.
  9. Owusu-Dabo E, Lewis S, McNeil A, Anderson S, Gilmore A, Britton J (2010). Status of implementation of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Ghana. BMC Public Health 10:1.    
  10. Sims M, Tomkins S, Judge K, Taylor G, Jarvis MJ, Gilmore A (2010). Trends in and determinants of second hand smoke exposure indexed by cotinine in children in England from 1996-2006. Addiction 105(3):543-553.
  11. Sims M, Maxwell R, Bauld L, Gilmore A (2010). Did smokefree legislation reduce admissions to hospital for myocardial infarction in England: an analysis of routine data. BMJ 340:c2161
  12. Smith KE, Fooks G, Collin J, Weishaar H, Mandal S, Gilmore A (2010). "Working the system": How British American Tobacco secured changes to the European Union Treaty and fundamentally reshaped policymaking. PLOS 7(1): e1000202.
  13. Smith KE, Fooks G, Collin J, Weishaar H, Gilmore A (2010).  Is the increasing policy use of Impact Assessment in Europe likely to undermine efforts to achieve healthy public policy? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 64:478-487.

Book chapters

  1. Gilmore A, Sims M, Jarvis M (2010). Passive smoking in UK children. In: J Britton, R Edwards (eds).  Passive smoking and children. London: Royal College of Physicians; 21-39.
  2. Lee K. (2010). Understandings of global health governance:  The contested landscape. In: A Kay, O Williams (eds.)  The crisis of global health governance: challenges, institutions and political economy. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  3. Lee K (2012). World Health Organization. In:  HK Anheier, MK Juergensmeyer MK (eds). Encyclopaedia of Global Studies, London: Sage.
  4. Lee K (2010). International Organization and Health/Disease. In: K Stiles K (ed).  International Studies Compendium. London: Blackwell-Wiley.
  1. Gilmore A, Fooks G, McKee M (2009). The IMF and tobacco: a product like any other? International Journal of Health Services Research 39(4): 789-793.  
  2. Holden C, Lee K (2009). Corporate Power and Social Policy: The Political Economy of the Transnational Tobacco Companies.  Global Social Policy  9(3): 328-354. 
  3. Jarvis MJ, Mindell J, Gilmore A, Feyerabend C, West R (2009). Smoke-free homes in England: prevalence, trends and validation by cotinine in children. Tobacco Control 18:491-495.  
  4. Lee K, Sridhar P, Patel M (2009). Bridging the divide: The global governance of trade and health. The Lancet 373(9661):416-22.
  5. Lee K (2009). Russia: What is JTI playing at? Tobacco Control 18:427-28.
  6. Nakkash R, Lee K (2009). The tobacco industry’s thwarting of marketing restrictions and health warnings in Lebanon. Tobacco Control 18: 310-316.  
  7. Owusu-Dabo E, Lewis S, McNeil A, Anderson S, Gilmore A, Britton J (2009). Prevalence of smoking in Ghana. Tobacco Control 18: 365-70.
  8. Patel P, Okechukwu CA, Collin J, Hughes B (2009). Bringing ‘Light, Life and Happiness’: British American Tobacco and music sponsorship in sub-Saharan Africa. Third World Quarterly 30:(4):685-700.
  9. Smith KE, Gilmore A, Fooks G, Collin J, Weishaar H (2009). Tobacco industry attempts to undermine Article 5.3 and the ‘good governance’ trap. Tobacco Control 18(6):509-511.


  1. Lee K, (2009). Global health diplomacy:  A conceptual review. Globalization, Trade and Health Working Paper Series. Geneva: WHO.
  2. Lee K, (2009). Global health and international relations:  A review of the literature. Globalization, Trade and Health Working Paper Series. Geneva:  WHO.
  3. Smith R, Lee K, Fidler D (2009). Global Health Diplomacy: A synthesis paper. WHO/Rockfeller Foundation.

Books and chapters

  1. Collin J, Lee K (2009). Globalization and the politics of health governance: The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. In A Cooper, J Kirton (eds). Innovation in Global Health Governance.  London: Ashgate.
  2. Lee K (2009). Globalization. In R Detels, R Beaglehole, MA Lansang, M Gulliford (eds). Oxford Textbook of Public Health 5th Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  3. Lee K (2009). Tobacco. In: P Korsmeyer P, HR Kranzler (eds). International Encyclopaedia on Drugs, Alcohol and Addictive Behavior 3rd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference.
  4. Lee K, Koivusalo M, Ollila E, Labonte R, Schrecker T, Schuftan C and Woodward D (2009). Global Governance for Health. In: R Labonte, T Schrecker, C Packer, V Runnels (eds). Globalisation and Health: Pathways, Evidence and Policy. London:  Routledge.
  1. Bachinger E, McKee M, Gilmore A (2008). Tobacco policies in the Third Reich: Can it explain the contemporary failure to act? Public Health 122: 497-505.
  2. Grüning T, Strünck C, Gilmore A (2008) Puffing away?  Explaining the politics of tobacco control in Germany. German Politics 17(2):140-164.
  3. MacKenzie R, Collin J (2008). Philanthropy, politics and promotion - Philip Morris’ “charitable contributions” in Thailand. Tobacco Control 17(4):284-285.
  4. MacKenzie R, Collin J (2008). “A good personal scientific relationship": Philip Morris scientists and the Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok. PLoS Medicine 2008;5(12) e238.

          Lee K (2008). The World Health Organization (London:  Routledge).

  1. Gilmore A (2007). An introduction to the history and diversity of smokeless tobacco use. In: Harm Reduction in Nicotine Addiction: helping people who can’t quit. London: Royal College of Physicians.
  2. Gilmore A, Collin J, Townsend J (2007). Transnational Tobacco Company Influence on Tax Policy During Privatization of a State Monopoly: British American Tobacco and Uzbekistan. American Journal of Public Health 97(11):2001-9.  
  3. Gilmore A, McKee M, Collin J (2007). The invisible hand.  How British American Tobacco precluded competition in Uzbekistan. Tobacco Control 16: 239-47.
  4. Grüning T, Gilmore A (2007). Germany: tobacco industry still dictates policy. Tobacco Control; 16:2.
  5. Lee K (2007). Global health promotion:  How can we strengthen governance and build effective strategies? Health Promotion International 21(1):42-50.
  6. Lee K (2007). Pushing tobacco control up the development agenda. Special issue on Drug Use and Development 10: 4.
  7. Lee K, Ingram A, Lock K and McInnes C (2007). Bridging health and foreign policy:  The role of health impact assessment. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 85(3):207-11.
  8. Lee K, MacKenzie R (2007). BAT’s Blackberry-picking endorsement. Tobacco Control 16:223.
  9. Patel P, Collin J, Gilmore A (2007). The law was actually drafted by us but the Government is to be congratulated on its wise actions: British American Tobacco and Public Policy in Kenya. Tobacco Control 16:1.
  10. Perlman F, Bobak M, Gilmore A, McKee M (2007). Trends in the prevalence of smoking in Russia during the transition to a market economy. Tobacco Control 16:299-305. 
  11. Pilkington P, Gray S, Gilmore A (2007). Health impacts of exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers. BMC Public Health 7:25.   

Book chapters

  1. Collin J (2007). The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. In: C McInnes, K Lee, A Ingram (eds.) Health, Foreign Policy and Security. London: The Nuffield Trust.
  2. Collin J, Lee K (2007). Globalisation and public health policy. In: A Scriven, S Garman S (eds.).  Public Health: Social context and action. London: Open University Press.
  1. Bobak M, Gilmore A, McKee M, Rose R, Marmot M (2006). Changes in smoking prevalence in Russia, 1996-2004. Tobacco Control 15: 131-5.
  2. Collin J, MacKenzie R (2006). The World Cup, Sport Sponsorship and Health. Lancet  367(9527): 1964-1966.
  3. Nakkash R, Lee K (2006).  Lebanon: Business as usual for the tobacco industry?  Tobacco Control 15(3):147.
  4. Pilkington P, Grey S, Gilmore A, Daykin N (2006). Attitudes towards second hand smoke amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers. J Public Health 28:104 - 110.
  5. Gilmore A, Collin J, McKee M (2006). British American Tobacco’s erosion of health legislation in Uzbekistan. BMJ 332: 355-358.
  6. Grüning T, Gilmore A, McKee M (2006). Tobacco industry influence on science and scientists in Germany. Am J Public Health; 96: 20-32
  7. Lee K, Aguinaga Bialous S (2006). Corporate social responsibility:  serious cause for concern. Tobacco Control 15(5): 419.
  8. McInnes C, Lee K (2006). Health, security and foreign policy. Review of International Studies 32:5-23.