1. Sud. s. v. Πῶλος: Π., Ἀκραγαντῖνος, ῥήτωρ, μᾶλλον δὲ σοφιστὴς τῶν πάλαι, διδάσκαλος Λικυμνίου. ἔγραψε γενεαλογίαν τῶν ἐπὶ Ἴλιον στρατευσάντων Ἑλλήνων καὶ βαρβάρων καὶ πῶς ἕκαστος ἀπήλλαξε, τινὲς δὲ αὐτὸ Δαμάστου ἐπιγράφουσι. νεῶν κατάλογον. περὶ λέξεως.
1A. Plato, Theages 127E-128A ἔπειτα εἰ ἄρα τῆς μὲν τῶν πολιτικῶν ἀνδρῶν συνουσίας Θεάγης ὅδε καταφρονεῖ, ἄλλους δέ τινας ζητεῖ οἳ παιδεύειν ἐπαγγέλλονται οἷοί τε εἶναι νέους ἀνθρώπους, ἔστιν ἐνταῦθα καὶ Πρόδικος ὁ Κεῖος καὶ Γοργίας [128a] ὁ Λεοντῖνος καὶ πῶλος ὁ Ἀκραγαντῖνος καὶ ἄλλοι πολλοί, οἳ οὕτω σοφοί εἰσιν ὥστε εἰς τὰς πόλεις ἰόντες πείθουσι τῶν νέων τοὺς γενναιοτάτους τε καὶ πλουσιωτάτους—οἷς ἔξεστιν τῶν πολιτῶν ᾧ ἂν βούλωνται προῖκα συνεῖναι— τούτους πείθουσιν ἀπολείποντας τὰς ἐκείνων συνουσίας αὐτοῖς συνεῖναι, προσκατατιθέντας ἀργύριον πάνυ πολὺ μισθόν, καὶ χάριν πρὸς τούτοις εἰδέναι.
1B. Plato, Gorgias 527a νῦν δὲ ὁρᾷς ὅτι τρεῖς ὄντες ὑμεῖς, οἵπερ σοφώτατοί ἐστε τῶν νῦν Ἑλλήνων, σύ τε καὶ Πῶλος καὶ [527b] Γοργίας, οὐκ ἔχετε ἀποδεῖξαι ὡς δεῖ ἄλλον τινὰ βίον ζῆν ἢ τοῦτον, ὅσπερ καὶ ἐκεῖσε φαίνεται συμφέρων.
1C. Lucianus, Herodotus 3.3-4 ὅπερ ὕστερον κατανοήσαντες, ἐπίτομόν τινα ταύτην ὁδὸν ἐς γνῶσιν, Ἱππίας τε ὁ ἐπιχώριος αὐτῶν σοφιστὴς καὶ Πρόδικος ὁ Κεῖος καὶ Ἀναξιμένης ὁ Χῖος καὶ Πῶλος ὁ Ἀκραγαντῖνος καὶ ἄλλοι συχνοὶ λόγους ἔλεγον ἀεὶ καὶ αὐτοὶ πρὸς τὴν πανήγυριν, ἀφ᾽ ὧν γνώριμοι ἐν βραχεῖ ἐγίγνοντο.  Καὶ τί σοι τοὺς παλαιοὺς ἐκείνους λέγω σοφιστὰς καὶ συγγραφέας καὶ λογογράφους;
1D. Aristoteles, Rhet. 2.23.29 1400b καὶ Ἡρόδικος Θρασύμαχον “ἀεὶ θρασύμαχος εἶ”, καὶ Πῶλον “ἀεὶ σὺ πῶλος εἶ”, καὶ Δράκοντα τὸν νομοθέτην, ὅτι οὐκ ἂν ἀνθρώπου οἱ νόμοι ἀλλὰ δράκοντος (χαλεποὶ γάρ).
1E. Anonymi In Aristotelis artem rhetoricam commentarium. Page 146 line 24. ὁ Πῶλος μαθητὴς καὶ παῖς ἦν τοῦ Γοργίου.
1F. Scholion in Iamblichi Vitam Pythagorei p. 198 Nauck τὰς ἀρχὰς τῆς διαλεκτικῆς παραδούς. ὥστε ἐκ Πυθαγόρου ἤρξατο ἡ διαλεκτική, ὡσαύτως δὲ ἡ ῥητορική· Τισίας γὰρ καὶ Γοργίας καὶ Πῶλος Ἐμπεδοκλέους τοῦ Πυθαγορείου μαθηταί.
2. Schol. Clarkiani in Plat. Gorg. 465 D: Ἀναξαγόρειος γὰρ ἦν τῇ προαιρέσει ὁ Πῶλος, καθάπερ ὁ Γοργίας Ἐμπεδόκλειος.
3. Plato Gorg. 462 Β: (Πῶλος·) ἀλλὰ τί σοι δοκεῖ ἡ ῥητορικὴ εἶναι; – Σω. πρᾶγμα, ὃ φῂς σὺ ποιῆσαι τέχνην ἐν τῷ συγγράμματι, ὃ ἐγὼ ἔναγχος ἀνέγνων.
Πῶλος – τί τοῦτο λέγεις;
Σωκράτης – ἐμπειρίαν ἔγωγέ τινα.
Ubi schol.: ἐκ τοῦτου δῆλον ὅτι οὐχ ὁ ἐξ ἀρχῆς τοῦ Πῶλου λόγος (Gorg. 448 C, vide infra) αὐτοσχέδιος ἦν, ἀλλὰ σύγγραμμα. Mera haec est coniectura. Vide sequentia.
4. Syrianus in Hermog. II p. 8, 23 R.: Πῶλος ὁ σοφιστὴς ὁ Γοργίου μαθητὴς ἐν τῇ τέχνῃ φησί· πολλαὶ τέχναι ἐν ἀνθρώποις εἰσὶν ἐκ τῶν ἐμπειριῶν ἐμπείρως εὑρημέναι.
Sic etiam σχόλια εἰς στάσεις W IV 44, 14. Cf. 6.
5. Aristot. metaph. (1, 1) 981 a 3: ἡ μὲν γὰρ ἐμπειρία τέχνην ἐποίησεν, ὡς φησὶ Πῶλος, ὀρθῶς λέγων, ἡ δʼ ἀπειρία τύχην.
(Rad.) Fortasse ex Gorgia Platonis. Vide seq. Arti tribuit Capelle, Hermae 57, 265.
5A. Alexander, In Aristotelis metaphysica commentaria P.5.13. ὅτι δὲ οἱ μὴ μετ’ ἐμπειρίας τι ποιοῦντες ἀπὸ τύχης ἀκολουθοῦν τὸ τέλος ἔχουσιν, ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἐκ προνοίας καὶ τέχνης, ὡς ἔλεγε Πῶλος, δῆλον.
Cf. Joannes Galenus, Allegoriae in Hesiodi theogoniam P. 314.16-20 ἐκ δ’ ἐμπειρίας τέχνη ἢ ἐπιστήμη, καθά φησι Πῶλος ὁ φιλόσοφος. κἂν γὰρ ἐκ δ’ ἐμπειρίας τέχνη ἢ ἐπιστήμη, καθά φησι Πῶλος ὁ φιλόσοφος. κἂν γὰρ ὁρῶντες ἢ ἀκούοντες ἢ καὶ ἐνεργοῦντες, πλὴν ἀτελῶς, πόλλ’ ἅττα μανθάνουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι ἔργα καὶ τῆς ναυτιλίας καὶ τῆς γεωργικῆς καὶ τῆς στρατιωτικῆς.
6. Plato Gorg. 448 C (Polus): πολλαὶ τέχναι ἐν ἀνθρώποις εἰσὶν ἐκ τῶν ἐμπειριῶν ἐμπείρως ηὑρημέναι. ἐμπειρία μὲν γὰρ ποιεῖ τὸν αἰῶνα ἡμῶν πορεύεσθαι κατὰ τέχνην, ἀπειρία δὲ κατὰ τύχην. ἑκάστων δὲ τούτων μεταλαμβάνουσιν ἄλλοι ἄλλων ἄλλως, τῶν δὲ ἀρίστων οἱ ἄριστοι. ὧν καὶ Γοργίας ἐστὶν ὅδε, καὶ μετέχει τῆς καλλίστης τῶν τεχνῶν (i. e. ῥητορικῆς).
7. Ibid. 448 D (de Polο): τὴν καλουμένην ῥητορικὴν μᾶλλον μεμελέτηκεν ἢ διαλέγεσθαι.
8. Plato Gorg. 472 C: ἔστι μὲν οὖν οὗτός τις τρόπος ἐλέγχου (sc. διὰ μαρτύρων), ὡς σύ τε (Polus) οἴει καὶ ἄλλοι πολλοί.
(cf. 471E ὦ μακάριε, ῥητορικῶς γάρ με ἐπιχειρεῖς ἐλέγχειν, ὥσπερ οἱ ἐν τοῖς δικαστηρίοις ἡγούμενοι ἐλέγχειν. καὶ γὰρ ἐκεῖ οἱ ἕτεροι τοὺς ἑτέρους δοκοῦσιν ἐλέγχειν, ἐπειδὰν τῶν λόγων ὧν ἂν λέγωσι μάρτυρας πολλοὺς παρέχωνται καὶ εὐδοκίμους, ὁ δὲ τἀναντία λέγων ἕνα τινὰ παρέχηται ἢ μηδένα.)
9. Philostr. vit. Soph. 1.12 (497, p. 210, 22 K.): Πῶλον δὲ τὸν Ἀκραγαντῖνον Γοργίας σοφιστὴν ἐξεμελέτησε πολλῶν, ὡς φασί, χρημάτων... εἰσὶ δέ, οἳ φασι καὶ τὰ πάρισα καὶ τὰ ἀντίθετα καὶ τὰ ὁμοιοτέλευτα Πῶλον εὑρηκέναι πρῶτον, oὐκ ὀρθῶς λέγοντες. τῇ γὰρ τοιᾷδε ἀγλαΐᾳ τοῦ λόγου Πῶλος εὑρημένῃ κατεχρήσατο. ὅθεν ὁ Πλάτων διαπτύων αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τῇ φιλοτιμίᾳ ταύτῃ φησίν· „ὦ λῷστε Πῶλε, ἵνα σε προσείπω κατὰ σέ.“
10. Plato Phaedr. 267 B/C: τὰ δὲ Πώλου πῶς φράσωμεν αὖ μουσεῖα λόγων, ὡς διπλασιολογίαν καὶ γνωμολογίαν καὶ εἰκονολογίαν, ὀνομάτων τε Λικυμνείων, ἃ ἐκείνῳ ἐδωρήσατο πρὸς ποίησιν εὐεπείας;
Cf. Phaedr. 269 A: τί δέ; τὸν μελίγηρυν Ἄδραστον οἰόμεθα ἢ καὶ Περικλέα, εἰ ἀκούσειαν ὧν νῦν δὴ ἡμεῖς διῆμεν τῶν παγκάλων τεχνημάτων, βραχυλογιῶν τε καὶ εἰκονολογιῶν καὶ ὅσα ἄλλα διελθόντες ὑπʼ αὐγὰς ἔφαμεν εἶναι σκεπτέα, πότερον χαλεπῶς ἂν αὐτοὺς ὥσπερ ἐγώ τε καὶ σὺ ὑπʼ ἀγροικίας ῥῆμά τι εἰπεῖν ἀπαίδευτον εἰς τοὺς ταῦτα γεγραφότας τε καὶ διδάσκοντας ὡς ῥητορικὴν τέχνην... Vetat Dionysus deus in certamine poetarum apud Aristophanem εἰκόνας λέγειν Ran. 906. De γνωμολογίᾳ v. H. Fromm, Quomodo oratores Attici sententiis usi sint (Diss. Straßb. 1912) 2 sq.
11. Hermias in Plat. Phaedr. p. 239, 6 (p. 191 Ast): ἐκεῖνος (sc. Polus) γάρ, φησίν (sc. Platο), ἐξηῦρε τὰ πάρισα· διὸ καὶ μουσεῖα λόγων ἐκάλεσεν, ἐπειδὴ ἐδόκει τῇ καλλιλεξίᾳ πάνυ κοσμεῖν τὸν λόγον· διπλασιολογίαν δὲ τὸ τὰ αὐτὰ δὶς λέγειν, οἷον φεῦ φεῦ.
Interpretationem διπλασιολογίας veram non esse, quia ad actionem potius quam ad stilum pertineret, Spengel statuit. Heindorf quidem artem voces compositas fingendi putaverat intellegi, quae coniectura haud improbabilis videri potest, postquam dithyrambi recentioris artificia ex Timothei Persis cognovimus (v. Proclum apud Photium Bibl. 320 b 18), nec vero obstat, quod Aristoteles in prorsa oratione διπλᾶ ὀνόματα καὶ πεποιημένα plerumque vitanda esse censuit, quia Poli oratio poetico colore sine dubio imbuta fuit. Ipse Spengel Poli διπλασιολογίαν nihil nisi ἰσόκωλα et πάρισα, cum eadem bis dicantur, ἀναδίπλωσιν fuisse iudicavit, velut φιλόδωρος εὐμενείας, ἄδωρος δυσμενείας. Usener vero Anaximenis τὴν εἰς δύο λέξιν (c. 24) Poli invento adnexuerat (Quaest. Anaxim. p. 38). – μουσεῖα λόγων denique interpretanda secundum Aristophanem, qui χελιδόνων μουσεῖα finxit de operibus malorum poetarum: non igitur possunt esse ὀνόματα μουσικῶς συγκείμενα (Norden, Antike Kunstprosa I2 p. 74, 1) nec vero “Tummelplätze der Rede”. Immo μουσεῖα ipsae sunt orationes. Certe autem Polus τὰ πάρισα non invenit, sed Gorgias et Polus tamquam talium argutiarum amatores praecipui etiam a Syriano iuxta ponuntur in Hermog. I p. 64, 20 R.
1. Suda s.v. Polus: P(olus) of Agrigentum, a rhetorician, or rather one of the ancient sophists, teacher of Licymnius. He wrote a genealogy of those who fought in the Trojan War, Greeks and non-Greeks, and how each ended up. But some have ascribed it to Damastus. He wrote a Catalogue of Ships and On Style.
1A. Plato, Theages 127E-128A And moreover, if Theages here does despise the instruction of our statesmen, and is looking for some other persons who profess to be able to educate young people, we have here Prodicus of Ceos, Gorgias of Leontini, Polus of Agrigentum, [128a] and many more, who are so wise that they go to our cities and persuade the noblest and wealthiest of our young men—who have the choice of learning from any citizen they choose, free of charge; they persuade them to abandon that instruction and learn from them, with a deposit, besides, of a large sum of money as their fee, and to feel thankful in addition.
1B. Plato, Gorgias 527a-b But as it is, you observe that you three, who are the wisest of the Greeks in our day—you (Callicles) and Polus and Gorgias—[527b] are unable to prove that we ought to live any other life than this, which is evidently advantageous also in the other world.
1C. Lucianus, Herodotus 3.4 They later understood. This was the short-cut to knowledge. Hippias, a native of the place, was the sophist, and he and Prodicus from Ceos and Anaximenes from Chios and Polus from Agrigentum and many others always spoke in person before the festival and so soon became well known. But why need I mention those old sophists, historians, and storytellers?
1D. Aristotle, Rhetoric 2.23.29 1400b Herodicus said of Thrasymachus, “You are ever bold in fight,” and of Polus, “You are ever Polus (colt) by name and colt by nature,” and of Draco the legislator that his laws were not those of a man, but of a dragon, so severe were they.
1E. Anonymous Commentary on Aristotle's Rhetoric: Polus was a student and slave of Gorgias.
1F. Scholion on Iamblichus' Life of Pythagorus: transmitting the beginnings of dialectic. So dialectic began from Pythagoras, as did rhetoric. Tisias and Gorgias and Polus were students of Empedocles.
2. Scholion of the Clark manuscript on Plato, Gorgias 465D: Polus belonged to the school of Anaxagoras, just as Gorgias belonged to that of Empedocles.
3. Plato, Gorgias 462B: Polus: But what do you think rhetoric is? – (Socrates:) The matter you claim to have made into an art in the treatise that I was reading recently.
Polus – What thing do you mean?
Socrates – I mean a sort of experience.
(Rad.) Here the scholion has “from this it is clear that the speech of Polus was not originally improvised (see Pl. Gorg. 448C), but was a treatise.” This is pure conjecture. See what follows.
4. Syrianus, Against Hermogenes: Polus the sophist, a pupil of Gorgias in the art (of rhetoric), says: “There are many arts among humans that have been experientially discovered from experiences.”
So also scholia on staseis W 4.44.14. Cf. 6.
5. Aristotle, Metaphysics 1(A).1 981a3: As Polus rightly says, “experience creates art, but inexperience chance.”
Perhaps from Plato’s Gorgias. See the following. Capelle, Hermae 57, 265 attributes it to an ars.
5A. Alexander of Aphrodisias, On Aristotle’s Metaphysics P.5.13. It is clear that those doing something without experience are able to reach the end by chance, but not by forethought and techne, as Polus said.
Cf. Joannes Galenus, Allegories in Hesiod’s Theogony Techne and knowledge are from experience, as Polus the philosopher says. For by seeing and hearing and acting, not fully, humans learns many functions of sailing and farming and generalship.
6. Plato, Gorgias 448C: (Polus:) There are many arts among humans that have been discovered experientially, as the result of experiences: for experience makes us conduct life according to art, but inexperience according to chance. Different men partake in each of these different arts in different ways, and the best men (partake in) the best. Gorgias here is one of these, and he shares in the finest of arts.
Cf. Asclepius, Commentaries on Aristotle’s Metaphysics, books A–Z. Page 8 line 10.
7. Plato, Gorgias 448D: (Polus) has concerned himself more with the so-called “rhetoric” than with dialectic.
8. Plato, Gorgias 472C: Well now, this is one mode of elenchus (through witnesses), as you (Polus) and many others believe.
(Cf. 471E: Blessed fellow, now you are attempting to refute (elenchein) me rhetorically, as they understand refutation in the law courts. For there, the two sides are supposed to be refuting each other when they offer many and reputable witnesses to the statements they make, and the one saying the opposite offers only one, or none.)
9. Philostratus, Lives of the Sophists 13: Gorgias thoroughly instructed Polus of Agrigentum as a sophist, for a lot of money as they say, for Polus really was wealthy. There are some who claim that Polus first invented balanced clauses, antitheses, and homoioteleuta, but they are wrong. For Polus (only) employed such brilliance of speech after it had already been discovered. Hence Plato, to express his contempt for him because of this ostentation, says, “O peerless Polus! to address you in your own way” (Gorg. 467C).
Cf. Symp. 185C “Pausanias paused—you see what rhymes (isa) the “wise” are teaching me.”
10. Plato, Phaedrus 267B-C: And how shall we speak then of Polus’ mouseia of speeches – such as diplasiologia and gnomologia and eikonologia – and of Licymnian terms that he (Licymnius) gave him (Polus) to create good diction?
(Rad.) Cf. Phaedrus 269A And what do we think honey-voiced Adrastus or even Pericles would say, if they heard the “all-beautiful” technical terms we were just now discussing – brachylogiai and eikonologiai and all the others that we have reviewed and said that they ought to be examined under the rays of the sun? Would they get difficult, as you and I have, and boorishly say something uneducated to the authors and teachers of such a, so to speak, “rhetorical” art, or would they chide us both, since they were wiser.” In the contest of poets, the god Dionysus avoids “speaking metaphors” (Aristophanes, Frogs 906). On gnomologia see H. Fromm, 2-.
11. Hermias on Plato’s Phaedrus: [Plato] claims that [Polus] invented balanced clauses. Therefore he called his speeches “mouseia of speeches”, since he was thought to adorn them thoroughly with “style-beauty”: diplasiologia means saying words twice, e. g. “pheu pheu”.
(Rad.) Spengel stated that the interpretation is incorrect because it pertains to delivery rather than style. Heindorf had actually thought that it was to be understood as the art of making compound expressions, which seems a by no means implausible conjecture after what we know of artifices in a recent dithyramb of Timotheus’ Persae (see Proclus, in Photius 320b18), nor is it a problem that Aristotle (Rh. 3.7.11) criticizes that double-words are to be avoided in prose, since the speech of Polus was without doubt imbued with a poetic colour. Spengel himself indicated that diplasiologia was nothing other than isocola and balanced clauses, since they say the same thing twice, i.e. anadiplosis, e.g. philodoros eumeneias, adoros dusmeneias. Usener (Quaestonies Anaimeneae 38) had connected Anaximenes (24) the eis duo lexin to the invention of Polus, so that the mouseia of words was to be interpreted according to Aristophanes, who fashioned chelidonon museia from the works of bad poets: they cannot therefore be “words composed musically” (Norden, Antike Kunstprosa 12p. 74.1) or “playgrounds of speech”. Mouseia are certainly not the orations themselves. Moreover, Polus did not invent balanced clauses (parisa), but Gorgias and Polus, since they were enthusiasts of such cleverness, are joined by Syrianus in Hermogenes 1 p. 64.20 R.