The methods by which costs of flood damages were estimated varied significantly among federal and state/provincial jurisdictions and across the three CEC countries. There were significant data gaps in assessing uninsured losses and much of the available data was not adequately georeferenced. Moreover, much of the data itself was not available in real-time. Furthermore, the economic impacts of cascading multi-hazards (for example, dry season > forest fires > floods > landslides) were not well documented. As a consequence of these limitations, governmental agencies and private entities were not able to easily assess “trade-offs” for infrastructure and institutional investments for enhancing disaster resilience. The information gaps also limited joint responses between US, Canada and Mexico, particularly when encountering extreme events that impacted multiple jurisdictions.